Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King of Austria
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In 1792, Brissot, a member of a lodges influenced by the Illuminati at Paris, was the chairman of the French Assembly's foreign affairs committee. He issued unilateral ultimatums to Austria for it to express an intent to never attack France or to reclaim lands taken by France from Austrian protection (e.g., the Comte region seized in 1790). He imposed a March 1, 1792 deadline on Austria to comply or face war with France. In response to this boisterous behaviour by Brissot, Sweden agreed to ally with Austria against France if a war erupted.
Politics Of 1792 1 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King of Austria Politics Of 1792 In 1792, Brissot, a member of a lodges influenced by the Illuminati at Paris, was the chairman of the French Assembly's foreign affairs committee. He issued unilateral ultimatums to Austria for it to express an intent to never attack France or to reclaim lands taken by France from Austrian protection (e.g., the Comte region seized in 1790). He imposed a March 1, 1792 deadline on Austria to comply or face war with France. In response to this boisterous behaviour by Brissot, Sweden agreed to ally with Austria against France if a war erupted. This will provide the context to understand why the kings of Sweden and Austria were both assassinated in March 1792. The Illuminati Of Sweden The Illuminati of Sweden were no different in ideology than the Illuminati of Germany. T. Thorild, member of Illuminati of Sweden, under the Pernetty branch, wrote in approximately 1790 in his newspaper: The construction of the Universal Republic that ought to be founded has as its aim the Happiness of Humanity ... They that excel by intelligence ought to rule the world; those Illuminati of Bavaria 1 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King that have virtuous energy ought to take in hand the executive power. If some imposter is in power and does not obey, behold the sentence: feriendus. [A blow]. It will give fire to cities and destroy them since they are schools of tyranny, of corruption, of misery ... With a spontaneous return to nature, they will form a free society on the model of the [Golden Rule] ... with a uniform support of a universal religious tolerance.1 Did this group end up assassinating Gustavus III on March 16, 1792? Who was the leader of the Illuminati in Sweden? British diplomats who spoke of the “Illuminati” of Sweden happened to mention that the next in line, the brother of Gustavus, “was a fervent disciple of this mystic sect....” of the “Illuminati.”2 This particular diplomat drew no connection to Weishaupt’s Order. It is simply the name of the Order to which this Regent of Sweden was well-known to be associated with. This Regent by further machinations afterwards became Charles XIII — the King of Sweden. Yet, if the Illuminati of Sweden had Gustavus killed, why in March 1792? Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal Gustavus III, King of Sweden, was a devoted follower of the French philosophers. When he was made King of Sweden in 1766, he often met with Rousseau, D’Alembert, and Marmontel. He corresponded regularly with Voltaire. He 1. Felice, supra, at 63 n. 54. 2. Horace Rumbold, Recollections of a Diplomatist (London: Edward Arnold, 1903) Vol. 1 at 22. (Available books.google.com.) Illuminati of Bavaria 2 Gustavus III: His Reign Was Marked As Liberal proved his devotion to the reforming spirit soon after taking the throne. When he came to power, the Caps party who allegedly were in the pay of Russia had won a majority of estates in the Riksdag. Gustavus borrowed money from Dutch bankers so as to secure the nomination of the Marshal of the Riksdag. Gustavus, with the support of the Army, thereafter acted to rid the government of the current Riksdag because it allegedly had become a corrupt oligarchy of nobles and businessmen. By 1772, he won military support to surround the Riksdag. Gustavus ordered the delegates to accept a limited monarchy, but widened his own powers—giving him control of the army, navy, and foreign relations. Only he could appoint ministers. The Riksdag would only assemble at his will. The Riksdag would have, however, the power to tax. The Riksdag accepted. The reformists of France were delighted by this enlightened use of state-power.3 The people hailed Gustavus as the liberator from foreign influence, particularly that of Russia. Gustavus instituted reforms that the French physiocrats like Turgot advocated: free trade, less regulation over industry and less control over labor guilds. Free ports were created on the Baltic. Plans of public education were studied. He abolished torture and softened penalties and lowered taxes.4 3. However, the reformist group should have critized Gustavus for improper pressure over the legislators. 4. Will & Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967) at 656-57. Illuminati of Bavaria 3 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Plot on Gustavus Was In Waiting Since 1786, But Thwarted Through 1789 Nevertheless, according to the testimony of two French Freemasons, at a meeting of Masons in 1786 in Frankfurt-am-main , it was planned to kill Gustavus III of Sweden and Louis XVI.5 Why attack Gustavus, the most progressive of Monarchs? In 1786, seeds of disaffection were being sown regularly in the press against Gustavus. The king, always previously revered as a liberal, was now subject of pamphleteers who cast suspicion on the motives of the government’s monopoly on liquor and the expenditures on the army. On May 6, 1786, Gustavus convened the Riksdag for a vote of confidence, but few supported his proposals.6 Despite the efforts of those who were trying to undermine Gustavus, he emerged alive from this dark period. This was because in January of 1789, Denmark invaded Sweden and the people were "overwhelmingly for the King."7 The people supported Gustavus’ politics as well. He had adopted many liberal reforms. He also went further by personally ending many priveleges of the nobility. He also opened political offices to almost anyone. As evidence of the widespread support for his reforms, even the House of Nobles voted two years supplies for the war with Denmark. The other three legislative houses put no limit. 