The Human Body System
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All About the human body systems. Includes integumentary, muscular, skeletal, digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems.
2. Human Female and Male Bodies 3. The Human Body Systems The human body is the entire structure of a human organism.It consists of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. Theaverage height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet tall. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consistsof close to 100 trillion cells, the basic unit of life. These cellsare organized biologically to eventually form the whole body. The human body is made to stand erect, walk on two feet,use the arms to carry and lift, and has opposable thumbs(able to grasp). 4. Essential Question:How does man performlife functions? 5. Skin, hair, nails Protect the internalorgansAxial, appendicularskeletonProtect the internalorgans, movementCardiac, smooth,skeletal musclesMovementGastrointestinal tract,accessory organsBreak down food intoparticles absorbable bythe cellsHeart, blood cells,blood vessels, fluidPass nutrients, gases,hormones, and blood cellsand others to and fromcells 6. Conducting zone,respiratory zoneAllow gas exchange to takeplace in order to removeCO2 from the bloodCentral nervoussystem, peripheralnervous systemReceive information,process the information,respond to the informationKidneys, liver, sweatglands, lungs, largeintestinesExpel metabolic wastesfrom the body, maintaininternal balanceEndocrine glands,hormonesControl and regulation ofbody processesInternal andexternal structuresProduction of human sexcells, release of sexhormones 7. The Human Body Systems Although viewed aswhole, the human body isactually made up of tendifferent systems. Each of these systemsplays a vital part in thehealth and well being ofthe entire body.1. Integumentary System2. Skeletal System3. Muscular System4. Digestive System5. Circulatory System6. Respiratory System7. Nervous System8. Excretory System9. Endocrine System10. Reproductive System 8. The Integumentary SystemComponents1. Skin2. Hair3. Nails4. Subcutaneous tissue belowthe skin5. Assorted glandsFunctions Protects the body's internalliving tissues and organs Lubricates and waterproofsthe body Protects against invasion byinfectious microorganisms Protects the body fromdehydration Sense receptors for touch,pressure, pain, heat andcold 9. The Integumentary System:SKIN The skin is the outer covering ofthe body. It is also the largestorgan of the body. It plays the most important rolein protecting against pathogens. Skin has pigmentation,melanin, provided bymelanocytes, which absorbssome of the potentiallydangerous radiation in sunlight. 10. The Integumentary System:SKIN The skin has two major layerswhich are made of differenttissues and have very differentfunctions.1. Epidermis -provideswaterproofing and serves as abarrier to infection2. Dermis -serves as a location forthe appendages of skin3. Hypodermis or subcutaneousadipose layer -attach the skin tounderlying bone and muscle aswell as supplying it with bloodvessels and nerves 11. The Integumentary System:HAIR Hair on the scalp providesinsulation from cold for thehead. The hair of eyelashes andeyebrows helps keep dustand perspiration out of theeyes. The hair in our nostrils helpskeep dust out of the nasalcavities. 12. The Integumentary System:NAILS A nail is a horn-like envelopecovering the dorsal aspect of theterminal phalanges of fingers andtoes in humans, most non-humanprimates, and a few othermammals. Fingernails and toenails are madeof a tough protein called keratin,as are animals' hooves and horns.Along with hair they are anappendage of the skin. 13. The Skeletal SystemDivisions1. Axial Skeletona. Skullb. Backbonec. Rib cage2. Appendicular Skeletona. Bones of the forelimbsb. Shoulder girdlec. Bones of the hindlimbsd. Pelvic girdleFunctions Serves as a scaffold whichsupports organs Anchors muscles Protects organs such as thebrain, lungs, and heart Serves as a storage area forminerals such as calciumand phosphorus Produces blood cells 14. The Skeletal System 15. The Skeletal System:SKELETON It consists of both fused andindividual bones supported andsupplemented by ligaments,tendons, muscles, and cartilage. Bodily movement is carried outby the interaction of themuscular and skeletal systems. Muscles are connected to bonesby tendons. Bones are connectedto each other by ligaments. 16. Diagram of a Bone 17. Diagram of a BonePeriosteum is amembrane that linesthe outer surface of allbones, except at thejoints of long bones. 18. Diagram of a BoneCompact bone is oneof the two types ofosseous tissue thatform bones. It isharder, stronger andstiffer than cancellousbone. 19. Diagram of a BoneCompared to compact bone,cancellous bone is less dense,softer, weaker, and less stiff. Itis highly vascular andfrequently contains red bonemarrow where the productionof blood cells occurs. 