Ron Miller - Modal Jazz Composition & Harmony, Vol. 1 (Advance Music).pdf

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MODAL JAZZ COMPOSlTlON G HARMONY VOLUME 1 BY R O N M I L L E R WHEN THE MOPES O f MUSIC CHANGE. THE WALLS OF THE CITY CRUM%LE- (PLATO) @ 1996 by ADVANCE MUSIC All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a remeval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Advance Music. International copyright secured. Cover D e s i p Traugoct Bratic Text editor. Lizetre Reyes Cain PubIished by Advance Music D-72108Rottenburg N ,Germany Production: Hans Gruber Printed by TC Druck, Tiibingen TABLE OF CONTf NTS Incroducrian ..........,........-..............-...................................................*..........................................-............. A Jazz Composer's Regimen ...................._...............................................................-.....................+....... 6 7 8 How To Use This Book ........................... -............................................................................................... Categories ofJazz Cornposiuons............................-..................+......*..................................................... 9 CHAPTER I . Harmonic Systwns ............. Jazz ............ . . ....................................................11 15 C H A F E R II . Consrruction of the Undrered Diatonic Modes ............................................... CHAPTER III . Construction of the Unaltered Diatonic Chords ............................................. 19 CHAPFER I - Characteristics of the Undrered Diatonic Modes .............................................. 27 V CHAKTER V - f i e Modes of the Altered Diatonic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) ........................... 31 . C H A F E R VI - Non-Moddl Chords ................................ ... ...................................................... 37 CHAPTER W - Chord Connection/ComposicionaIDewices........................................................ 43 I C M E R VIII - Upper Smcmres .......,........... ............. CHAPTZR M . ......... . . . . .................................. Process 49 - Completing the Chord Conne&on ., . .-.......................... . . .....................57 65 C m R X - Form ......,........................... ..................................................................................63 CHAFER XI - Harmonic Cantour .............................................................................................. CHAPTER XLI - The M d e s and Chords of the Altered Dia~onic . 2 No (Harmonic Minor) ......-....... ...1..................... ......................... ............................. 89 95 111 CHAITER XU1 - Slash Chord Harmony ........................... . . .......................................................... CHAPTER XIV - Three-Part Upper Srructure Chords ............................................................. CHAKER XV - The Chords of the Altered Diatonic N o.3 (Harmonic Major) and Plltered Diaronic N o . 4 (Melodic Minor #5) ............................ . . . ..... .............115 124 Conclusion and Find Comments for Volume 1 +. .................................................................... APPENDIX 1. Acoustics and ModaLiv ..................... . . ......................,............+-.................... ....................... 126 ............................................................ 130 2. C o n s m t i o n of the Tetrachords ............................. . . 3. Additional Examples ............................................................................................................... 131 4 Ear Trailllng ................................................................................................ . . ............................. 136 5 . Tree of Influential Jazz Composers , ................................. . . . . . .....................................138 ..... . ........................................................................................... 139 6 . Discagraphy~ibliogmphy . 7. About the Author ............................................................................................... ........................ 142 INTRODUCTION The subject ofjazz cornposition has many meanings. TradicionalIy, a jazz cornpositi~n an was arrangement for big band that was composed by the arranger. Mast OF tke earlier jazz composirion textbooks (and there were few) took that approach. A jazz composition For universal use was not a practiced consideration at that t m :mast small group performance ie was based on playing standards or blues, o tunes with new meiodies derived from an r improvised solo over the original or varied version of the original chords. Even the most Forward-looking composers of the time were tied to the song form and tonal hamonic system. Although they produced classic, beautiful compositions, the closed quality of their hamonic vocabulary and symmetric form deprived them ofdiverse expression. It wasn'r until che early sixties, when a group of university educated composers hit the scene, rhar jazz compositions evolved into venues o individual expression for both the composer and the f improvisor. These young composers,aware oFche harmonies oFBarcok, Stravinsky, h v e l and Rachmaninov, and the use of extended and free-form, inrroduced a new concept of jazz composition to the jazz world. Representative of chis new breed were Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancnck. O course, there were interim composers who advanced rhe art of jazz f cornpasition and influenced subsequent camposers with compositions of great strength and beaury. Horace Silver, a perfecr example, influenced many jazz composers - this author incIuded. Although his harmonic vocabulary was based within the tonal system, his use of unusual form and perfect tonal cenrer relationships along with great rhythmic ideas and memorable melodies has earned him the respected position of one of "the masters" (see T r e e ~Flnfluential Composers" in appendix). It is the freeing of the composer from the scruccure (or scricmre) o f rhe tond syscem and scrict form, song form in particuIat, that has allowed so many composersof inen abilities to "bbssorn"r artisa with individual expressive merit The a god o f Volume I of chis book is to show che student the means to develop latenc creative abilities by offering rhe unfettered environment af the chromatic-modd harmonic system and Free-asymmetric form. In addition, the freedom of the approach will allow the composer to express himself in any style: Post-1950sjam, cIassica1, ECM, Fusion,pop, ecc, that is not tied 1-0 harmonic particulars. any THE JAZZ COMPOSER'S REGIMEN jazz is baricdly a performer's arc form- Not unlike the army where i spite of individual n spr&zarion weqone is ba~icdly i n F a n ~ mEveryonein an ul, is baicd+, player. p u r tala& are stronger in the writing area, be prepared to duesm get into classical or compmirion or film scoring Although the b z i c skills required For borh players same, once those skills a x ac¶uir*, ' e Process of d ~ e l o p r n .-hangerme h e~~ = , i are ,pFreaCh arraining a level of arcistic mmpecence f o r t h e player Tequires &e environment of pracricc mom ~ i hoursh ~ of ~ O L skius, learning lidrs and Q ~ learning transcribed solos and dev%'ing and perfecting a conepr produc*on. The composer, in a disimil= fxhionp must e x ~ m d Iearning cnGrifonment to his .world and all it c a n reach- Once the has mastered the basic include this is true for the he has ta acquire 'somehing to say-" Qf bur required insrmrnenal skills seem haw precedence at this point. For che composer, whose effom are less ephemcraI, the foltawing regimen is s u ~ e s t e d . 2, Know theory and nomenclature: Composes use writren means of communicarion. nis m~egory obvious. is 2, Evolution ofjazz styles: one should be able write in all jazz styles and knowledge dementsof d svles will improve one's personal style. l 3. sru* and ,&nmv rhe works of rhe influential jazz composers: Chadie parker, Duke Elbngton, Charles Mingus, Horace Saver, and Wayne Shorter. 4. hnprovisation: if you can't play it, be able m write it. 5. aassid music. study and k t l o the works of the romantic melody writers and modern ~ harmonis= - ~chaikovsky, Rachmanhov, Chopin, fiok~fiev, m i n s k y , Ravel, ~ ~ d S Copland; and the classid ~nfluenced ECM - R d p h Towner, Eberhard weber, Kemy Wheeler- ~ i ~ 6. s ~ + the Humanities arc, literature, dr-, sophy and religion. particu1arly the romricisE, and philo- 7. Study and know world history and world music. g. Travel and diversity: spend a pardon of your life away musk w & world travel, i wirh hiking, cmoeing, rock c L d n s ger involved with different %ecing occupanons. 3. Volunteer for community service. 