The end of the car city - A convenient truth


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  • THE END OF THE CAR CITY ”A convenient truth” Alexander Ståhle, PHD & CEO ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
  • Why cities?
  • Proximity creates livability
  • Proximity creates innovation
  • Proximity creates social wellfare
  • Vad gör en attraktiv plats? Fungerar planen som det var tänkt? Vad skapar närhet och flöden? SOFO Proximity creates value
  • Housing value is 90% walkability in Stockholm Appartment prices in Stockholm regionUrban qualities
  • “Walkability command a premium of $4-34,000” CEO for Cities (2009) ”Walkable urban””Drivable suburban”
  • SHOPS DENSITYDENSITY SHOPS STOCKHOLM MALMÖÖREBRO RESTAURANTS DENSITY “Cities are proximity, density, closeness” Edward Glaeser
  • Density decreases car use Density Travel Dunphy RT and Fisher K (1996)
  • Average commute in Hong Kong is 11 min
  • “Individuals living near transit had a significantly higher level of trust and reciprocity and connections with neighbors.” Patterns of social capital associated with transit oriented development, Journal of Transport Geography, 2014
  • “Denser areas have greater economic mobility.“ (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  • “The compact walkable city enhance livelihoods for the poor through affordable mobility. It lower social segregation through proximity of affordable housing to places of work”. Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  • “An advanced city is not where the poor drive cars, but where the rich take public transport” Enrique Penalosa
  • Car accessiblity do not affect appartment prices or office rents in Stockholm Public transport accessibility Officerent
  • Failing office areas without transit and walkability Infra City, Upplands Väsby
  • Inside Infra City, Upplands Väsby Inside failing office areas…
  • "People in denser areas are more physically active." (Neighborhood environment and physical activity, Eriksson, 2013)
  • "People in denser areas have longer life expectancies." (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  • 5% drive to shop downtown in New York and in Stockholm (PPS 2010, Spacescape 2012)
  • "Pedestrians spend 65% more than drivers" Transport for London (2014)
  • “1/3 of America’s malls are dead or dying”
  • Wallmart and IKEA goes urban
  • Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  • Photoshop Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  • Why not car cities?
  • People in cars can…
  • People in cars can´t interact
  • ”When in my car I get a different set of values” Louis CK
  • New study on “road rage” (Gatersleben, Murtagh, White 2013): •Car use has negative effects on urban communities by affecting social perceptions. •More car use through a relatively poor area is associated with less positive views of that area. •More walking through a relatively poor area is related to more positive views of the area. •Attitudes towards young people are more negative when they are seen from a car. •Attitudes towards young people are most positive when seen from a pedestrian perspective. ”Attitudes to people more negative when seen from a car”
  • Car traffic segregate neighborhoods Livable streets, Donald Appleyard (1981)
  • Car traffic is the most common complaint Västra Ursvik, Sundbyberg Rinkeby Ursvik
  • Car dependency is unequal - Women and poor drive less (A car costs approx. $900 a month)
  • Cars take up space
  • Cars take up too much space
  • “Parking is the most incorrectly valued urban asset... A $310 bn parking subsidy, 5X the education budget.” (Public Parking Fees and Fines, Public Works Management & Policy, 2014)
  • Car infrastructure is heavily subsidized
  • Sprawl consumes land “In the last decade, an area larger than the entire state of Maryland -- more than 33,000 square km of farmland, woodlands and other natural habitat beyond the edges of the nation's cities” (2014)
  • Ecosystems are destroyed and fragmented
  • ”Green” cars?
  • Traffic make 20-25% of all CO2 Peak oil…?
  • The ecological footprint of a car is X800
  • Acid rain kills nature and pollutes water
  • ”Long live the pedestrians” says who?
  • Car speed means death
  • Streets where playgrounds before the car Allmänna vägen, Göteborg 1910
  • Bad density means more sprawl - forces families to move to the suburbs
  • Cars kill 1,2 Mn and injure 39 Mn every year
  • Car driving promotes obesity and early death
  • 2,4 Mn people dies from smog every year
  • ”Car driving is like drug addiction” (The compulsive habit of cars, Trends in cognitive science, 2014)
  • ”Choice blindness”
  • Car city
  • Car city Walk city
  • The end of the suburbs – A war on the dream?
  • Who says walk cities?
  • “We should embrace policies that promote the compact city” Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  • “City transport is about moving people, not vehicles” Rachel Kyte, World Bank
  • “High quality sidewalks are the most basic element of a democratic city.” Enrique Peñalosa, ITDP
  • “Pedestrians and cyclists and bus riders are more important — than car riders.” Michael Bloomberg, NYC
  • New American policies for walk cities New York Chicago
  • New Swedish policies for walk cities
  • Walk cities reclaimed
  • Cities are being reclaimed and repaired
  • Squares are reclaimed Time square, NY
  • Freeways are reclaimed CicLAvia, Los Angeles
  • This used to be as freeway…” Hayes Valley San Francisco
  • Parks are reclaimed Champs Elysées, Paris
  • Parking spaces are reclaimed
  • Gardens are reclaimed
  • Playgrounds are reclaimed
  • Downtowns are reclaimed Detroit
  • Small towns too – FLEN 2013
  • Small towns too – FLEN 2015
  • Small towns too – FLEN 2020
  • ǀ URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE Alexander Ståhle PhD & CEO Spacescape [email protected]