20. The Muscular SystemTypes of Muscles1. Cardiac-are involuntary and foundonly in the heart.2. Smooth-are involuntary and makeup the internal organs.3. Skeletal-are voluntary and movesthe bones of the body.Functions Provides movement for thebody Allows the heart to beat Moves the food down thegastrointestinal tract 21. The Muscular System 22. The Muscular System Did you know you havemore than 600 muscles inyour body? They doeverything from pumpingblood throughout yourbody to helping you liftyour heavy backpack. You control some of yourmuscles, while others (likeyour heart) do their jobswithout you thinkingabout them at all. 23. The Muscular System:CARDIAC MUSCLES Cardiac muscle is a type ofinvoluntary striated andmultinucleited muscle foundin the walls of the heart. Cardiac muscle also differsfrom the other two muscletypes in that contraction canoccur even without an initialnervous input. They contract automaticallyto squeeze the walls of theheart.1. cardiac muscle cell2. nuclei3. intercalated disks 24. The Muscular System:SMOOTH MUSCLES Smooth muscle is foundmainly in the walls of hollowinternal organs such as bloodvessels, the gastrointestinaltract, the urinary bladder, andthe uterus. It is capable of automaticslow, sustained, and rhythmiccontractions such as thoseneeded to push food steadilythrough the gut.Smooth muscle from a section ofsmall intestine 25. The Muscular System:SKELETAL MUSCLES Skeletal muscle a type ofmuscle, attached to bones, thatis responsible for skeletalmovements. These muscles are underconscious, or voluntary control. Skeletal muscles have anabundant supply of bloodvessels and nerves. This isdirectly related to the primaryfunction of skeletal muscle:contraction.Human skeletal muscle 26. The Digestive SystemComponents1. Gastrointestinal tract1. Esophagus2. Stomach3. Small instestine4. Large intestine5. Rectum6. Anus2. Accessory Organs1. Liver2. Gall bladder3. PancreasFunctions Mechanical and chemicaldigestion of food Move the food down thegastrointestinal tract Break down the food intosmaller particles that can beused by the cells 27. The Digestive System 28. Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into smallercomponents that are more easily absorbed into a blood stream. 29. Gastrointestinal TractWhen you eat, saliva breaks down the chemicals in the food, turning the foodinto a mushy and easy-to-swallow ball called bolus. 30. Gastrointestinal TractWhen you swallow foods or liquids, a special flap called the epiglottis flopsdown over the opening of your windpipe to make sure the foodenters the esophagus and not the windpipe. 31. Gastrointestinal TractThe stomach is like a mixer, churning and mashing together all the small ballsof food that came down the esophagus into a semi-fluid mass of partlydigested food called chyme. 32. Gastrointestinal TractThe small intestine breaks down the food mixture even more so your body canabsorb all the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. 33. Gastrointestinal TractBefore the food mixture goes out, it passes through the part of the largeintestine called the colon, which is where the body gets its last chance toabsorb the water and some minerals into the blood. 34. Gastrointestinal TractThe large intestine pushes the poop into the rectum, the very last stop onthe digestive tract. The solid waste stays here until you are readyto go to the bathroom. 35. Accessory OrgansBile is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced bythe liver, that aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine. 36. Accessory OrgansIn humans, the loss of the gallbladder is usually easily tolerated. 37. Accessory OrgansBecause the pancreas is a storage depot for digestive enzymes, injury to thepancreas is potentially very dangerous. A puncture of the pancreas generallyrequires prompt and experienced medical intervention. 38. The Circulatory SystemComponents1. Heart2. Blood cellsa. Red blood cells (RBC)b. White blood cells (WBC)c. Platelets3. Blood vesselsa. Arteriesb. Veinsc. Capillaries4. Fluidsa. Lymphb. BloodFunctions Passes nutrients, gases,hormones, and blood cellsand others to and from cells Help stabilize bodytemperature and pH 39. The Circulatory System 40. The Circulatory System:HEART Your heart is really a muscle. It'slocated a little to the left of themiddle of your chest, and it's aboutthe size of your fist. Your heart is sort of like a pump ortwo pumps in one:1. Right pump includes the rightatrium and right ventricle whichpumps the blood to the lungs2. Left pump includes the leftatrium and left ventricle whichpumps the blood to the rest ofthe bodyRightatriumLeftatriumRightventricleLeftventricle 41. The Circulatory System:HEARTThe pathways of blood through the human heart are part of the pulmonary andsystemic circuits. These pathways include the tricuspid valve, the mitral valve, theaortic valve, and the pulmonary valve. 