Insert the thermometer. 60 seconds
consider environmental factors when taking rectal temperatures
A, The thermometer has been inserted and secured with the clip to the tail hairs.
B, Thermometer secured to hair coat with the clip.
Pulse Rate/Heart Rate
The pulse rate is taken by palpation of arteries
Heart rate and pulse rate are nor the same: heart rate refers to the number of heart bests/minute (bpm); pulse rate refers to the number of palpable arterial pulse waves/minute
In normal animals heart rate and pulse rate are equal
Arterial pulses may be palpated at several locations
Pulse deficit (heart rate â pulse rateâ)
Pulse is described as strong, bounding, weak, thready, or other non-specific terms
Facial artery is the most convenient location where it courses over the ventral aspect of the mandible, rostral to the origin of the masseter muscle
B, Identify the facial artery along the medial aspect of the mandible.
C, Press the vascular bundle against the medial aspect of the mandible
Transverse facial artery
Is located in a horizontal depression about 1 inch caudal to the lateral canthus of the eye and just below the zygomatic arch.
Supplies the tail and is located along the ventral midline of the tail.
Dorsal metatarsal artery
Is located between the metatarsal 3 and 4 (cannon bone and lateral splint bone) on the hind limp
E, Location of the lateral digital artery over the lateral proximal sesamoid bone and proximal to the lateral collateral cartilage. F, Palpation of the digital arteries over the proximal sesamoid bones. G, Palpation of the digital arteries proximal to the collateral cartilages.
The number of respirations/minute can be counted in several ways:
Using a stethoscope to listen to air movement in the trachea or chest
Using a hand to feel movement of air in and out of a nostril
Simply counting chest excursions (rise and fall of the thoracic wall)/minute
Horses are athletes: the heart of the average horse may be as large as a basketball.
Auscultation may be done on the left or right side of the chest, though most of the heart valves and sounds are heard best from the left side
The most common cause of an irregular heart rhythm in the horse is the second degree atrioventricular (A-V) block
Landmarks for the heart
The horizontal marks indicate the level of the shoulder and elbow joints. The vertical mark indicates the caudal border of the triceps muscle.
Auscultating the heart.
A, Gently lift the triceps muscle away from the chest wall.
B, Place stethoscope against the chest wall, deep to the triceps muscle.
Landmarks for the lung. Borders of the left lung field for auscultation
The stethoscope is placed in several locations within the lung field to listen to several breaths at each location
A stethoscope is used to listen to abdominal sounds, which are created by movements of the intestines
This commonly referred to as gastrointestinal motility or GI motility
Landmarks for abdominal auscultation in the flank area are the point of the hip (tuber coxae) and the last rib.
Abdominal Auscultation (contâd)
Should listen in each quadrant (4) for at least 1 minute each, on left and right side
0 = no motility
+1 = hypomotility
+2 = normal motility
+3 = hypermotility
Standard four point auscultation
A, Auscultation of the upper left abdominal quadrant. B, Auscultation of the lower left abdominal quadrant. C, Auscultation of the upper right upper abdominal quadrant. D, Auscultation of the lower right abdominal quadrant.
Mucous membranes are tissues that have the ability to make and secrete mucus.
Mucus membranesâ color is helpful for disease diagnosis
Cyanosis is bluish coloration- low oxygen of the blood
Brick red coloration indicates septicemia or shock or both, colic, endotoxemia
Purple gum line indicates endotoxic shock
Yellowish coloration of the gum indicates icterus
Pale mucus indicates anemia
Examination of mucous membranes
.A, Examination of the gums.
B, Examination of the conjunctiva
Examination of mucous membranes
C, Examination of the mucosa of the nares.
D, Examination of the vulva in the female.
Mucous membrane color. Normal gum color.
Skin turgor test
At the point of the shoulder
1 second or less is normal
1 second or more- >5%
>8 seconds: Severely dehydrated
Capillary refill time
Less than 2 seconds
Dehydration; shock 5 to 8 seconds
More tests usually needed
Neurological Examination (contâd)