10, ~fmost of the above is hard c accomplish, o least read, read and read. HOW TO U S E THIS B0O.K This book is organized in a way that separates rht hbrrnacion pertinent to acquiring creative skills, and thac of a more esoteric nature: the hows, whys and theoretical Foundations, as found in the appendix This means chat the student interested i quickly getting going with n composirion doesn't need to €erret out the "good" stuff from a jungIe of data, while the smdent interested in the hows and whys can easily access that information. Ic rvill be pointed out within the tern of each chapter when additional idormation is available in the appendix. In general, the procedure is to first develop the language of harmony as used i che book, n work with exercises to assure mastery OF the concepr, andyze how che concept is used by accomplished composers and finally, apply the concepa to create a c~mpositionEach chapter has a title page with a list of terms that are important to gaining a complete understanding of the concepts presented in that chapcer. The terms, some peculiar to this book, are found in itaIics and are defined within the text. In addition m understanding the tenns and conceprs, OF extreme importance is rhe *hearing" of the musical aspects of the concept, Any chord, mode, melody, exercise or exampre shouId be played on a keyboad regardless ofthe student's keyboard skills. Only rhen should the student, if not a keyboardist, use his instrument or voice. WhiIe playing the exampIes, the student should be lisrening intently to train his ears to the particulars of each example. Each day the studenr should try to find rime ro listen to a selection from the induded discography. The ultimare goal is to haw all the recordings listed there available for persona1 listening from memory done. An important point ro remember i s that no one can successfully compose in the way this book advocates without first being able to "hear" the concepts presented. In a nutsheI1, the smdent should; 1. Learn the concepr inrelIecdly. 2. Learn t phy it on a keyboard. o 3. Learn to hear ir. 4. Learn its application in a recorded example. W~th each chapter, the subject wil1 be illusrrated with an m p k o examples. Srudy these, r and play them. Next will be suggested exercises &at will assure that the concepts are mastered Bur more importantly, they are designed to develop creative skiIk, in facc, most exercises rYli be the seed idea for a finished composition. The point is to approach the exercises as a potential composition rather than an academic exercise and ta do as many as rime d o w s . When all the beginning concepts ate mastered, we will begin to analyze how rhe techniques are used by che master composers on recorded examples. One should have done much listening by this time. IdealIy, che book d be used in a cIass~oomsituation with an accomplished teacher/composer who can offer informed objective feedback For any student effort. Once the canceptc of d-te book are mastered, this last step i a must for artistic s development. I n e n the informarion is assimilated and mastered (or before), it is hoped thac the srudtnc will realize that the *freedom" advocated by the methods o f this book allows him to do what he got into music to do to begin with: Be crearive and have fun! CATEGORlfS OF JAZZ CUMPOSITION The foIIowing, Iike h e TreeoFComposers (found i theappendix,p. 1381,is included t assist n o i clarifying a direction of study: an artempt to clear some routes through a comprehensive n subject and t o tie together che cornposirionaI styles and influences of the major jazz composers.Jazz,being an a c form that allowed individual expression through improvisation, r would narurally wolve ro allow individualiq to be expressed both as composirion and impmisacion. The caregories ofjazz compositions that will be cwered in both volumes of this book wl include the foIlowing categories,with volume 1 covering the most complex and il comprehensive, as we11 as that which che rest is a subser free-form modal (modal complex). TONAL A. SONG FORM Based on rhe symmetric 32-bar song form rypicaI of tunes from the sundard repertoire ofthe '30s and ' 0 ,this is improvisation oriented cornposirion, many o f the tunes being melodies 4s d e t i d from improvisations over standard and dance runes. Compositions not derived from existing tunes were nonetheless based on rheir formulae. Their harmonic material rawly strayed From cotalIy diatonic key reladonships. Representative composers are Bird (Charlie Parker), Duke Elhgron, Billy Strayhorn, Tadd Darneron, and Thelonious Monk. 8. FREE-FORM No Ionger strict song form, rhese can be asymmetsic or through-composed.In addition, there is much use of nondiatoraic key centering. Representative composers are: Duke EUington, Chades Mingus, Billy Strayhorn, Benny Galson, and Horace Silver. C. NEW REHARMONIZATIONS/NEW BOP Many OF the younger cornposer/improvisors of the eighries, seeking to pay homage to t h e masters of r h e past (bebop), remmtd to the harmonic materials and form of that era (tonal/ song farm). Bared on the bebop concept oF writing a new melody over a set o standard f changes, this method is made contemporary by dtering che harmonic rhythm, by chromatic substitution and by attempts to "modalize"the tonal quality of the original changes. Most of these young "new hoppers" are providing this kind of composition: Wynton hfarsalis, Rifk Margitza, andJerry Bergonzi are representative. MODAL A. MODAL SIMPLE These are the early rnadaI compositions,where the harmonic content is based on one mode (linear) or a few different modes at different key centers (plateau). Typical are "So What," "Impressions," and "Maiden Qoyagt" Although nor tonal, she form is still fairly symmetric, with mosc of rhe compositisns being AABA song form.Other &an Colcrane and his fbllowers, there doesn't seem to be a *school" of composers with this specialization. B MODAL COMPCEX (FREE-FORM) . Having Fasc asymmetric harmonic rhythm and free-form, &is is the mosc complex and comprehensive harmonic category. This kind of harmony o h the easiest rn-s for creative expression but requires the most creative "effort" o the composer.Wayne Shorcer is the main f source of inspiration for this category. I PENIITONTC TUNES I BLUES TUNES This i a composition i which the melodic source material i the focus of its development. s n s That melodic source material i s derived from either the unalwred, altered, or add n o t e pentatonic scales and alI their modes. The harmonic material can be of any category, but the form is usually derived from that which is Found in the worId's folk musics. AVANT-GARDE A. TONAL/BEBOP Using tond melodies and song fbm as a point of departure, rhe father OFchis style is Omette Coleman, who is a major influence on Carla BIey, Albert Ayler, and Pat Merheny. B. MODAL Pushing the simple-modal and petImt0ni.C category to the edge, John Calcrane and his followers at the time - Steve Grossman, David Ciebman, Archie Shepp -are the represenmrive composers. C FUSION . Utilizing dance rhythms, adding electric instruments, but still maintaining free improvisations as in basis, chis category i s represented by Ornetre Coleman, James 'Blood' Ulmer, Bill h e l l , and ochers. D. WORD/ETHNlC/PUOGRAMMATlC The last category of avant-gardeis very diverse in style and oEers venue for the composer who has che desire to make a social comment. There are toe many in this and the Fusion category to list rhe r m l y representative. The most famous are Sun Ra and the Art Ensemble of Chicago. A11 of the above wiCI be cowred in detail i the appropriate chapters ofthe appropriate volume, n but For now it should sufice as a guide ro comprehension of the *big picture" and getring an idea of the rsverali goal OF both voIurncs of this text Bear in mind that the bctter jazz composers create works in many of the listed categories. 'ER I I . Sty 2. syrnrncrrlc vlv~slon 3. Asymmetric Division " 7. Chmniatic 8. Vertical Modal 9. Plateau Modal - * , , 10- Linear Modal c Rhythn . . CHAPTER I - - The harmonic materials emphasized in this book can be applied to any stylex] of composition, if the style is not defined by any harmonic particulars, i-e., pasr-1950s jazz, pop, ECM, Iare 19th/20rh cenrury classical, etc. Typicd would be the works of Pat Merheny, Wayne Shorter, Ralph Tamer, Joe Henderson, and Kenny Wheeler, t name a few. Most ofrheir compositions are similar in their use ofnono diatonimlly related modal material, free-form (non-song form), asymmetric harmonic rhyhrn, and a diversicy of rhythmic style. I n addition, many of heir compositions reflecr a tie to the d t i o n ofjazz with secdons of tonal harmony and swing feel.Most oftheir works are "playable." I- The octave as a means ofstable lirnis 2- Asymmetric division of the ocmve into: 3 Sewn different picches . Norc that the octave divided syrnmetricalIy produces non-modal3)scales rhat have a parcicuiar sonoric quality that can be 05compasiuonaI use. HARMONIC GROUPS T h e groups are defined by the presence or absence of preset rules oEssructure and organization. The harmonic content oFa composition can be i one group or combinations of the groups. n THERE ARE FOUR MAW GROUPS (three are modal, one i s nonmodd). 