42. The Circulatory System:CIRCULATION Circulation of the blood serves to move blood to a site or siteswhere it can be oxygenated, and where wastes can bedisposed. There are two types of circulation:1. Pulmonary-carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to thelungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart2. Systemic-carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body,and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. 43. 4 412355678 GasExchangeGasExchangePulmonary Circulation18 44. Systemic Circulation42 2Gas ExchangeCO2 to Oxygen 3 314Gas ExchangeCO2 to Oxygen1Gas ExchangeOxygen to CO2Gas ExchangeOxygen to CO2 45. Systemic CirculationAn animation of a typical human red bloodcell cycle in the circulatory system. 46. The Circulatory System:BLOOD CELLS A blood cell is a cell of any typenormally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into threegeneral categories:a. Red blood cells or erythrocytesb. White blood cells or leukocytesc. Platelets or thrombocytes Together, these three kinds of bloodcells sum up for a total 45% of bloodtissue by volume (and the remaining55% is plasma).Components of blood 47. The Circulatory System:RED BLOOD CELLS Red blood cells or erythrocytes arethe most common type of blood celland the principal means ofdelivering oxygen (O2) to the bodytissues via the blood flow throughthe circulatory system. They take up oxygen in the lungs orgills and release it while squeezingthrough the body's capillaries. In humans, mature red blood cellsare flexible biconcave disks that lacka cell nucleus and most organelles.Enucleated red blood cells 48. The Circulatory System:WHITE BLOOD CELLS White blood cells or leukocytesare cells of the immune systeminvolved in defending the bodyagainst both infectious diseaseand foreign materials. The number of WBCs in theblood is often an indicator ofdisease.Amorphic white blood cells 49. The Circulatory System:PLATELETS Platelets are only about 20% of thediameter of red blood cells, the mostnumerous cell of the blood. The principal function of platelets isto prevent bleeding.A scanning electron micrograph ofa red blood cell surrounded byplenty of platelets 50. The Circulatory System:BLOOD VESSELS The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport bloodthroughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels:arteries, veins, and capillaries. 51. The Circulatory System:ARTERIES• The heart pumps bloodout through one mainartery called the dorsalaorta.• It then divides andbranches out into manysmaller arteries so thateach region of your bodyhas its own system ofarteries supplying it withfresh, oxygen-rich blood. 52. The Circulatory System:ARTERIES• Arteries are tough on theoutside and smooth onthe inside. The muscularwall of the artery helpsthe heart pump theblood.• The arteries deliver theoxygen-rich blood to thecapillaries where theactual exchange ofoxygen and carbondioxide occurs.This is a contrast x-ray of the kidneys andthe aorta dividing into arteries. 53. The Circulatory System:VEINS• Veins receive blood from thecapillaries after the exchangeof oxygen and carbon dioxidehas taken place. Therefore, theveins transport oxygen-poorblood back to the lungs andheart.• The vein valves are necessaryto keep blood flowing towardthe heart, but they are alsonecessary to allow blood toflow against the force ofgravity.Cross section of a vein showing avalve that prevents backflow 54. The Circulatory System:VEINS• Veins are often closer to theskin and contain valves to helpkeep blood flowing toward theheart.• Vein color is determined inlarge part by the color ofvenous blood, which is usuallydark red (and not blue as iscommonly believed) as a resultof its low oxygen content.Venous valves prevent reverseblood flow. 55. Thepulmonaryarteries carryoxygen poorblood from theheart to thelungs.They are theonly arteriesthat carrydeoxygenatedblood.PULMONARY ARTERIES and PULMONARY VEINSThepulmonaryveins are largeblood vesselsthat carryblood from thelungs to theleft atrium ofthe heart.They are theonly veins thatcarryoxygenatedblood.PA PAPV PV 56. The Circulatory System:CAPILLARIES• Unlike the arteries andveins, capillaries are verythin and fragile. Thecapillaries are actually onlyone epithelial cell thick.They are so thin that bloodcells can only pass throughthem in single file.• The exchange of oxygenand carbon dioxide takesplace through the thincapillary wall.Gas exchange taking place in thecapillary bed 57. The Circulatory System:GAS EXCHANGE 58. The Circulatory System:FLUIDS• Blood is a specialized bodilyfluid that delivers necessarysubstances to the body's cellssuch as nutrients and oxygenand transports waste productsaway from those same cells.• Blood is circulated around thebody through blood vessels bythe pumping action of theheart. Right tube:the RBCs havesettled at thebottomLeft tube:contains freshlydrawn blood 59. The Circulatory System:FLUIDS• Lymph has acomposition comparableto that of blood plasma,but it may differ slightly.Lymph contains whiteblood cells.