5. Charles d’Hericault, La Révolution at 104, discussed in Nesta Webster, The French Revolution, supra, at 21 6. Will & Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution -- The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967) at 662. 7. Will & Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution -- The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967) at 663. Illuminati of Bavaria 4 Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassi- Now Enters The Duke of Sudermanie — Templar Chief — & Illuminati Assassination of King of Sweden in 1792 The Swedish political figure known as the Duke of Sudermanie now enters the scene. He was the brother of King Gustavus III. Cadet-Gassicourt indicated the Duke of Sudermanie was the chief of the Templars of Europe during the French Revolution of 1792, as discussed below. His biography is most revealing on the causes for Gustavus’ death. First, let’s review the Duke’s Freemason career. According to a masonic history pubication, the “Duke of Sudermanie,” the “brother of King Gustavus III” was “initiated in 1770” into the Strict Observance Templar Freemason system along with Gustavus III. Since 1780, the Duke of Sudermanie was Grand Master of the “Knights Templar” of the “Strict Observance” system of Sweden.8 Gassicourt identifies that the Duke of Sudermainie held international control over Templar Freemasonry during the French Revolution period: The principle initiates, who have played a role in the French revolution, are Mirabeau, Fox, the Duke d’Orleans, Robespierre, Clootz, Danton, Dumouriez, [Lepeletier de] St. Fargeau. The Grand Master actually is the Duke of Sudermanie, Regent of Sweden. It is by the taking of the Bastille that the revolution began, and these initiates chose it for the attack of the people because it had been the prison of Jacobus Molai [Jacques du Molay, Grand Master in 1301 of the Knights Templars]. Avignon was the theater of the greatest atrocities because it had belonged to the Pope . . . . 9 8. Emmanuel Rebold, Joseph Fletcher Brennan, A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing, 1869) at 111. Illuminati of Bavaria 5 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Gustavus III Finds Out About The Secret Plans of The Strict Observance (Templars) However, the same masonic historians admit that when King Gustavus III “discovered the secret plans which lay hidden under the Strict Observance, he mistrusted its tendency.”10 In 1792, Gustavus III then turned to support King Louis XVI to maintain a constitutional monarchy against internal agitators. In early 1792, Austria stationed troops near France should anything befall their nation’s daughter — Marie Antoinette — still the reigning Queen of France. It was Gustavus who was put in charge of these troops who belonged to a coalition force. All were in a wait-and-see mode on the next move inside France. Gustavus III of Sweden was the military commander agreed upon by Prussia & Austria to lead the coalition forces to protect the King of France should any harm come.11 In March 1792, Gustavus went to Aix-le-Chapelle to lead these allied forces into France if there was war. However, as a result of disturbances back home, he was forced to return to Stockholm to see what was afoot.12 Thereupon King Gustavus III was assassinated on March 16, 1792. His young 13 year old son, Gustavus IV, succeeded him.13 As a result, also the Duke of Brunswick replaced Gustavus IV as head of allied forces on the borders of France. As Louis Philippe notes: “But as this Prince 9. Charles Louis Cadet-Gassicourt, Le Tombeau de Jacques Molay ou le secret des conspirateurs, à ceux qui veulent tout savoir. Oevure Posthume (Paris: Les Marchands de Nouveaute, 1796) at 18. 10.Emmanuel Rebold, Joseph Fletcher Brennan, A General History of Free-masonry in Europe (American Masonic Publishing, 1869) at 111. 11.Louis Philippe, Memoires, supra, at 451. 12. Will & Ariel Durant, Rousseau and Revolution — The Story of Civilization: Part X (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967) at 664. 13.Rebold & Brennan, id., at 112. Illuminati of Bavaria 6 The Assassination of Gustavus Itself [Gustavus] was assassinated in March 1792, the Powers [Prussia and Austria] made a new choice which fell on the Duke of Brunswick."14 It later turned out that the Duke of Brunswick, despite the seizure of Louix XVI and Marie Antoinette in August 1792, never would move forces on France. This astonished all of Europe, particularly the allies. We will later explore why the Duke of Brunswick did nothing. The Assassination of Gustavus Itself Thus, who assassinated Gustavus III? The assassination took place at a masquerade ball at the opera house of Stockholm on the night of March 16, 1792. Death was caused by two pistol shots from Mr. Ankarstrom. He was a Swede formerly in the royal guard.15 Police determined this killing was part of a much larger conspiracy than just Ankarstrom.16 It was indeed not the lower classes conspiring, but members from the upper classes. As Mirabeau-Tonneau, the brother of the revolutionary, commented at the time, they “arrested thirty-four persons, as well as the killer,” noting “it is dreadful to imagine that it is the order of the nobility that formed the infamous conspiracy.”17 14.Louis Philippe, Memoires, supra, at 451. 15.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards, Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. II at 90-91. 16.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards, Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. II at 89. 