1. TONAL (modal specific)A modd system which has specific means of org-tion (rules): (a) mot mwernenrs ofa fifth @) specific modal contou8 (c) ditonic mot relationships (d) symmetric harmonic rhythm (e) well -defined'home' key 2. MODAL (modal arbitrary, free-Form) There are no preset means of organization: (a) root movement, harmonic rhythm, and modal contour determined by the whim of the composer @) chromatic mot relationships (c) usually there is no clear home key 1 Waym which h e campo=rappri) the Jcmesrs ofmusic h u m o n r d y , melodically, crc, which means t x h harmonic dmm- that f f i e scyte must be used i mndern with & n form c ~ t i v i e y . 2) A quality o f dre unequal division of the octave in which each scale sap has im own hmonic/melodic 3. CHROMATIC (pIateau tonal) Same qualities as tonal, excepr there is no dearly defined heme key: (a) there are many different k g cenrers (plateaus) (b) the key centers usualIy are nondiaronic (c) rht harmonic rhythm is usually sF&tric &finition. 3) The quali~y any scale in which of rhe OCUVC, equally divided, giva each s d c s t e p or hagmait the same harmcmk/rneldic definidon. 4) The dynamic qualities of a group of chords wthin a s e c ~ o n phr= or 4. NON-MODAL (symmerric): (a) unclear resolution,each note has the same harmonic/melodic qualities (b) chords and melodies exisr:as a sonority, a *soundm (c) example: diminished, whole mne, 12-cone, angrnented I A Z Z HARMONIC SYSTEHS THE SUBGROUPS OF MODAL ARBITRARY These are the harmonic groups that wilI be emphasized i this volume and from this point on n will getlerdIy be referred to as m&I harmony. There are three subgroups ofmodal harmony. imti~al m&l, plrzfeaid modd4 and linear modal THE GROUPS ARE DEFINED BY {a) harmonic rhythm - chord duration, dependent on tempo @) melodic quality of rhe bass line {c) definirian of a home key VERJICAL MODAL (a) fast harmonic rhythm (one chord pet beat to one chord per bar) @) wry active, rneIodic bass line fc) no clearly defined home key (d) harmonic melodies are usually chromatic (see p. 61) (e) individual chords tend to be heard as a sonority rather rhan a modality T h i s harmonic style, being v e y active, can be overbearing. It is usually used at cadenrid areas ofa composition, but can be found i complete use i some dower tempo tunes. n n Examples: "Licde One" by Herbie Rancock, "Dance Cadaverous* by Wayne Shorter, "Yellow Bell" by Ralph Towntr. (a) harmonic rhythm s b w enough ro establish modality per chord @) bass part less mive, less rneIa&c (c) mesrIy non-diatonic root relationships (d) no clearly defined home key (e) harmonic rhychrn rends to be symmetric, w o t four bars per chord o Examples: "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson, "Afro-Centric" by Joe Henderson, "Loft Dance" by David Liebman, "Maiden Voyage" by Herbie Hancock LINEAR MODAL (there are two kinds - depending on t h e harmonic rhythm): 1. Slow t o no harmonic rhythm: (a) no bass melody, more ofa vamp (b) typically only one mode (root) for entire composition (c) an o v e d I key and modaliry a n bc identified (d) less symmetric form 2. Faster harmonic rhythm: (a) mostly averdl diatonic roots, melody, and spelling (b) more melodic bass part (c) clearly defined home key (d) more syrnmerric form Examples: Slow - "In a Silent Way" by Joe Zawinul, "Masqualero" by Wayne Shorter, "Sea Journey"by Chick C o r e ! Fast - "American Hopen by Ron MiIler, most pop tunes, Metheny tunes, Brazilian, and new age tunes SUGGESTED EXERCISES Listen to the FoIEowing recordings and try ro identi@the general harmonic group. If more than one group is used in a single composirion, Iabel the group by sections. Try co name the modality of each section. 1. The S o r m - Miles Davis (ColumbiaCS 9532) (a) "Pee Wee" - Tony mIliarns (b) "Masqualero" - Wayne Shorter 2. In a Silent Way - Miles Davis (Columbia CS 9875) (a)-In a Silent Waf' -Joe ZawinuI 3. Fawer to h e People - Joe Henderson (Milesrone M 9024')) (a)"Black Narcissus"-Joe Henderson (b) "Power ro the Peoplen -Joe Henderson 4. AmeTican Hope - Ron Miller (Novus 3058-2N) Compare the rhythm section style of playing on the above recordings with that of any Charlie Parker recording and compare the harmonic rhythm of the above wich any pre-1960s jazz Messengers recordings. Is there a diEference i rhe harmonic rhythm of compositions found n on Messengers recordings after Wayne Shorter joined the band? I) Reissued on the 2-LP Mr "Foresight" (Miltswnes W 47058) CHAPTER II of the Ur . . a. ' ..," . -: 7. ., e Diatc.., Moues . .. Method 2. Chromatic Method 3. Tetrachords*) CYAPTER tl METHODS There are two methods 1. DIATONIC METHOD The traditional method: that of establishing a key center and transposing the adjacent notes of r h e major scale. T h e modes are diatonically relared, with no clear color comparison. 2. CHROMATIC MEMOD Fixed starting note method: this is a nondiatonic method where each mode has the same starring nore. The modes are constructed by h e combination of tetrachords thar cIarifies the differences in modality, stabiIity and hatmonic/rnelodic qualides. T h e main god of this section is ro establish a harmonic palette for the composer of modal composidom KO use i a manner similar to char OF the visual artisr. The "colors"are t be n o brighr or dark, tense or relaxed, and t o have emotional effects a weI1. With this in mind the s chrornaut rnethad i the best choice. s The siu scales from which the harmonic material in chis book will be derived are the following. 1. Ionian mode 2. T o i n b3 (melodic minor) 3. Ion& b6 (harmonic major) 4. Ionian b3, b6 (harmonic minor) 5 . h ~ i a n $5 (melodic minor 95) b3, 6. Ionian 12 1 There are two groups d h m i c and cbromutic 1. DIATONIE Follows an alphabeucd sequence, with no enharmonic spellings. 2. CHROMATIC: Alphabetic sequence uich enharmonic s p e k g s . Lydian DIATONIC SEMiTONES CHROMATIC SEMTTONl3 222 Hungarian major Hungarian minor Harmonic Spanish Phrygian 312 Ionian Dorian 221 2 12 213 131 121 p p p p Phrygian 122 Example 2-7: Lydian Ionian Dorian Phmian Hungarian major Hungarian minor Harmonic Spanish Phrygian 1) A bnorc s d c f r a p c n t having its own modal quality. CONSTRUCTION OF THE UNALTERED D I A T O N I C MODES THE DIATONIC MODES (UNALTEf?€D IONIAN) Using the chromaric or f w d starting note method, the modes are created by combining turo terrachords, each with its own modality, into a resulting merged modality with its o m qualiues of brightness/darkness, resolution tendencies, and harmormic/meIodic definition These results shouId be mec 1. The sum of rhe semitones equals 1 . 2 2. There are seven different scale sceps. 3. They are all contained within an octave. T H E FORMULAS Note the shifring af the minor second interval From the right to the Ieft This is a visuaI representation of the order of bnghesr so darkest of the modes. EKample 2-2: The Unaltered Diatonic Modes A Lydian Ionian Mixolydian A Dorian Aeolian Phrygian +) Now that i order far &e semicoma ro n add up m 12.. a n o h i n d must be added m thc formutq, cirhtr a strnlront or a whote tone. This will be called rhc rormecmr or mnnrmrm"g arpd i Found tone s k w e e n the upper and lower t e c r a c h d CHAPTER I1 SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Construct the following modes using the terrachord method (do not use key signatures): (a) D Tonian (b) E Aeolian (c) Eb Locrian (d) G Phrygian {e) Bb Lydian (0 Db Mixolydian (g) E Dorian 1 2. Try to consmct a tetrachard not Listed in the re* 1 3 Try unusual cornbinalimr of rhr given nmchorck. . 4. Play the tetrachords, learn to idemify them by ear. 5 . Do the above for the modes, make nore of their emotional qualicy, CHAPTER III Cor - ~ctic of the Unaltered Diaton~c cnaras sive Met l ling t Scale r Order Spacing 7. Tea-.-. 8. Cluster 9. Quartal 10. M 11. Balance 12. Support 13. Tes: 17- Overtone series . Upper Structure 15. Grip CHAPTER Ill METHODS There are two mechods o f modal c h o d construction: 1. COMPREH ENSlVE MEFHOD A11 aspects of modal quality and acoustic properties of nore groups must be known:spdIing, spacing, and balance. 