• Lymph picks up bacteriaand brings them tolymph nodes to bedestroyed. Metastaticcancer cells can also betransported via lymph.Lymph nodes are present throughout differentareas of our body. They are linked by lymphaticvessels which carry lymph fluid, nutrients, andwaste material from the body tissues and to theblood stream. 60. The Circulatory System 61. The Respiratory SystemComponents1. Conducting zonea. Noseb. Pharynxc. Epiglottisd. Larynxe. Vocal chordsf. Trachea2. Respiratory zonea. Bronchial treeb. Lungsc. AlveoliFunctions Allow gas exchange to takeplace in order to removeCO2 from the blood Supply the blood withoxygen in order for theblood to deliver oxygen toall parts of the body Enable us to talk orvocalization 62. The Respiratory System 63. The Respiratory System:CONDUCTING ZONE Conducting Zoneincludes the structuresthat conduct air from theatmosphere to therespiratory zone. They also function inwarming andhumidification, filtrationand, cleaning of theinspired air.Upper and lower respiratory tract 64. CONDUCTINGZONE 65. CONDUCTINGZONE 66. CONDUCTINGZONE 67. CONDUCTINGZONE 68. CONDUCTINGZONE 69. CONDUCTINGZONE 70. CONDUCTINGZONERESPIRATORYZONE 71. The Respiratory System:RESPIRATORY ZONE The respiratory zone is thesite of O2 and CO2exchange with the blood. The respiratorybronchioles and thealveolar ducts areresponsible for 10% of thegas exchange. The alveoliare responsible for theother 90%.Gas exchange taking place in thecapillary bed 72. CONDUCTINGZONERESPIRATORYZONE 73. RESPIRATORYZONE 74. RESPIRATORYZONE 75. RESPIRATORYZONE 76. The Respiratory System:BREATHING Breathing is the process thatmoves air in and out of thelungs. Aerobic organisms requireoxygen to release energy viarespiration, in the form of themetabolism of energy-richmolecules such as glucose. Breathing is only one processthat delivers oxygen to where itis needed in the body andremoves carbon dioxide. Diagram of the lungs and diaphragmwhen breathing 77. The diaphragm is a sheet of internal muscle that extends across thebottom of the rib cage.It separates the thoracic cavity (heart, lungs, and ribs) from theabdominal cavity (stomach, intestines and other internal organs).It also performs an important function in respiration. 78. Inspiration or inhalation is the movement of airfrom the external environment, through the airways, and into the alveoli. 79. Exhalation or expiration is the movement of airout of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, tothe external environment during breathing. 80. PATHWAY OF AIRairairairairGasGas ExchangeExchangeInhalationExhalation 81. The Nervous SystemComponents1. Central Nervous Systema. Brainb. Spinal cord2. Peripheral Nervous Systema. Cranial nervesb. Spinal nervesFunctions Receive information fromthe sense organs Process the information inthe brain and spinal cord Respond to the information Store long-term and short-termmemories 82. The Nervous System 83. Relationships of the parts of the Nervous SystemPROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORDetects thestimulusMotornervesEFFECTORResponds to thestimulusCentralNervousSystemPeripheralNervousSystem 84. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR 85. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR? 86. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR? 87. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR? 88. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR? 89. PROCESSING CENTERSSensorynervesBrain and spinal cordRECEPTORMotornervesEFFECTOR? 90. PROCESSING CENTERSBrain and spinal cordSensory nerves Motor nervesRECEPTORDetects the stimulusEFFECTORResponds to the stimulus 91. The Nervous System:NEURON A neuron (also known as nervecell) is an electrically excitablecell that processes andtransmits information byelectrical and chemicalsignaling. Neurons connect to each otherto form networks. They are the core componentsof the nervous system, whichincludes the brain, spinal cord,and peripheral ganglia.A network of interconnected neurons 92. The Nervous System:NEURON A number of specialized types of neuronsexist:1. Sensory neurons respond to touch, sound,light and numerous other stimuli affectingcells of the sensory organs that then sendsignals to the spinal cord and brain.2. Motor neurons receive signals from the brainand spinal cord, cause muscle contractions,and affect glands.3. Interneurons connect neurons to otherneurons within the same region of the brainor spinal cord.RECEPTORDetects thestimulusEFFECTORResponds to thestimulus 93. The Nervous System:STRUCTURE OF A TYPICAL NEURONA typical neuron possesses a cell body, dendrites, and an axon. Dendrites are filamentsthat arise from the cell body, often extending for hundreds of micrometres and branchingmultiple times, giving rise to a complex "dendritic tree". An axon is a special cellularfilament that arises from the cell body and travels for a distance, as far as 1 meter inhumans or even more in other species. 