17.Eugene Berger, Le Vicomte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau-Tonneau)(17541792) (Paris: Hachette, 1904) at 368. Illuminati of Bavaria 7 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King The conspirators’ papers showed this killing was intended to start a revolution, including to put in place a new constitution. The first step was to seize command of the national guard of Stockholm.18 What Organization Was Found Responsible? A complete police investigation was made, and the results published by a French “historian and diplomat” named Alexis-François Artaud de Montor (1772-1849).19 He claimed the Swedish police proved some "Illuminati society" was behind the assassination.20 This account became wellknown, as one magazine in England recorded in 1840: “it has been proved that the assassination of Gustavus III in Sweden was the work of a conspiracy of Illumines: Ankarstrom and Horn did not attempt to conceal this fact.”21 Was Montor credible? Montor in his life-time wrote over a dozen serious histories that were well-regarded. Many of his works are still cited today. Montor also was a translator into French of Dante’s Divine Comedy. Montor added to these achievements a career as a diplomat. Under Napoleon, 18.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards, Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. II at 91. 19.This book was discussed in a 1798 issue of Allgemeine Literaturzeitung (Jahrgang 1798) Band 2 \ Numero 194, and its online reference identifies the author as “Artaud de Montor, Alexis-François (17721849. Historiker, Diplomat.” A second edition appeared in 1802. 20. [Artaud de Montor] Histoire de l'assassinat de Gustave III, roi de Suede, par un officier polinaise temoin oculaire. (Paris 1797), as cited and discussed in "Un Prince Allemand Du XVIII Siecle D’Apres des Memoires Inedits," Revue des Deux Mondes (Jan. 1, 1866) at 920. 21.“The History and Mystery of Secret Societies and Political Clubs,” Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country (May 1840) 542, at 548. Illuminati of Bavaria 8 Templar Leader, Brother To King, Gains From His Brother’s Assassination Artaud de Montor was the Secretary of the French legation at Rome until 1805 when he was made chargé d’affaires at Florence.22 There is thus no reason to disregard this treatise simply because it ‘fits’ the Illuminati legend. The question is whether the facts surrounding this claim fit what Montor revealed. Templar Leader, Brother To King, Gains From His Brother’s Assassination A clearly corroborating fact is that the person who directly benefited in the short-run and long-run from the assassination turned out to be the Duke of Sudermanie. Cadet-Gassicourt referred to this same “Duke of Sudermanie, regent” as the chief of the entire Templar system during the French Revolution period. In 1792, as a result of Gustavus III’s assassination, the Duke of Sudermanie became the “regent of the kingdom [of Sweden] during the minority of Gustavus IV.”23 — age 13 at the time. Then in 1809, the Encyclopedia Americana says “a conspiracy was formed against” Gustavus IV, and he was deposed and exiled; later he “died in poverty.”24 Then “after the deposition of Gustavus IV, the Duke of Sudermanie, this king’s uncle, was called to the throne.”25 22.http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/AlexisFran%C3%A7ois_Artaud_de_Montor (accessed 1/1/2009). 23.Alexandre Dumas, The Memoirs of Alexandre Dumas (Père) (London: 1891) Vol. I at 230. 24.“Gustavus IV,” The Encyclopedia Americana (N.Y.: 1919) at 578. 25.Claude-François de Meneval, Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon I from 1802 to 1815 (N.Y.: 1894) Vol. II at 329. Illuminati of Bavaria 9 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Hence, due to Gustavus III’s death, his brother — the Duke of Sudermanie, the international head of the Templar sect — effectively ruled as regent until Gustavus IV became an adult, and then again later when the king turned age 30. This time he duke making himself king, making the true king a pauper.26 Masonic histories record the duke, now king, continued as Templar Grand Master of Sweden until 1811 when he turned the post over to Prince C.J. Bernadotte.27 Because of the way this duke took the crown, people in those days derogatorily called him the “Duke of Orleans of Sweden (not altogether inaptly),” meaning he was regarded to be a virtual “regicide” like many viewed the Duc d’Orleans of France.28 It seems pretty transparent that not only was CadetGassicourt correct about this Duke of Sudermanie being the head of European Templars at the time, but also that this duke used the same means his Templars used in France to engineer seizures of power. The police investigation finding the “Illuminati” assassinated Gustavus III should surprise no one. This was during the period the young boy-king and true king was ruling, and the Regent-brother of Gustavus was still on the sidelines — yet laying in wait for his day to oust the true successor king and seize the throne for himself. 26.The Duke of Sudermanie called himself King Charles XIII. 27.Rebold & Brennan, supra, at 112. 28.Louis Gabriel Michaud, The Public and Private Life of Louis Philippe of Orleans (London: 1851) at 75. Illuminati of Bavaria 10 Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Other Advantages To Killing Gustavus III Loss of A Zealous Protector Of King Louix XVI During the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1792, Gustavus became more obviously a target to destroy. Sweden with Prussia and Austria in February of 1792 had agreed to protect King Louis of France if any harm should befall him. They offered this help despite no request from King Louis of France. Gustavus was indeed zealous to defend Louis XVI. When Baron Escars, a German of distinction who served several French princes in exile, told Gustavus III of “a plot against the King’s life,” based on “notices from Germany, in which he was instructed about a widespread talk that the next murder would be of Gustave,” King Gustavus replied: If I allowed myself to listen to all the stories of conspiracies, I would soon have to take a drink of water. The Swedes are brave in war, but timid in the political affairs, and as I have no doubt in the success of my expedition in France, I intend to send Stockolhm all the flags that I can. I will by my moral authority inspire confidence and respect that is naturally accorded conquerors.29 Gustavus III clearly had a zeal and purpose to invade France if necessary to protect Louix XVI’s life. This is something that was broken when he was replaced by a new expeditionary forces leader — the Duke of Brunswick — the very same who chaired Wilhemsbad where the overthrow of France was planned in 1782. 