2. SHORTHAND MITHOD Upper structure method: an upper strucrure with a particuIar hand shape o r ~ i placed over s p a root. [Note: The shorthand grip method will be covered in Chapter Vm.1 THE COMPREtlf NSWE METHOD SPf L'LI NGICOLOR TONES To determine the tones (color tones, quality tones) that determine a scales modality, a direct comparison with its p a m t scaiel) must be made. The notes with different alterations are the notes that give the mode its quality. Them is an order of priority i the list of color rones that define any mode. n THE DIATONIC MODES PRIORITY n B L E [Now The order has been adjusted s conform t o "common pracdce"] o has priority order over spelling. [Note: The primary means of chord construction used i this book is that ofstacking of upper n structures over mots. The spacing categories refer t the upper scrurture only.] o THE CATEGORIES O f CHORD SPACING 7. TERTlARY - The adjacent notes are OF a major third or minor third intend. 1) T h e Imtim made with the s a m e mot a che c u m p a d mode (rat s appendix)2) T ~ C n r a d i c nrio bcouccn rhe i adjacent notes of thc upper a u u c m OF a chord, them are Four arcgorics. 2. C L U m R - T h e adjacent notes are of a major second or minor second 3. QUAFTAL - T h e adjacenc notes are oFa perfect fourth or #4. 4. MIXED - The adjacent notes are of a combination of seconds, thirds, and fourths. This describes how the vertical spacing affects the chord stability. [Note: For chis kind of harmony, stable chord constnution is not aIways desired; often, an exotic imbalanced construction sounds very appropriate.] Good balance usually is a result of chord consrruction, which Follows a model OF the overtone series in its vertical arrangement. In addition, the qualiry of the intervals adds to the ovetall sound - thirds are consonant, seconds have bite, and fourths have tension. 1. TERTIARY - The most balanced, the one which mimics the o v e m n e series but the masc bland and uninteresting. 2. CLUSTER - The one which is most unlike the omtone series, but has an interesdng "bite." 3 QUARTAP - An example of displaced overtones, i t has subtle added tension which gives . it a great sound 4. MIXED -The best choice, has a good combination of consonance, bite and tension. SOME MNERAL "RULES' A. ROOTS = - No less than an octave between the root and the upper smcmre if the root i lower chan s G3 (second G below rniddIe C). No less than a 84 between the root and the upper scrucrure if the root is above G3. No more than an octave between root and upper structure if the root is above C3(17 below middle C). €3. UPPER ~ U ~ R (MIXED) E S N o more than a fifth between the lowest nore of upper structure to its next upper note. No more than a fourth between any of the remaining upper structure notes. Keep in mind that the upper srrucrure by itseIf is less sensitive to weak balance, and char unusual combinations are desired in mosr cases. 1) A resuIr ofrhe rmc m upperstrucnuc rano mthie a certain tessrtun Support i cFFecrcd by rhe r&rura OF s h e 1 0 0 and its ability to acr a a ~ s fcmdamend to the mermnc senes. (See p. 127) -- PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION T h e priori~y order d I e i s not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. There are adjustments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnon pracrice." That is, taking preference in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use i recordings or printed music. I t will be explained in n each example when an adjuscrnent is made. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples, it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. Still, ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use o f a11 spacings. 1. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 2. Select the kind of spacing. 3. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. 4. FiIl inJup or dawn, the remaining coIar cones w r i the specified incervaI o f che selected ihn spacing to t h e number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). 5. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. 6.If constructing mixed spacings, try co create balanced chords first, then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good. 7 Erase and adjust if needed. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd, e tc.) you may . need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing8.Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example. A t this time it should be pointed out h a t there is a problem with r h e standardization ofmodal chord symbols. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text, the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from t h e many s t u d e r m I have had from all parts o f the world. These suggested symbols work, but are open r criticism. o THE EXAMPLES: THE 'UNALTERED DIATONIC MODES T - Tertiary Q = Quartal C = Cluster M = Mixed The mixed examples are typical of h o s e found in common practice. Specific examples found in the Iisted discography will be labeled. Check marks refer to the prefkwed examples because OF true modal ~ u n o because o f dr "common practice" usage. 7. LYDIAN - Sounds best with the third next to the #4,try to avoid using the fifth, ic makes the 14 sound like a #I1 (see FO&j9#ll). 1 Example 3-1: F Lydian ~ ~11 6 ~ 4 ( ) found in "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson I CONSTRUCTIOH OF THE UNALTERED DIATONIC C H O R D S 2. IONIAN - There are two Farms of Ionim, the common one: A6/9 which is lacking complete Ianian modality, and the A I I which has the m e modal sound Example 3-2: (I) = true modality (2) = exotic (3) tradirionaI - (4) = contemporary 3, MIXOLYDIAN - Like Ionian, has rnversions, the one with true modality bar both the third and the fourth. Example 3-3: (1) - true modality (2) "Monk's Dream" 4. DORIAN - Must have a n a t u d sixth, note chat C-9 is not a modal chord. Example 3-4: 0-13 D-6 9 D Dorian (1) from uTouch"by Eberhard Weber (2) *AIice's Wonderland by Chades Mingus (3)"So WhaP by Miles Davis 5. AEOLIAN Example 5-5: - Dark and beautiful, can sound like a firsc inversion miad. A-9 b6 A Aeolian C-9/6 *-gb6 (I) a Gil Evans voicing (2)"Sea Journey"by Chick Coma (3) "The Lieb" by Ron Miller 6 PHRYGIAN - Dark and exotic, good "colors"chord. . Example 3-6: E Phrygian E susb 2 D-9/E F-11/G 7. LOCRIAN Example 3 - 2 - Use with caution! Can be roo dark and tense. (I) From "Haressa" by Steve Grossman Usually here will be no need to double any of rhe notes. Ifthe occasion does come up, try to double the roar as first choice o choose a color tone that emphasizes the primary color rone r as second choice. As an exampIe, doubling t h e root with Phrygian aIso emphasizes the b2 quality of Phtygian, doubling the root with Aeolian emphasizes the namral second. Regarding 'common practice' adjusrment OF the color tone priority table, many of the recorded exampla are by piam players voicing5 so the exampIes are derlved from what canfarms t hand shape (see Chapter WlI on the grip method). Other adjusrments are made o t enhance zhe modality of the chord An example is the incIusion of rhe perfect fifth to o Aeolian to emphasize t h e flat s x quality while darieng that che chord i not an Aeolian flat i s five (Lomian 42). COHSTRUCTlOM O F THE U N A L T E l E n D l A T O N tC C M O R D S SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Construct 5-note chords (root + four) of rhe following modes: (a) F Lydian, mixed (b) A Phrygian, duster (c) Eb Mixolydian, add t4, quartal (d)Bb Aeolian, mixed (C on top) (el Bb Dorian, mixed (C on top) I (f) E Phrygian, cluster (g) Eb Lydian,quartal I I (h) A Aeolian, cluster (E on top) 2, Construct the follorving chords as specified (include chord symbofs and use your best alligrlphy - be aware oFnear presenudon): ! (a) G Phrygian, quartd @) E Dorian, cerdary 1 1 (c) Eb Ionian, no third, cluster (dl D Lydian, tertiary b Two mixed each for the foJ1owing: (a)C MixoIyskan p4 (b) F Aeolian (c) Bb Lydian {d) D Ionian k 3. (a) Play rhrolzgh all of the abwe chords, transpose ro aIL keys. (b) Listen casefully as you play. Have a friend play them, cry to identi5 their modality. CHAPTER !I1 of the Unaltered , ... . Diatonic Mod Wrder o f Briahtn,,, LU uar~rtess !solution 4. Stab i lity 3. tmot~onal Generalizar . A 6. Palette CHAPTER I Y The Following characteristics of the unalresed diatonic modes are the seed qualities for aH subsequent modes and their chords ro be introduced i the book. The later modes/chords n have these basic qualities, with subtle enhancements according to cheir divergence from the source diatonic mode. The goal o f the following descriptions is to establish and list a mode's musicd/ernstionaI qualities, which can be referred m for compositional and a e s t h e u d use. BRIGHTNESS TO DARKNESS 1 The shifting of the semitones from right co lefr increases the mount of darkness. . 2. The increase of darkness is a redization of the e f f ~ r of dteracion s by "flatdng." THE ORDER O f BRIGHT TO DARK 1. LYDIAN 2. TONlAN brightest 3. MIXOLYDIAN 4. DORJAN 5. AEWUAN 6. PHRYGIAN 7 LOCRIAN . darkest RESOLUTION TENDENCIES 1. MOMENTUM - The desire of the mot to resolve to the home key, the rooc of the Ionian mode w t the same diatonic spelling. ih Examples: C Ph'ygian wants; .to go to ~b lonian; C Lydian wancs ro go to G Ionian The chords can cycle through chords wi& less momentum unul the home is reached. Example: D Dorian m G Mixolydian ro C Ionian As one can see, this is the Foundarion for dktonic cadence. 