94. The Nervous System:NEURONOne estimate puts the human brain at about 100 billion (1011) neurons and 100trillion (1014) synapses. Another estimate is 86 billion neurons of which 16.3billion are in the cerebral cortex and 69 billion in the cerebellum. 95. The Nervous System:CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The CNS is the processing centerof the nerve network of the body. It is where the body interprets theinformation it has received fromthe outside, analyzes its meaning,and decides what to do tomaintain stability. It is made up of the:1. Brain protected by the skull2. Spinal cord protected by thevertebral column 96. The human brain is thecenter of thehuman nervous system.It monitors and regulatesthe body's actions andreactions. Side view of thelobes of the brain 97. Side view of thelobes of the brain 98. Side view of thelobes of the brain 99. Side view of thelobes of the brain 100. Side view of thelobes of the brain 101. Side view of thelobes of the brain 102. Side view of thecenter of the brainThe human brain continuouslyreceives sensory information,and rapidly analyzes these dataand then responds, controllingbodily actions and functions. 103. Side view of thecenter of the brain 104. Side view of thecenter of the brain 105. Side view of thecenter of the brain 106. Side view of thecenter of the brain 107. Side view of thecenter of the brain 108. Side view of thecenter of the brain 109. Side view of thecenter of the brain 110. Side view of thecenter of the brain 111. Top view of the brainThe human brain Theadult human brain weighson average about3 lb (1.5 kg).It is very soft, having aconsistency similar to softgelatin or firm tofu. 112. Top view of the brain 113. Top view of the brain 114. Top view of the brain 115. The Nervous System:SPINAL CORD The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubularbundle of nervous tissue and supportcells that extends from the brain. The spinal cord has three majorfunctions:1. Serve as a highway for sensoryinformation which travels up thespinal cord.2. Serve as a highway for motorinformation which travels downthe spinal cord.3. Serve as a center for coordinatingcertain reflexes.Brain and spinal cord 116. The Nervous System:REFLEX ARCA reflex arc is the neural pathway that mediates a reflex action. In higher animals, mostsensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. Thischaracteristic allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly by activating spinal motorneurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain. 117. The Nervous System:REFLEX ARCMuscular defense is a reflex of theabdominal muscles to contract uponmechanical force to the abdomen, andserves as protection.During a scratch reflex, a nearby limbreaches toward and rubs against the siteon the body surface that has beenstimulated. Some sensory neurons can beactivated by stimulation with an externalobject such as a parasite on the bodysurface.The startle reflex or alarm reaction is theresponse of mind and body to a suddenunexpected stimulus, such as a flash oflight, a loud noise, or a quick movementnear the face. The reaction includesphysical movement away from thestimulus, a contraction of the muscles ofthe arms and legs, and often blinking.The withdrawal reflex is a spinal reflexintended to protect the body fromdamaging stimuli. A classic example iswhen a person touches something hotand withdraws their hand from the hotobject without thinking about it. 118. The Nervous System:REFLEX ARCNewborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults. Theseinclude: asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR), grasp reflex, hand-to-mouth reflex, rootingreflex, crawling reflex, and many others. 119. The Nervous System:PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The PNS is the part of the nervous system that connects theCNS to the different organs and glands of the body. It is made up of:1. Cranial nerves12 pairs of nerves from the brain2. Spinal nerves31 pairs of nerves from the spinal cord The PNS has two main divisions:I. SOMATIC SYSTEM that connects the CNS to voluntarymusclesII. AUTONOMIC SYSTEM that connects the CNS toinvoluntary muscles 120. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Cranial NervesCranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain. In humans, there are 12pairs of cranial nerves. Only the first and the second pair emerge from the cerebrum; theremaining 10 pairs emerge from the brainstem. 121. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Spinal NervesSpinal nerves refer to nerves which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signalsbetween the spinal cord and the body. Humans have 31 pairs of spinal nerves, eachroughly corresponding to a segment of the vertebral column. 122. SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONThe autonomic nervous system directs all activities of the body that occur without aperson's conscious control, such as breathing and food digestion. It has two parts: thesympathetic division which is most active in times of stress, and the parasympatheticdivision which controls maintenance activities and helps conserve the body's energy. 123. The Excretory SystemComponents1. Kidneys2. Liver3. Sweat glands4. Lungs5. Large intestineFunctions Expel metabolic wastesfrom the body Maintain internal balance 124. The Excretory System:METABOLISM Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that happen inliving organisms to maintain life. These processes alloworganisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures,and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories:1. Catabolism breaks down organic matter for example toharvest energy in cellular respiration.2. Anabolism uses energy to construct components of cellssuch as proteins and nucleic acids. 125. The Excretory System:METABOLISM In the process, some harmful by-productsreferred to as metabolicwastes are formed. The process bywhich the body gets rid of itsmetabolic wastes is called excretion. The body gets rid of the following:1. Excess water2. Excess salts3. Carbon dioxide resulting from cellularrespiration4. Nitrogen-containing compounds likeammonia, urea, and uric acid Human urinary system 126. The Excretory System:KIDNEYS The kidneys are the principalexcretory system organs of thebody. They excrete most of theurea, sugar, and salts in the formof urine. The human kidneys are two bean-shapedorgans; one on each side ofthe backbone. It is about the size ofa fist. Small as it is, the kidney containsover a million excretory units orfiltering units called nephrons. Human kidney 127. The Kidneys 128. The Excretory System:LIVER The liver acts on excess aminoacids in the blood which are endproducts of protein digestion. Removal of amino acids happenshere as the liver converts them intourea. Urea is transported by theblood from the liver mostly into thekidneys which filter it out of theblood and expel it as part of urine.Human liver 129. The Excretory System:SWEAT GLANDS During exercise or heavy work, thebody can lose plenty of water andsalt.Body Fluids Composition PercentageWaterUrine 95 to 96Sweat 99SaltsUrine 4 to 5Sweat 1 130. The Excretory System:LUNGS As blood passes through thecapillaries of the lungs, itreceives a fresh supply ofoxygen. At the same time, it expelsexcess carbon dioxide and asmall amount of water intothe air sacs of the lungs.Human lungs 131. The Excretory System:LARGE INTESTINES The undigested part of the foodis passed in to the largeintestine. The walls of the large intestineabsorb most of the liquidportion of the waste, leaving amore or less solid feces that thebody expels through the anus. The cell lining of the largeintestine excrete excess saltthat is thrown out togetherwith the feces.Large intestines 132. The Endocrine SystemComponents1. Endocrine glandsGlands that secrete theirproducts through the wallsof the blood vesselsdirectly into the blood.2. HormonesChemicals produced by thebody which together withthe Nervous System,control and regulate thefunctions of the body.Functions Control and regulation ofbody processes Maintain homeostasis ofthe body 133. The Endocrine System:HOMEOSTASIS It refers to the state of internalequilibrium. In a healthy body, homeostasis ispossible because the body hasefficient control mechanism thatoppose changes in its internalenvironment.1. Body temperature2. Amount of water in the body3. Amount of metabolic wastes in thecell4. Blood calcium level5. Hormones in the blood 134. The Endocrine System 135. THE MAJOR ENDODRINE GLANDS1• The body receivesinformation from theenvironment through thesense organs.2• The information is relayed bythe nerves to the CNS whereit is processed.3• The CNS sends messagesthrough the nerves to thebody organs for appropriateresponse that ensures theorganism’s survival. 136. Major Glands Hormones and Their FunctionsPINEAL GLANDMelatoninInvolved in activities with daily or seasonal rhythms associatedwith light conditions of the environment like sleeping andbreeding.HYPOTHALAMUSHormones released by the posterior pituitaryHormones that regulate the anterior pituitaryPITUITARY GLANDA. Posterior lobeOxytocinControls contraction of smooth muscles of the uterus andmammary gland cellsVasopressin or Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)Promotes retention of water by the kidneysB. Anterior lobeGrowth hormone (GH) or SomatotropinStimulates growth especially of the skeleton and regulatesmetabolismThyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)Regulates the activity of the thyroid glandAdrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocoticoids 137. Major Glands Hormones and Their FunctionsB. Anterior lobeProlactinStimulates