29.Antoine Etienne Nicolas Fantin des Oduards, Histoire Philosophique De La Revolution de France (Paris: 1801) Vol. II at 87-88. Illuminati of Bavaria 11 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Sweden Dropped Out of The Alliance Against France Another consequence of this assassination is that Sweden dropped out of the alliance. This was due not only to the disruption such a death causes but also because the new king besides the Regent (Duke of Sudermanie) appears to have sympathized with the forces behind the Jacobins. We already spoke of the Duke of Sudermanie. The king’s son, King Gustavus IV, at age 14, joined the Freemasons at Stockholm on March 10, 1793.30 Also, in the same month of March 1793, the new young king put all secret societies under government supervision but his Ordinance said explicitly "Freemasons . . . are alone excepted from this inspection."31 Thus no secret society other than Freemasons could operate in Sweden. Hence, those who took power from Gustavus III, whether the boy-king or his uncle, the Duke of Sudermanie, were obviously protective of the forces that were hiding the Illuminati in the upper degrees. Was Leopold Murdered on March 1, 1792? The assassination of Gustavus also coincided with events in Austria. Its connection to those other events cannot be ruled out as one of the reasons why March 16, 1792 was singled out for the date of Gustavus’ assassination. 30.. "Gustavus IV," Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, supra, at Vol. I, at 312. 31.. Id. Illuminati of Bavaria 12 Was Leopold Murdered on March 1, 1792? Leopold: Poisoned By Another, Or His Own Concoctions, or A Natural Death At Age 45 on March 1, 1792? This part of the account starts with Leopold’s sudden death in Austria. Leopold was brother to Queen Marie Antoinette of France, and thus had very sincere reasons why he would wish to help his sister in France. Emperor Leopold died on March 1, 1792, at age 45. In the year prior — August 25, 1791, Leopold had met the king of Prussia at Pillnitz, near Dresden, and they drew up a declaration of their readiness to intervene in France if and when their assistance was called for by the other powers. A formal alliance by Leopold with Austria was indeed signed on the 7th of February 1792.32 However, on March 1, 1792 Leopold died “suddenly.”33 In fact, however, the cause of death appears to be poisoning by an Illuminatus. At the time, this is precisely what people believed. But in March, 1792, Leopold, Emperor of Germany, died, — as his friends supposed, of poison administered by an agent of the secret order of Illuminati, — and the king of Sweden was assassinated by Anckarstrom. These two catastrophes struck terror into the royal and noble families of Europe, who, after the horrible events of the French Revolution, might be pardoned the suspicion that the Jacobins were entering in disguise the service of their enemies, to play more conveniently the part of assassins.34 32.http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Frederick_William_II (accessed 1/ 2/09). 33.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor 34.“Prince Gallitzin,” The North American Review (Boston: Crosby Nichols, 1859) No. 182, 349 at 354. Illuminati of Bavaria 13 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Before we discuss that evidence, let’s review some facts. The king had been vomitting for three days. “Because of rumors that he was poisoned, the government was obliged to perform an autopsy.”35 The autopsy revealed a tape worm several cells in length, and some assume this was the cause of death.36 However, Lamartine says there were a mixture of issues, including the likelihood that pills concocted by Gustavus were involved and the face a trace of poison was found — which indeed may have been in those very same pills: The most probable opinion is that this prince had made an immoderate use of drugs which he compounded himself, in order to recruit his constitution, shattered by debauchery and excess. Lagusius, his chief physician, who had assisted at the autopsy of the body, declared he discovered traces of poison.37 As we read on, it is evident that the pills he used contained a poison, but the question was whether another person was responsible for this or Leopold himself alone. He had used such pills for a very long time, without bad effects. However, shortly before his death, someone came with new recipes. He was Johann Rudolph von Bischoffswerder (1741– 1803), an envoy of the King of Prussia, but no one ever seems to suspect him. Let’s read Dr. Eduard Vehse’s account because his naivete about Bischoffswerder is most revealing about who poisoned the pills, whether Leopold or Bischoffswerder. After advising us that the king was vomitting for three days, Dr. Vehse explains: 35.Chris Woodstra, Gerald Brennan, Allen Schrott, All Music Guide to Classical Music (2005) at 299. 36.William Coxe, History of the House of Austria. From the Foundation of the Monarchy (2006) at 199 fn. 37.Alphonse de Lamartine, History of the Girondists (N.Y.: Harper, 1848) Vol. I at 365. Illuminati of Bavaria 14 Was Leopold Murdered on March 1, 1792? There was a rumour of his having been poisoned, the suspicion even being fixed on Signora Livia, who afterwards lived in great luxury in Italy. Hormayr, however, has completely refuted this gratuitous suspicion. Leopold dabbled in alchemy and chemistry, and hastened his death by the use of stimulating pills, manufactured in his own laboratory, of that sort which were then in Italy called Diavolini. Frederic William II of Prussia had sent to him, as an ambassador, the famous Rosicrucian, General Bischofswerder, who was reputed to be particularly skilled in the preparation of those erotic stimulants;38 and with this adept the Emperor was repeatedly engaged in alchemist and other similar experiments in his secret laboratory.39 So this doctor does not think anyone but Leopold poisoned himself. Yet, the doctor ignores the role potentially played by the “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder in helping formulate new alchemist concoctions. Everyone assumed Bischoffswerder was above suspicion. 