2. MODAL RESOLUTION - T h e desire of a modal chord co release its tension by becoming the Ionian mode with the same root. Examples: C Aeolian to C Ionian, F Mixolydian to F lonian. This method of chord comparison i s used to create r n d contour and wlII be covered in a later chapter. 3 nABILITY - The lack of any need OF the modal chord to resolve, &o could be thought . of as Iack of tension. Ionian is rhe only mode without desire to resolvt or to relieve tension (see appendix). The order of tension or Iack of stability is the same as the darkness order, except that Lydian i s less stabk than Jonian and wanrs to resolve to Ion&. CHARACTERISTICS O F THE U N A L T E R E D DIATOMIC MODES EMOTIONAL GrENERALIZATlONS The modes can and should be used t form an emotional response From the listener. The a descriptions a r e the resulr of a listener poll upon hearing differenc modes with different voicings. Being a generalization, the results are accurace in mosr cases but cannot be t o d y relied upon. Such inaccuracies come from the diversicy of t h e listener's farniEiarizadon with different kinds of music, as well as their Iife experiences and ~ I t u r a backgrounds. l THE RESULTS 1. Lydian - aggressive, urgenr, frantic, urbane, busy 2. Ionian - stable, peacehl, placid, content, hopeful 3, Mixolydian - transient, searching, suspended, floating 4. Dorian - brooding, uncertain, though tfuI, pensive 5. Aeolian - melancholy, sad, somber, darkly romantic 6.Phrygian - mysterious, exotic, haunting, spacy, psychedelic 7.Locrian - angry, tense, ugly, mean, enraged Nore that the above qualities can be affected by other musical devices like tempo, xessitura, chord spacing, as w d as syncapation, hannonk rhythm, and melody. The order of brightesr to darkest should be considered as well. We now have a simple palette o f primary mlors with which to create our harmonic scene.We can m a r e a modal Iandscape by ccontrascingbright chords with dark ones.We can bring about an emotional response from rhe Iistener by our selection of modality and by carefu1 selection o f the general key or tessitura ofall the chords. I addition, we can enhance the eficr by the n selecrion OFthe appropriate tempo and harmonic rhythm. A of the above wilI be covered in later chapters, but next we need ro constr~cc l modes and their chords that will add secondary "colots" t our palette. o It is important to grasp the concept that the second group of modes is derived from the primary group o f simple diatonic modes; that the secondary group is a form o f altereddiatonic, and that all the qualitiesof the original diatonic modes are maintained but enhanced by the quality oFthe alteration. As am example, one o f the modes we will consmct is Phrygian. with its sixth naturalized. The sixth of she unaltered diatonic Phrygian is flamed so the n e w Phrygian natural six has the same qualities of the original but a bit "brighter.* CHAPTER I Y SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Play all the previously constmcced modal chords, try to identify their emotional quality. Try to determine if different routs or spacings affect rhe result. 2. Listen to the following recording, make a comment on your emotional response. Name the overall modaliry. Note how tempo and key affect the end emotional result. (a) Power to the Peopk - Joe Henderson, "Power To The People" (MPS 9024) (b) American Hope - Ron M~ller, "Elerneng" Libera1 Arts (NOYUS 3058-2N) (c) S w i n g Giant - Herbie Hancock, "Crossings" (BS 2617) Id) 7he Fohwing Morning - Ebwhard Weber, T h e Following Morning" (ECM 1384) 3. Learn the acoustic source of the diatonic modes, be prepared to answer irnrnediamly. Examples: C Phrygian: Ab F Aeolian; Ab Lydian;- B Mixolydian:- The Mode: Altered bnic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) CHAPTER V THE MODES OF THE ALTERED DlATONlC NO. 1 Again, the method used For mode construction will be the fmed starting note method: chat 05 combining tetrachords. With chis group there is the incroducrion o f the Spanish Phrygian tetrachord. This is rhe darkest one we use; any furher shifting of rhe right semirunes would produce a wholly chromatic combination. THE TETRACHORD f0RMWLAS Notice t h e asymmemc organization of the semicones due t the alrwations. AIthough the o darkness order is unclear, we will simply follow the order of the vnalcered diatonic modes, with the ahration being considered a quality enhancement. Traditionally, we think of the source of this set of modes as being melodic minor (ascending), bur in order to refer to the parent scale for order of darkness, emotional characceriscic, etc., try t think of the source z o s altered Ionian - Ionian b . 3 Example 5-1:The Modes oFthe ABtered Diatonic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) Lydian-augmented - Mixolydian #4 - Mixolydian b6 -, > -, 4- >. . . . . .,. I . - - - . . . - - -...- ,Ii . . .* I . > :, . . . :
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MODAL JAZZ COMPOSlTlON G HARMONY VOLUME 1 BY R O N M I L L E R WHEN THE MOPES O f MUSIC CHANGE. THE WALLS OF THE CITY CRUM%LE- (PLATO) @ 1996 by ADVANCE MUSIC All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a remeval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Advance Music. International copyright secured. Cover D e s i p Traugoct Bratic Text editor. Lizetre Reyes Cain PubIished by Advance Music D-72108Rottenburg N ,Germany Production: Hans Gruber Printed by TC Druck, Tiibingen TABLE OF CONTf NTS Incroducrian ..........,........-..............-...................................................*..........................................-............. A Jazz Composer's Regimen ...................._...............................................................-.....................+....... 6 7 8 How To Use This Book ........................... -............................................................................................... Categories ofJazz Cornposiuons............................-..................+......*..................................................... 9 CHAPTER I . Harmonic Systwns ............. Jazz ............ . . ....................................................11 15 C H A F E R II . Consrruction of the Undrered Diatonic Modes ............................................... CHAPTER III . Construction of the Unaltered Diatonic Chords ............................................. 19 CHAPFER I - Characteristics of the Undrered Diatonic Modes .............................................. 27 V CHAKTER V - f i e Modes of the Altered Diatonic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) ........................... 31 . C H A F E R VI - Non-Moddl Chords ................................ ... ...................................................... 37 CHAPTER W - Chord Connection/ComposicionaIDewices........................................................ 43 I C M E R VIII - Upper Smcmres .......,........... ............. CHAPTZR M . ......... . . . . .................................. Process 49 - Completing the Chord Conne&on ., . .-.......................... . . .....................57 65 C m R X - Form ......,........................... ..................................................................................63 CHAFER XI - Harmonic Cantour .............................................................................................. CHAPTER XLI - The M d e s and Chords of the Altered Dia~onic . 2 No (Harmonic Minor) ......-....... ...1..................... ......................... ............................. 89 95 111 CHAITER XU1 - Slash Chord Harmony ........................... . . .......................................................... CHAPTER XIV - Three-Part Upper Srructure Chords ............................................................. CHAKER XV - The Chords of the Altered Diatonic N o.3 (Harmonic Major) and Plltered Diaronic N o . 4 (Melodic Minor #5) ............................ . . . ..... .............115 124 Conclusion and Find Comments for Volume 1 +. .................................................................... APPENDIX 1. Acoustics and ModaLiv ..................... . . ......................,............+-.................... ....................... 126 ............................................................ 130 2. C o n s m t i o n of the Tetrachords ............................. . . 3. Additional Examples ............................................................................................................... 131 4 Ear Trailllng ................................................................................................ . . ............................. 