the mammary glands to produce milkFollicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)Regulates follicle formation in the ovary and sperm formation inthe testesLuteinizing Hormone (LH)Stimulates ovaries and testesC. Middle lobeMelanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)Increases production of the skin pigment melaninTHYROIDThyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)Control metabolic rates, physical growth, and mental growthCalcitoninLowers blood calcium levelPARATHYROIDParathyroid Hormone (PTH) or ParathormoneRaises blood calcium level 138. Major Glands Hormones and Their FunctionsTHYMUSThymosinStimulates T-cells (antibodies)ADRENAL GLANDA. Adrenal cortexGlucocorticoidsIncrease blood glucoseMineralcorticoidsPromote reabsoption of sodium and excretion of potassium inkidneysSmall amounts of androgenInfluence development of secondary sex characteristics (themajor source of these hormones in females)B. Adrenal medulaEpinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)Constrict blood vessels thereby increasing blood pressure“Fight or fight” responsePANCREASInsulinControls the transformation of blood glucose into liver glycogenthus lowering the blood glucose level 139. Major Glands Hormones and Their FunctionsPANCREASGlucagonControls the transformation of liver glycogen into blood glucosethus raising the blood glucose levelSomastatinInhibits the secretion of both insulin and glucagonTESTESAndrogens, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedioneControls sperm formation as well as the development andmaintenance of male secondary sex characteristicsOVARIESEstrogen, β-estradiol, estrone, estriolStimulate growth of uterine lining, control development andmaintenance of female secondary sex characteristicsProgesteroneStimulates growth of uterine liningSTOMACH andUPPER INTESTINEGastrinStimulates secretion of gastric juices by gastric glandsSecretinStimulates secretion of pancreatic juices by pancreatic glands 140. FACTS ABOUT HORMONES• Hormones act in very small amounts. An increase or decrease insaid amount may result in body disorder.• Hormones are secreted by ductless (endocrine) glands directlyinto the blood.• Hormones may be proteins, peptides, amines, or steroids.• Some hormones may have many targets. Some affect mosttissues of the body. Some affect only a few targets.• Some hormones affect other endocrine glands.• Hormones function closely with the Nervous System. 141. ROLE OF HORMONES IN HOMEOSTASISThe level of her bloodglucose may risebeyond normal.The hypothalamusdetects the situationand sends outappropriate signals.The liver transformsThe pancreas isglucose into glycogenstimulated to releaseand stores it in itsinsulin into thetissues, while thebloodstream.muscles and otherbody tissues take upadditional glucose. The blood glucose levelgoes down to normal,while the pancreasstops releasing extrainsulin.A girl chooses for a snack aserving of spaghetti, cake, icecream, and a bottle of soft drink 142. ROLE OF HORMONES IN HOMEOSTASISThe level of his bloodglucose may dropbelow normal.The hypothalamusdetects the situationand sends outappropriate signals.The pancreas isstimulated to releaseglucagon into theblood.The liver transformsglycogen into glucoseand releases it into theblood.The blood glucose level rises to normal, whilethe A boy playing a basketball pancreas stops releasing extra glucagon.during noon time missed hislunch 143. The Reproductive SystemMale ReproductiveSystemFemale ReproductiveSystem 144. The Male Reproductive SystemComponents1. External structuresa. Penisb. Scrotumc. Testicles2. Internal structuresa. Epididymisb. Vas deferensc. Prostate glandd. Urethrae. BladderFunctions Produce, maintain andtransport sperm cells (malegametes) and its protectivefluid (semen) To discharge sperm withinthe female reproductivetract To produce and secretemale sex hormones 145. EXTERNALSTRUCTURES 146. EXTERNALSTRUCTURES 147. EXTERNALSTRUCTURES 148. EXTERNALSTRUCTURES 149. INTERNALSTRUCTURESEXTERNALSTRUCTURES 150. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 151. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 152. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 153. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 154. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 155. INTERNALSTRUCTURES 156. The Male Reproductive System:SPERMATOGENESIS Spermatogenesis is the process by whichmale spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa, alsoknown as a sperm cell. Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexuallyreproducing organisms. Thus, spermatogenesis is the maleversion of gametogenesis. 157. The Male Reproductive System:SPERMATOGENESIS It starts at puberty and usuallycontinues uninterrupted untildeath, although a slightdecrease can be discerned inthe quantity of producedsperm with increase in age. It is highly dependent uponoptimal conditions for theprocess to occur correctly, andis essential for sexualreproduction. 