38.From 1778 to mid-1780, Major Bischosffswerder was stationed as a calvary officer in Bavaria fighting the potato war with Austria. Bischoffswerder applied a ‘magic elixir’ to cure Prince Frederick William (F.W.) of some disease. He said the Order held the secrets. When F.W. recovered, he was anxious to join. Bischoffswerder accepted him as a candidate as F.W. was already an initiate in the Masonic lodge of the Golden Keys. After a year’s probation, on August 8, 1781, Bischoffswerder with Wollner initated him into the Rosicrucian order, with the alias Ormesus Magnus. (Christopher McIntosh, The Rosicrucians, supra, at 78.) 39.Dr. Eduard Vehse (trans. Franz Demmler), Memoirs of the Court, Aristocracy, and Diplomacy of Austria (London: Longman Brown, 1856) Vol. II at 371. Illuminati of Bavaria 15 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King However, once one understand this “Rosicrucian” Bischoffswerder was actually part of the Illuminati, as explained next, then there is no coincidence that Leopold died by poisoning on March 1st, 1792, to be followed by Gustavus III on March 16th by two pistol shots. Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Introduction & Synopsis of Conclusions The evidence below should establish that at Berlin there were two lodges of significance in our account of Bischofswerder. One was controlled by the Illuminati, but the other was a Rosicrucian lodge. First, there was a Freemason lodge Concordia that later changed over to become a Strict Observance lodge. Just as Cagliostro was told the Illuminati were the higher superiors within the Strict Observance, this was the lodge run by the Illuminati linked to Weishaupt. The other lodge at Berlin was a lodge of Rosicrucians at Berlin. Bischofswerder belonged to both. So did Wöllner. The Illuminati Are Linked To Bischoffswerder, not Wöllner In October 1790, the Comte de Vaudreuil, advisor and friend to the emigre prince of France, the Comte d’Artois, wrote him from Venice: What strikes me most is that the sect of the Illumines is the cause and instigator of all our troubles; that one finds these sectaries everywhere, that even the King of Prussia is imbued with this pernicious system; that the man who possesses his chief confidence (Bischoffswerder) is one of its chief heads.40 Illuminati of Bavaria 16 Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Thus, as of 1790, the French emigre princes were not fooled into thinking Bischoffswerder was on their side. The King of Prussia may have sympathized with the emigre Princes of France, but that did not matter if Bischoffswerder, and his Illuminati sect, held sway over the king. And note that Bischofswerder is linked to the Illuminati, not Wöllner. Henry Fox, Lord Holland’s Links Bischofswerder To The Berlin Illuminati Lord Holland provides a most ‘illuminating’ account of the Illuminati and Bischoffswerder. There is no mention of Wöllner. First, we need some background on Lord Holland to understand his reliability, including the company he kept. Henry Fox 3d, Lord Holland (1773-1840) 41 was the “orphaned nephew and ward of Charles James Fox, the celebrated Whig politician and the most powerful British supporter of the French Revolution in this period.”42 Through connections of his famous uncle, Henry Fox/ Lord Holland went to Paris in 1791 and was able to meet with Lafayette and Talleyrand. He again visited France in 1793 during its most extreme phase.43 In 1796, Henry Fox became Lord Holland as he joined the House of Lords. There he became leader of the (liberal) Whig party. “Throughout [Lord Holland’s] whole 40.Correspondence du Comte de Vaudreuil et du Comte d’Artois (Paris: 1889) Vol. I at 342, quoted in N. Webster, World Revolution, supra, at 86. 41.Lord Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3d (1773–1840), “British politician, nephew of Charles James Fox. He was a member of the Whig opposition party from 1797 and served as lord privy seal in the coalition ministry of 1806–7.” http://www.answers.com/topic/baronholland 42.Markman Ellis, The History of Gothic Fiction (Edingburgh University Press, 2005) at 98. 43.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Vassall-Fox,_3rd_Baron_Holland Illuminati of Bavaria 17 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King political career he took a pro-French stance.”44 He opposed absolute monarchies in Europe and any effort to restore the Bourbons to France. His home was known as Holland House. It became a salon comparable to those found in France, where important figures from around the world visited, and swapped stories. In 1850, Lord Holland wrote a book of his reminisces from what he heard in such political circles, including discussions about Bischoffswerder. Lord Holland specifically reported how Bischoffswerder used Illuminati seances to manipulate of the king of Prussia, Frederick William II. Holland. He does not claim they are all true, but that so many statements to the same effect must have some truth in them. Yet, because Bischoffswerder often encouraged the Prussian king to war against the revolution, Holland could not fathom how this made the Illuminati in league with the French Revolution.45 Here is Lord Holland’s reminisce of King Frederick William II of Prussia and the role of the Illuminatus Bischofswerder in his cabinet: However irregular in morals, he was not devoid of superstition. In 1792. he was much under the influence of a sect then famous in Germany, and called the Illumines. Of that association of visionaries and impostors, his favorite, Mr. Bischoffswerder, was a member ; and he is much belied if he did not resort to conjuration and apparitions, for the purpose of converting the King to his views of policy, 44.http://johntyrrell.blogspot.com/2008/03/lady-holland-dahlias-everlastings.html 45.But what Holland