136 5 . Tree of Influential Jazz Composers , ................................. . . . . . .....................................138 ..... . ........................................................................................... 139 6 . Discagraphy~ibliogmphy . 7. About the Author ............................................................................................... ........................ 142 INTRODUCTION The subject ofjazz cornposition has many meanings. TradicionalIy, a jazz cornpositi~n an was arrangement for big band that was composed by the arranger. Mast OF tke earlier jazz composirion textbooks (and there were few) took that approach. A jazz composition For universal use was not a practiced consideration at that t m :mast small group performance ie was based on playing standards or blues, o tunes with new meiodies derived from an r improvised solo over the original or varied version of the original chords. Even the most Forward-looking composers of the time were tied to the song form and tonal hamonic system. Although they produced classic, beautiful compositions, the closed quality of their hamonic vocabulary and symmetric form deprived them ofdiverse expression. It wasn'r until che early sixties, when a group of university educated composers hit the scene, rhar jazz compositions evolved into venues o individual expression for both the composer and the f improvisor. These young composers,aware oFche harmonies oFBarcok, Stravinsky, h v e l and Rachmaninov, and the use of extended and free-form, inrroduced a new concept of jazz composition to the jazz world. Representative of chis new breed were Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancnck. O course, there were interim composers who advanced rhe art of jazz f cornpasition and influenced subsequent camposers with compositions of great strength and beaury. Horace Silver, a perfecr example, influenced many jazz composers - this author incIuded. Although his harmonic vocabulary was based within the tonal system, his use of unusual form and perfect tonal cenrer relationships along with great rhythmic ideas and memorable melodies has earned him the respected position of one of "the masters" (see T r e e ~Flnfluential Composers" in appendix). It is the freeing of the composer from the scruccure (or scricmre) o f rhe tond syscem and scrict form, song form in particuIat, that has allowed so many composersof inen abilities to "bbssorn"r artisa with individual expressive merit The a god o f Volume I of chis book is to show che student the means to develop latenc creative abilities by offering rhe unfettered environment af the chromatic-modd harmonic system and Free-asymmetric form. In addition, the freedom of the approach will allow the composer to express himself in any style: Post-1950sjam, cIassica1, ECM, Fusion,pop, ecc, that is not tied 1-0 harmonic particulars. any THE JAZZ COMPOSER'S REGIMEN jazz is baricdly a performer's arc form- Not unlike the army where i spite of individual n spr&zarion weqone is ba~icdly i n F a n ~ mEveryonein an ul, is baicd+, player. p u r tala& are stronger in the writing area, be prepared to duesm get into classical or compmirion or film scoring Although the b z i c skills required For borh players same, once those skills a x ac¶uir*, ' e Process of d ~ e l o p r n .-hangerme h e~~ = , i are ,pFreaCh arraining a level of arcistic mmpecence f o r t h e player Tequires &e environment of pracricc mom ~ i hoursh ~ of ~ O L skius, learning lidrs and Q ~ learning transcribed solos and dev%'ing and perfecting a conepr produc*on. The composer, in a disimil= fxhionp must e x ~ m d Iearning cnGrifonment to his .world and all it c a n reach- Once the has mastered the basic include this is true for the he has ta acquire 'somehing to say-" Qf bur required insrmrnenal skills seem haw precedence at this point. For che composer, whose effom are less ephemcraI, the foltawing regimen is s u ~ e s t e d . 2, Know theory and nomenclature: Composes use writren means of communicarion. nis m~egory obvious. is 2, Evolution ofjazz styles: one should be able write in all jazz styles and knowledge dementsof d svles will improve one's personal style. l 3. sru* and ,&nmv rhe works of rhe influential jazz composers: Chadie parker, Duke Elbngton, Charles Mingus, Horace Saver, and Wayne Shorter. 4. hnprovisation: if you can't play it, be able m write it. 5. aassid music. study and k t l o the works of the romantic melody writers and modern ~ harmonis= - ~chaikovsky, Rachmanhov, Chopin, fiok~fiev, m i n s k y , Ravel, ~ ~ d S Copland; and the classid ~nfluenced ECM - R d p h Towner, Eberhard weber, Kemy Wheeler- ~ i ~ 6. s ~ + the Humanities arc, literature, dr-, sophy and religion. particu1arly the romricisE, and philo- 7. Study and know world history and world music. g. Travel and diversity: spend a pardon of your life away musk w & world travel, i wirh hiking, cmoeing, rock c L d n s ger involved with different %ecing occupanons. 3. Volunteer for community service. 10, ~fmost of the above is hard c accomplish, o least read, read and read. HOW TO U S E THIS B0O.K This book is organized in a way that separates rht hbrrnacion pertinent to acquiring creative skills, and thac of a more esoteric nature: the hows, whys and theoretical Foundations, as found in the appendix This means chat the student interested i quickly getting going with n composirion doesn't need to €erret out the "good" stuff from a jungIe of data, while the smdent interested in the hows and whys can easily access that information. Ic rvill be pointed out within the tern of each chapter when additional idormation is available in the appendix. In general, the procedure is to first develop the language of harmony as used i che book, n work with exercises to assure mastery OF the concepr, andyze how che concept is used by accomplished composers and finally, apply the concepa to create a c~mpositionEach chapter has a title page with a list of terms that are important to gaining a complete understanding of the concepts presented in that chapcer. The terms, some peculiar to this book, are found in itaIics and are defined within the text. In addition m understanding the tenns and conceprs, OF extreme importance is rhe *hearing" of the musical aspects of the concept, Any chord, mode, melody, exercise or exampre shouId be played on a keyboad regardless ofthe student's keyboard skills. Only rhen should the student, if not a keyboardist, use his instrument or voice. WhiIe playing the exampIes, the student should be lisrening intently to train his ears to the particulars of each example. Each day the studenr should try to find rime ro listen to a selection from the induded discography. The ultimare goal is to haw all the recordings listed there available for persona1 listening from memory done. An important point ro remember i s that no one can successfully compose in the way this book advocates without first being able to "hear" the concepts presented. In a nutsheI1, the smdent should; 1. Learn the concepr inrelIecdly. 2. Learn t phy it on a keyboard. o 3. Learn to hear ir. 4. Learn its application in a recorded example. W~th each chapter, the subject wil1 be illusrrated with an m p k o examples. Srudy these, r and play them. Next will be suggested exercises &at will assure that the concepts are mastered Bur more importantly, they are designed to develop creative skiIk, in facc, most exercises rYli be the seed idea for a finished composition. The point is to approach the exercises as a potential composition rather than an academic exercise and ta do as many as rime d o w s . When all the beginning concepts ate mastered, we will begin to analyze how rhe techniques are used by che master composers on recorded examples. One should have done much listening by this time. IdealIy, che book d be used in a cIass~oomsituation with an accomplished teacher/composer who can offer informed objective feedback For any student effort. Once the canceptc of d-te book are mastered, this last step i a must for artistic s development. I n e n the informarion is assimilated and mastered (or before), it is hoped thac the srudtnc will realize that the *freedom" advocated by the methods o f this book allows him to do what he got into music to do to begin with: Be crearive and have fun! CATEGORlfS OF JAZZ CUMPOSITION The foIIowing, Iike h e TreeoFComposers (found i theappendix,p. 1381,is included t assist n o i clarifying a direction of study: an artempt to clear some routes through a comprehensive n subject and t o tie together che cornposirionaI styles and influences of the major jazz composers.Jazz,being an a c form that allowed individual expression through improvisation, r would narurally wolve ro allow individualiq to be expressed both as composirion and impmisacion. The caregories ofjazz compositions that will be cwered in both volumes of this book wl include