158. ERECTION AND EJACULATIONPenile erection is aphysiologicalphenomenon wherethe penis becomesenlarged and firm.Ejaculation is theejecting of semen(usually carryingsperm) from the malereproductive tract,and is usuallyaccompanied byorgasm. 159. The Female Reproductive SystemComponents1. External structuresa. Labia minorab. Labia majorac. Vaginad. Clitorise. Urethra2. Internal structuresa. Vaginab. Cervixc. Uterusd. Fallopian tubese. OvariesFunctions Produce, maintain, andtransport the egg cells(female gametes to the siteof fertilization Nourishes the fetus shouldfertilization take place Produces female sexhormones that maintain thereproductive cycle 160. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 161. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 162. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 163. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 164. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 165. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:EXTERNAL STRUCTURES 166. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 167. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 168. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 169. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 170. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 171. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:INTERNAL STRUCTURES 172. The Female Reproductive System:OVULATION 173. The Female Reproductive System:HUMAN PREGNANCY 174. The Female Reproductive System:NATURAL BIRTH 175. The Female Reproductive System:CESAREAN BIRTH 176. epidermissebaceousglanddermissweat glandhairsubcutaneoustissue 177. skullclaviclesternumspinal columnribsradiusiliumfemurfibula tibia 178. mouthesophagusliverlargeintestinestomachpancreassmall intestinerectum 179. pulmonary arteryright atriumrightventricleaortaleft atriumleft ventricle 180. bronchus tracheabronchiolesalveoli 181. cerebrumthalamusbrain stemcerebellum 182. kidneysuretersbladderurethra 183. pituitarythyroidparathyroidsadrenalpancreasovariespineal glandhypothalamusparathyroidsadrenaltestes 184. Skin, hair, nails Protect the internalorgansAxial, appendicularskeletonProtect the internalorgans, movementCardiac, smooth,skeletal musclesMovementGastrointestinal tract,accessory organsBreak down food intoparticles absorbable bythe cellsHeart, blood cells,blood vessels, fluidPass nutrients, gases,hormones, and blood cellsand others to and fromcellsQUIZ #1 Part 1: Complete the table below. 185. QUIZ #1 Part 2: Identify from which body system thefollowing parts and organs are found.IS = Integumentary System DS = Digestive SystemSS = Skeletal System CS = Circulatory SystemMS = Muscular System1. Pancreas2. Skeletal muscles3. Pulmonary artery4. Periosteum5. Nail6. Tendon7. Red blood cells8. Mitral valve9. Hypodermis10. BolusDSMSCSSSISSSCSCSISDS 186. RightatriumPulmonaryarteriesLeftatriumRightventricleLeftventricleRightpumpLeftpumpAorta1. Two pumps2. Four chambers3. Pulmonary arteries4. Aorta5. Superior and inferior vena cavaSuperior venacavaInferior venacava 187. Right atriumRight ventricleRight pulmonary arteryLeft pulmonary arteryLungsRight pulmonary veinLeft pulmonary veinLeft atriumLeft ventricleAorta 188. QUIZ #2 Part 1: Complete the table below.Conducting zone,respiratory zoneAllow gas exchange to takeplace in order to removeCO2 from the bloodCentral nervoussystem, peripheralnervous systemReceive information,process the information,respond to the informationKidneys, liver, sweatglands, lungs, largeintestinesExpel metabolic wastesfrom the body, maintaininternal balanceEndocrine glands,hormonesControl and regulation ofbody processesInternal andexternal structuresProduction of human sexcells, release of sexhormones 189. QUIZ #2 Part 2: Identify from which body system thefollowing parts, organs, and substances are found.RESS = Respiratory System NS = Nervous SystemEXS = Excretory System REPS = Reproductive System1. Cerebrum2. Alveoli3. Medulla oblongata4. Penis5. Feces6. Scrotum7. Larynx8. Urea9. Fallopian tubes10.Occipital lobeNSRESSNSREPSEXSREPSRESSEXSREPSNS 190. Urinary bladderUrethraProstate glandCorpus callosumSeminal vesicleEpididymisVas deferansTesticles 191. Fallopian tubeOvariesUterusCervixVaginaVulva 192. Fourth Quarter Group Project:Health Brochure• Each group is assignedto a body system• Choose a disease ofthat body system andcome up with a healthbrochure containing:1. Info about the bodysystem2. Symptoms, causes, andtreatment of thedisease3. PreventionBody Systems and Groups:1. Integumentary2. Skeletal3. Muscular4. Muscular5. Digestive6. Digestive7. Respiratory8. Respiratory9. Circulatory10. Circulatory 193. Specifics:1. Long bond paper folded into four panels2. Include pictures, diagrams, and trivia3. To be submitted on March 16 (Friday)
- 1. The Human Body Systems:Anatomy and PhysiologyMs. Steh Gatus2011