overlooked is that if the Prussian king ended up only threatening war from Prussia on France, this could be, and was used, as a pretext to initiate revolution at Paris. This is precisedly what happened on August 10th, 1729. After threats were made by Prussia, no counter-attack from Prussia ever came. Illuminati of Bavaria 18 Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati which were very versatile and changeable, and not unfrequently as mysterious and unintelligible as his belief in necromacy, magic, and an immaterial world. Some odious and many ludicrous instances of the delusions practiced to engage the King in the war, and nearly as many of similar artifices to wean him from the prosecution of it, were circulated and credit ed throughout Europe. Many, no doubt, were invented ; and most, in all likelihood, considerably heightened by public report; but there could hardly be so much exagger ation without some truth, and the notorious prevalence of such superstitions in all the courts of Germany rendered the stories probable enough, though I neither recollect the details, nor have examined the authorities on which they rested, sufficiently to justify my recording them as facts. Some years afterward it became a fashion or an artifice among the servile apologists of tyranny, to connect the sect of Illumines, and all their ramifications, first with free-masonry, and afterward with the disorganizing and irreligious principles of the revolutionary clubs in France. I believe they were entirely distinct in their origin, their objects, and their progress. It is, at least, whimsical, that the only known practical result of such visionary practices on the events of the political world, was to prevail on many petty, and one important court of Germany, to inflict the calamities of war on mankind, for the purpose of rescuing the institutions of monarchy, popery, and nobility from destruction.46 46.Henry Richard Lord Holland, Foreign Remisces (N.Y.& London: Harper, 1851) at 52-53. A complete copy is at http://www.archive.org/ stream/foreignreminisce00hollrich/ foreignreminisce00hollrich_djvu.txt (accessed 1/2/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 19 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Thus, Henry Fox aka Lord Holland recorded what he learned from his international crowd. Bischoffswerder manipulated the king of Prussia using the German Illuminati at Berlin. Sometimes for war. Sometimes against it. But always the king was like a puppet due to his credulity for the mysticism of the lodge. Notice again this is not linking Wöllner to the Illuminati, which will prove important. Specifics On Lodge Of Bischoffswerder: Templar Origins The lodge which I believe is where the Illuminati came to predominate was founded actually in the 1760s at Berlin. Rene Alleau, in his scholarly work on the occult origins of Nazism, explains that the lodge’s German name was Zur Eintracht, or “For Concord.”47 Yet, it was dying out soon thereafter. Freemasonry was viewed suspiciously in Germany, as it originated in a Protestant nation (i.e., England.) When Freemasonry was losing energy, then came along “an order known as the Strict Observance, claiming succession from the Templars, supplanted Freemasonry.”48 Alleau says this particular Concord lodge linked up to the Strict Observance — the Templars. Bischoffswerder “was initiated into Strict Observance masonry under the ceremonial name of Eques a Grypho.”49 Much later “Members of the Order [at Berlin] associated with the Illuminati.”50 47.René Alleau, Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. R. Leveghi, Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee, 2006) at 109. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). 48.History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity Part 1 of Free and Accepted (Kessinger reprint) at 492. 49.James Van Horn Melton, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77. 50.René Alleau, Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. R. Leveghi, Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee, 2006) at 109. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). Illuminati of Bavaria 20 Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Part of Bischoffswerder’s transformation toward the Illuminati might have taken place when in 1778 until the mid1780, he was stationed in Bavaria in the “Potator War” with Austria.51 Yet, it was in that time, at Christmas eve 1779, that Bischoffswerder (probably at Hamburg) joined a Rosicrucian Order.52 Going back to the Strict Observance, one of the key differences from ordinary masonry in this sect, other than using the Templar myth, was that the Strict Observance had “unknown superiors.”53 As we saw previously, when Cagliostro was initiated in 1780 within a Strict Observance lodge, he was told the superiors of the Order belonged to an inner circle known as the Illuminati. This is thus where the Illuminati were — in this Strict Observance lodge. This must have been true as well for the Berlin branch. Meanwhile, mention is frequently made that Bischoffswerder belonged to this Concord (now Templar) lodge as well as the Rosicrucians. In the Rosicrucian lodge at Hamburg, in 1781, Bischoffswerder and Wöllner had initiated the future heir to the Prussian throne — Freidrich Wilhem — into their Rosicrucian lodge.54 Involved in this same lodge was Ferdinand of Brunswick.55 51.James Van Horn Melton, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 77 (mid-1780 is based on the one year anniversary stated by Melton being August 1781). 52.Glenn Alexander Magee, Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition (2001) at 250. 53.René Alleau, Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. R. Leveghi, Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee, 2006) at 109. The original French title was Hitler et les societes secretes (1969). 54.James Van Horn Melton, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (2001) at 266-67. 55.R. Swinburne Clymer, Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. 