the foIlowing categories,with volume 1 covering the most complex and il comprehensive, as we11 as that which che rest is a subser free-form modal (modal complex). TONAL A. SONG FORM Based on rhe symmetric 32-bar song form rypicaI of tunes from the sundard repertoire ofthe '30s and ' 0 ,this is improvisation oriented cornposirion, many o f the tunes being melodies 4s d e t i d from improvisations over standard and dance runes. Compositions not derived from existing tunes were nonetheless based on rheir formulae. Their harmonic material rawly strayed From cotalIy diatonic key reladonships. Representative composers are Bird (Charlie Parker), Duke Elhgron, Billy Strayhorn, Tadd Darneron, and Thelonious Monk. 8. FREE-FORM No Ionger strict song form, rhese can be asymmetsic or through-composed.In addition, there is much use of nondiatoraic key centering. Representative composers are: Duke EUington, Chades Mingus, Billy Strayhorn, Benny Galson, and Horace Silver. C. NEW REHARMONIZATIONS/NEW BOP Many OF the younger cornposer/improvisors of the eighries, seeking to pay homage to t h e masters of r h e past (bebop), remmtd to the harmonic materials and form of that era (tonal/ song farm). Bared on the bebop concept oF writing a new melody over a set o standard f changes, this method is made contemporary by dtering che harmonic rhythm, by chromatic substitution and by attempts to "modalize"the tonal quality of the original changes. Most of these young "new hoppers" are providing this kind of composition: Wynton hfarsalis, Rifk Margitza, andJerry Bergonzi are representative. MODAL A. MODAL SIMPLE These are the early rnadaI compositions,where the harmonic content is based on one mode (linear) or a few different modes at different key centers (plateau). Typical are "So What," "Impressions," and "Maiden Qoyagt" Although nor tonal, she form is still fairly symmetric, with mosc of rhe compositisns being AABA song form.Other &an Colcrane and his fbllowers, there doesn't seem to be a *school" of composers with this specialization. B MODAL COMPCEX (FREE-FORM) . Having Fasc asymmetric harmonic rhythm and free-form, &is is the mosc complex and comprehensive harmonic category. This kind of harmony o h the easiest rn-s for creative expression but requires the most creative "effort" o the composer.Wayne Shorcer is the main f source of inspiration for this category. I PENIITONTC TUNES I BLUES TUNES This i a composition i which the melodic source material i the focus of its development. s n s That melodic source material i s derived from either the unalwred, altered, or add n o t e pentatonic scales and alI their modes. The harmonic material can be of any category, but the form is usually derived from that which is Found in the worId's folk musics. AVANT-GARDE A. TONAL/BEBOP Using tond melodies and song fbm as a point of departure, rhe father OFchis style is Omette Coleman, who is a major influence on Carla BIey, Albert Ayler, and Pat Merheny. B. MODAL Pushing the simple-modal and petImt0ni.C category to the edge, John Calcrane and his followers at the time - Steve Grossman, David Ciebman, Archie Shepp -are the represenmrive composers. C FUSION . Utilizing dance rhythms, adding electric instruments, but still maintaining free improvisations as in basis, chis category i s represented by Ornetre Coleman, James 'Blood' Ulmer, Bill h e l l , and ochers. D. WORD/ETHNlC/PUOGRAMMATlC The last category of avant-gardeis very diverse in style and oEers venue for the composer who has che desire to make a social comment. There are toe many in this and the Fusion category to list rhe r m l y representative. The most famous are Sun Ra and the Art Ensemble of Chicago. A11 of the above wiCI be cowred in detail i the appropriate chapters ofthe appropriate volume, n but For now it should sufice as a guide ro comprehension of the *big picture" and getring an idea of the rsverali goal OF both voIurncs of this text Bear in mind that the bctter jazz composers create works in many of the listed categories. 'ER I I . Sty 2. syrnrncrrlc vlv~slon 3. Asymmetric Division " 7. Chmniatic 8. Vertical Modal 9. Plateau Modal - * , , 10- Linear Modal c Rhythn . . CHAPTER I - - The harmonic materials emphasized in this book can be applied to any stylex] of composition, if the style is not defined by any harmonic particulars, i-e., pasr-1950s jazz, pop, ECM, Iare 19th/20rh cenrury classical, etc. Typicd would be the works of Pat Merheny, Wayne Shorter, Ralph Tamer, Joe Henderson, and Kenny Wheeler, t name a few. Most ofrheir compositions are similar in their use ofnono diatonimlly related modal material, free-form (non-song form), asymmetric harmonic rhyhrn, and a diversicy of rhythmic style. I n addition, many of heir compositions reflecr a tie to the d t i o n ofjazz with secdons of tonal harmony and swing feel.Most oftheir works are "playable." I- The octave as a means ofstable lirnis 2- Asymmetric division of the ocmve into: 3 Sewn different picches . Norc that the octave divided syrnmetricalIy produces non-modal3)scales rhat have a parcicuiar sonoric quality that can be 05compasiuonaI use. HARMONIC GROUPS T h e groups are defined by the presence or absence of preset rules oEssructure and organization. The harmonic content oFa composition can be i one group or combinations of the groups. n THERE ARE FOUR MAW GROUPS (three are modal, one i s nonmodd). 1. TONAL (modal specific)A modd system which has specific means of org-tion (rules): (a) mot mwernenrs ofa fifth @) specific modal contou8 (c) ditonic mot relationships (d) symmetric harmonic rhythm (e) well -defined'home' key 2. MODAL (modal arbitrary, free-Form) There are no preset means of organization: (a) root movement, harmonic rhythm, and modal contour determined by the whim of the composer @) chromatic mot relationships (c) usually there is no clear home key 1 Waym which h e campo=rappri) the Jcmesrs ofmusic h u m o n r d y , melodically, crc, which means t x h harmonic dmm- that f f i e scyte must be used i mndern with & n form c ~ t i v i e y . 2) A quality o f dre unequal division of the octave in which each scale sap has im own hmonic/melodic 3. CHROMATIC (pIateau tonal) Same qualities as tonal, excepr there is no dearly defined heme key: (a) there are many different k g cenrers (plateaus) (b) the key centers usualIy are nondiaronic (c) rht harmonic rhythm is usually sF&tric &finition. 3) The quali~y any scale in which of rhe OCUVC, equally divided, giva each s d c s t e p or hagmait the same harmcmk/rneldic definidon. 4) The dynamic qualities of a group of chords wthin a s e c ~ o n phr= or 4. NON-MODAL (symmerric): (a) unclear resolution,each note has the same harmonic/melodic qualities (b) chords and melodies exisr:as a sonority, a *soundm (c) example: diminished, whole mne, 12-cone, angrnented I A Z Z HARMONIC SYSTEHS THE SUBGROUPS OF MODAL ARBITRARY These are the harmonic groups that wilI be emphasized i this volume and from this point on n will getlerdIy be referred to as m&I harmony. There are three subgroups ofmodal harmony. imti~al m&l, plrzfeaid modd4 and linear modal THE GROUPS ARE DEFINED BY {a) harmonic rhythm - chord duration, dependent on tempo @) melodic quality of rhe bass line {c) definirian of a home key VERJICAL MODAL (a) fast harmonic rhythm (one chord pet beat to one chord per bar) @) wry active, rneIodic bass line fc) no clearly defined home key (d) harmonic melodies are usually chromatic (see p. 61) (e) individual chords tend to be heard as a sonority rather rhan a modality T h i s harmonic style, being v e y active, can be overbearing. It is usually used at cadenrid areas ofa composition, but can be found i complete use i some dower tempo tunes. n n Examples: "Licde One" by Herbie Rancock, "Dance Cadaverous* by Wayne Shorter, "Yellow Bell" by Ralph Towntr. (a) harmonic rhythm s b w enough ro establish modality per chord @) bass part less mive, less rneIa&c (c) mesrIy non-diatonic root relationships (d) no clearly defined home key (e) harmonic rhychrn rends to be symmetric, w o t four bars per chord o Examples: "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson, "Afro-Centric" by Joe Henderson, "Loft Dance" by David Liebman, "Maiden Voyage" by Herbie Hancock LINEAR MODAL (there are two kinds - depending on t h e harmonic rhythm): 1. Slow t o no harmonic rhythm: (a) no bass melody, more ofa vamp (b) typically only one mode (root) for entire composition (c) an o v e d I key and modaliry a n bc identified (d) less symmetric form 2. Faster harmonic rhythm: (a) mostly averdl diatonic roots, melody, and spelling (b) more melodic bass part (c) clearly defined home key (d) more syrnmerric form Examples: Slow - "In a Silent Way" by Joe Zawinul, "Masqualero" by Wayne Shorter, "Sea Journey"by Chick C o r e ! Fast - "American Hopen by Ron MiIler, most pop tunes, Metheny tunes, Brazilian, and new age tunes SUGGESTED EXERCISES Listen to the FoIEowing recordings and try ro identi@the general harmonic group. If more than one group is used in a single composirion, Iabel the group by sections. Try co name the modality of each section. 