3 at 107. Illuminati of Bavaria 21 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Now between the two men, Wöllner’s biography is the only one that suggests conservatism. His father was a Lutheran minister, and Wöllner had been an “ordained” minister. He left being a pastor to become a specialist writer on agriculture. There was no sign of any esoteric studies.56 Later in 1788, Wöllner issued the “Edict on Religion” signed by the king “which attempted to impose stricter standards of orthodoxy on Prussian Protestant clergy.”57 Religious tests were imposed. In 1786, when the old king died, he was hoping his friend, the Crown Prince now King, would place him at the head of the religion department “for the purpose of saving millions of souls from perdition and bringing back the whole country to the faith of Jesus Christ.”58 By contrast, Bischoffswerder’s background was that he had initially studied law, but later became a Prussian calvary officer. Thereafter, he was a stablemaster and chamberlain to a duke.59 “Bischoffswerder, unlike Wollner, was not active in matters of the church; he was a soldier.”60 His only official post in the kingdom after 1786 was that he was Adjutant-general on the king’s military staff.61 56.Christopher McIntosh, The Rosicrucians, supra, at 78. Johann Christopher von Wöllner was born in 1732. He was “a minister of religion” in his early life. “Prince Henry, brother of Henry, took him into his Council, and the Hereditary Prince [Freidrich W.] took lessons from him in political economy. This was the origin of the favor he enjoyed with that Prince, after the latter came to the throne.” (Biographie Universelle, quoted in Albert Pike, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (2003 reprint) at 166-67. 57.James Van Horn Melton, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe, supra, at 268. 58.“Frederick William II,” The Encyclopædia Britannica (Cambridge, 1910) Vol. XI at 64. By Hugh Chisholm 59.Christopher McIntosh, The Rosicrucians, supra, at 77. 60.R. Swinburne Clymer, Book of the Rosicruciae (Rosicrucians) (2005) Vol. 3 at 107. 61.Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution (2001) at 76. Illuminati of Bavaria 22 Bischoffswerder & The Illuminati Wöllner’s next action around 1783 corroborates his conservatism and rejection of the Illuminati was sincere. The issue of the Bavarian Illuminati came up at a lodge, apparently the Rosicrucian Berlin lodge. As mentioned previously, in 1783, the exposures started to take place in Bavaria on the Illuminati.62According to Alleau, relying upon Arnold Marx’s book, Gold und Rosenkreuz (1929), in 1783, Wöllner denounced the Illuminati in 1783 in the Rosicrucian context: Wöllner...became freightened by the persecution that had been exercised against the “Illuminati of Bavaria,” which he presented as a revolutionary sect and “devouring wolves” and “assassins of the spirit.” The taking of the position, in 1783, of the national ‘Mother Lodge’ [i.e., within standard Freemasonry] of the ‘Three Globes’ against the Illuminati is testimony to the power of the ‘Rosicrucian party’ of Wöllner in Germany masonry at the end of the 18th Century.63 Notice this spoke of Wöllner, not Bischoffswerder, as condemning the Illuminati Order. Wöllner had been an ordained minister of religion as a young man. There is no guarantee that Bischoffswerder shared the negative sentiments expressed by Wöllner. In the quote above, Alleau is also referring to a decission on November 11, 1783 by the regular Mother lodge of Prussian Freemasonry, The Three Globes. What happened was that in light of the 1782 decision at Wilhemsbad to essential “subvert the Strict Observance,” the Three Globes dissented and refused to agree. It would not use a new Templar rite. It “refused to conform to the rectified Templar system,” and it instead it would recognize all masons “except the Illu62.See “Bavarian Investigation & Suppression Decrees” on page 1 et seq. 63.René Alleau, Le origini occulte del nazismo (trans. R. Leveghi, Gianfranco De Turris) (Edizioni Mediterranee, 2006) at 110. Illuminati of Bavaria 23 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King minati” freely across systems. Despite this disagreement, Three Globes would still accept Duke Ferdinand as Grand Master.64 The Three Globes were very serious about this. On that date, it issued a warning that at Berlin had arisen the Illuminati — a “masonic sect which wants to sap the Christian religion and to make Masonry a political system.”65 Whether Concord refused to use the rectified Templar rite adopted at Wilhemsbad is not known. Meanwhile, Wöllner’s conservative leanings are evident in the fact that “in 1791, he became the Grand Master of the Mother Lodge Zu den drei Weltkugeln (The Three Globes).”66 This means he was moving toward supporting the Freemasons, not the Templar Rite. Where was King Friedrich William in all this? He insisted upon twice having two bigamous marriages by 1789 with both wives in his life simultaneously.67 He did allow himself to be persuaded to conservative decrees on religion proposed by Wollner.68 But other than his listening to either of these two lodge brothers, he did not seem to have a mind of his own. Conclusion There is a repetitious identification of Illuminati at Berlin as being under Bischoffswerder’s influence, and no othe name is referenced. Neither time is there a reference to Wöllner. 64.Moses W. Redding, Illustrated History of Freemasonry (1997) at 430. 65.“Illuminés,” Daniel Ligou, Ed. Dictionnaire de la Francmaçonerìe (1987), supra, at 604. Ligou implies that this is directed at the Rosicrucians of Munich and Vienna where they allegedly were influential. 66.Alleau, Le origini, supra, at 109. 67.Christopher McIntosh, The Rosicrucians, supra, at 80. 68.Christopher McIntosh, The Rosicrucians, supra, at 80. Illuminati of Bavaria 24 Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1, 1792 First, we quoted Comte de Vaudreuil in 1790 saying the Illuminati are serving Bischoffswerder. Henry Fox, Lord Holland, said again the Illuminati were serving Bischoffswerd. Each time the Illuminati are connected to Bischoffswerder, not Wöllner. Fox clearly said this was the “German Illuminati,” meaning the order of Weishaupt. The evidence appears that only Bischoffswerder had previously been in the Strict Observance system. This system had turned itself over to the Illuminati at Wilhemsbad. Bischoffswerder in 1780 had spent over a year stationed in Bavaria on a war assignment against Austria. There is every reason to believe he was playing along, pretending to tolerate what Wollner was doing, for the greater advantage of dominating the king via the lodge. In sum, when we learn that Bischoffswerder was giving pill recipes proximate to Leopold’s death, and everyone in the world regarded Bischoffswerder as an Illuminatus, then we can put two-and-two together. It would appear likely that Emperor Leopold was killed by poisoning himself using a recipe from Bischoffswerder that was designed to kill him. As a result, one of the problem kings to France’s future was eliminated on March 1, 1792. Two weeks later Gustavus II would be taken care of by pistol shot. Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1, 1792 The French king’s minister, de Lessart, sent letters to Austria that were conciliatory in tone. The Jacobins under Brissot’s influence at the time spoke out in the Assembly. They accused de Lessart of treason and began impeachment proceedings against him. The king felt compelled to dismiss de Lessart on March 9, 1792 and all the other ministers on the 10th. King Louis of France decided to put the Brissotins in all minister positions as an offer of conciliation to stop these Jacobin critiques. The ministry now included a Swiss banker Illuminati of Bavaria 25 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King named Clavière, a close friend of Mirabeau and Brissot (Minister of Finance); Roland, an unemployed factory inspector (Interior Minister), and Dumouriez, a soldier (Minister of War). These three men were all for war. The king apparently imagined that the Brissotins would not want war if they were now in power.69 King Louis miscalculated. The Austrians had put 50,000 troops at the frontier. Then, upon the slightest of pretexts Jacobin deputies demanded war with Austria. The pretext was that Austria sent letters to General Bender in the Netherlands (Belgium) that Bender should assist the Elector of Tiers if the French invaded Tiers. 70 Deputy Mailhe’s speech in April revealed once more that the Jacobins did not want war merely to satisfy wounded French pride that someone thought France belligerant enough to attack Triers. Rather, the true reason for all this Jacobin rhetoric was that the Brissotin-led Jacobins wanted war to cause an overthrow of the French king and then conquer its neighbors in a world crusade. Amazingly, the Jacobins acted entirely fearless of Prussia, Austria, and Sweden who were now amassing to attack France despite the king’s protestations that he was not asking for these foreign nations to help him. Mailhe called for a declaration of war to liberate all of Europe. He said: Humanity will doubtless suffer, when one considers that in decreeing war you are also decreeing the death of several thousand men; but consider also that you are perhaps decreeing the liberty of the entire world . . . . Consider also that outside France despotism is in 69. William Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, supra, at 180. 70. Simon Schama, Citizens--A Chronicle of the French Revolution (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1989) at 593-95. Illuminati of Bavaria 26 Next Moves In France After Leopold Died On March 1, 1792 its death-throes and that a prompt attack will precipitate its final agony.71 The Assembly of France declared war on April 20, 1792 at this juncture. Clootz alias Anarcharsis at the Jacobins made a speech on April 21st where he claimed that the purpose of this war was not defensive, but to take over all Europe. Cloots arrived handing out maps that showed all of Europe carved up in departments, beginning with Holland, Belgium and Savoy. He said: "the more extensive the seat of war the sooner, and more fortunately, will the suit of plebians against the nobles be decided . . . We require enemies, . . . Savoy, Tuscany, and quickly, quickly!”72 One deputy, Becquet, warned in dissent that "we shall earn the reputation of being an aggressive and restless people who disturb the peace of Europe and disregard treaties and international law."73 Louis XVI was compelled to read the declaration of war, which he did so in a faultering voice. The Brissotin Jacobins thereby put the king in a conflicting situation where he was fighting nations which claimed they were allies of the true majority of French who wanted the Constitution of September 1791. And yet, King Louis had not asked for their help this time.74 Talleyrand now became the foreign ambassador on behalf of General Dumouriez to make this war come about. 71. T.C.W. Blanning, The French Revolution in Germany — Occupation and Resistance in the Rhineland 1792-1802 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986) at 63. 72.Taine, II, at 77 fn. 73. Schama, Citizens, supra, at 597. 74. He has asked their help in June 1791, but consistently begged them not to intervene after the October 1791 elections because it would make matters worse. No evidence at King Louis’ trial in December 1792 ever showed otherwise. Illuminati of Bavaria 27 Assassination of Gustavus III, King of Sweden & Poisoning of Leopold, King Analysis of the Call to War After their allies knocked off Gustavus III on March 16, 1792, the Brissotin-led Jacobins knew the war leadership would fall to the Duke of Brunswick, and thus by the time they declared war in April 1792 at Paris, there was nothing to fear from armies under Brunswick’s control approaching them. The Brissotin-led Jacobins could fearlessly talk of wiping out their enemies, and sending them fleeing. These Jacobins knew their opponent would act as their secret allies and merely pretend to attack so that the Jacobins could bring about a revolution at home. These plans of war were very successful. In the next chapter, we shall discuss how the war was manipulated so as to cause the Revolution in France. Illuminati of Bavaria 28