1. The S o r m - Miles Davis (ColumbiaCS 9532) (a) "Pee Wee" - Tony mIliarns (b) "Masqualero" - Wayne Shorter 2. In a Silent Way - Miles Davis (Columbia CS 9875) (a)-In a Silent Waf' -Joe ZawinuI 3. Fawer to h e People - Joe Henderson (Milesrone M 9024')) (a)"Black Narcissus"-Joe Henderson (b) "Power ro the Peoplen -Joe Henderson 4. AmeTican Hope - Ron Miller (Novus 3058-2N) Compare the rhythm section style of playing on the above recordings with that of any Charlie Parker recording and compare the harmonic rhythm of the above wich any pre-1960s jazz Messengers recordings. Is there a diEference i rhe harmonic rhythm of compositions found n on Messengers recordings after Wayne Shorter joined the band? I) Reissued on the 2-LP Mr "Foresight" (Miltswnes W 47058) CHAPTER II of the Ur . . a. ' ..," . -: 7. ., e Diatc.., Moues . .. Method 2. Chromatic Method 3. Tetrachords*) CYAPTER tl METHODS There are two methods 1. DIATONIC METHOD The traditional method: that of establishing a key center and transposing the adjacent notes of r h e major scale. T h e modes are diatonically relared, with no clear color comparison. 2. CHROMATIC MEMOD Fixed starting note method: this is a nondiatonic method where each mode has the same starring nore. The modes are constructed by h e combination of tetrachords thar cIarifies the differences in modality, stabiIity and hatmonic/rnelodic qualides. T h e main god of this section is ro establish a harmonic palette for the composer of modal composidom KO use i a manner similar to char OF the visual artisr. The "colors"are t be n o brighr or dark, tense or relaxed, and t o have emotional effects a weI1. With this in mind the s chrornaut rnethad i the best choice. s The siu scales from which the harmonic material in chis book will be derived are the following. 1. Ionian mode 2. T o i n b3 (melodic minor) 3. Ion& b6 (harmonic major) 4. Ionian b3, b6 (harmonic minor) 5 . h ~ i a n $5 (melodic minor 95) b3, 6. Ionian 12 1 There are two groups d h m i c and cbromutic 1. DIATONIE Follows an alphabeucd sequence, with no enharmonic spellings. 2. CHROMATIC: Alphabetic sequence uich enharmonic s p e k g s . Lydian DIATONIC SEMiTONES CHROMATIC SEMTTONl3 222 Hungarian major Hungarian minor Harmonic Spanish Phrygian 312 Ionian Dorian 221 2 12 213 131 121 p p p p Phrygian 122 Example 2-7: Lydian Ionian Dorian Phmian Hungarian major Hungarian minor Harmonic Spanish Phrygian 1) A bnorc s d c f r a p c n t having its own modal quality. CONSTRUCTION OF THE UNALTERED D I A T O N I C MODES THE DIATONIC MODES (UNALTEf?€D IONIAN) Using the chromaric or f w d starting note method, the modes are created by combining turo terrachords, each with its own modality, into a resulting merged modality with its o m qualiues of brightness/darkness, resolution tendencies, and harmormic/meIodic definition These results shouId be mec 1. The sum of rhe semitones equals 1 . 2 2. There are seven different scale sceps. 3. They are all contained within an octave. T H E FORMULAS Note the shifring af the minor second interval From the right to the Ieft This is a visuaI representation of the order of bnghesr so darkest of the modes. EKample 2-2: The Unaltered Diatonic Modes A Lydian Ionian Mixolydian A Dorian Aeolian Phrygian +) Now that i order far &e semicoma ro n add up m 12.. a n o h i n d must be added m thc formutq, cirhtr a strnlront or a whote tone. This will be called rhc rormecmr or mnnrmrm"g arpd i Found tone s k w e e n the upper and lower t e c r a c h d CHAPTER I1 SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Construct the following modes using the terrachord method (do not use key signatures): (a) D Tonian (b) E Aeolian (c) Eb Locrian (d) G Phrygian {e) Bb Lydian (0 Db Mixolydian (g) E Dorian 1 2. Try to consmct a tetrachard not Listed in the re* 1 3 Try unusual cornbinalimr of rhr given nmchorck. . 4. Play the tetrachords, learn to idemify them by ear. 5 . Do the above for the modes, make nore of their emotional qualicy, CHAPTER III Cor - ~ctic of the Unaltered Diaton~c cnaras sive Met l ling t Scale r Order Spacing 7. Tea-.-. 8. Cluster 9. Quartal 10. M 11. Balance 12. Support 13. Tes: 17- Overtone series . Upper Structure 15. Grip CHAPTER Ill METHODS There are two mechods o f modal c h o d construction: 1. COMPREH ENSlVE MEFHOD A11 aspects of modal quality and acoustic properties of nore groups must be known:spdIing, spacing, and balance. 2. SHORTHAND MITHOD Upper structure method: an upper strucrure with a particuIar hand shape o r ~ i placed over s p a root. [Note: The shorthand grip method will be covered in Chapter Vm.1 THE COMPREtlf NSWE METHOD SPf L'LI NGICOLOR TONES To determine the tones (color tones, quality tones) that determine a scales modality, a direct comparison with its p a m t scaiel) must be made. The notes with different alterations are the notes that give the mode its quality. Them is an order of priority i the list of color rones that define any mode. n THE DIATONIC MODES PRIORITY n B L E [Now The order has been adjusted s conform t o "common pracdce"] o has priority order over spelling. [Note: The primary means of chord construction used i this book is that ofstacking of upper n structures over mots. The spacing categories refer t the upper scrurture only.] o THE CATEGORIES O f CHORD SPACING 7. TERTlARY - The adjacent notes are OF a major third or minor third intend. 1) T h e Imtim made with the s a m e mot a che c u m p a d mode (rat s appendix)2) T ~ C n r a d i c nrio bcouccn rhe i adjacent notes of thc upper a u u c m OF a chord, them are Four arcgorics. 2. C L U m R - T h e adjacent notes are of a major second or minor second 3. QUAFTAL - T h e adjacenc notes are oFa perfect fourth or #4. 4. MIXED - The adjacent notes are of a combination of seconds, thirds, and fourths. This describes how the vertical spacing affects the chord stability. [Note: For chis kind of harmony, stable chord constnution is not aIways desired; often, an exotic imbalanced construction sounds very appropriate.] Good balance usually is a result of chord consrruction, which Follows a model OF the overtone series in its vertical arrangement. In addition, the qualiry of the intervals adds to the ovetall sound - thirds are consonant, seconds have bite, and fourths have tension. 1. TERTIARY - The most balanced, the one which mimics the o v e m n e series but the masc bland and uninteresting. 2. CLUSTER - The one which is most unlike the omtone series, but has an interesdng "bite." 3 QUARTAP - An example of displaced overtones, i t has subtle added tension which gives . it a great sound 4. MIXED -The best choice, has a good combination of consonance, bite and tension. SOME MNERAL "RULES' A. ROOTS = - No less than an octave between the root and the upper smcmre if the root i lower chan s G3 (second G below rniddIe C). No less than a 84 between the root and the upper scrucrure if the root is above G3. No more than an octave between root and upper structure if the root is above C3(17 below middle C). €3. UPPER ~ U ~ R (MIXED) E S N o more than a fifth between the lowest nore of upper structure to its next upper note. No more than a fourth between any of the remaining upper structure notes. Keep in mind that the upper srrucrure by itseIf is less sensitive to weak balance, and char unusual combinations are desired in mosr cases. 1) A resuIr ofrhe rmc m upperstrucnuc rano mthie a certain tessrtun Support i cFFecrcd by rhe r&rura OF s h e 1 0 0 and its ability to acr a a ~ s fcmdamend to the mermnc senes. (See p. 127) -- PROCEDURE FOR CHORD CONSTRUCTION T h e priori~y order d I e i s not set up cornplecely by rhe &crates ~Facoustics. There are adjustments made to the table thar are more reflective of"c~rnrnon pracrice." That is, taking preference in the order of notes chat emphasize the modal quality of a primary mne or sel~cting notes that conform to documented use i recordings or printed music. I t will be explained in n each example when an adjuscrnent is made. Although a11 spacings will be represented in the examples, it is restated here that the most interesting are the mixed spacings. Still, ane should be familiar with the consrmction and use o f a11 spacings. 1. Select che general tessitura and soar of rhe chord. 2. Select the kind of spacing. 3. Place the primary color tone somewhere within the seIecced ressitura. 4. FiIl inJup or dawn, the remaining coIar cones w r i the specified incervaI o f che selected ihn spacing to t h e number of notes desired in the chord (four or five plus root is ypical). 5. Keep in mind the rules of supporr and balance if good support and balance are desired. One should be abIe to create a balanced chord on assignment. 6.If constructing mixed spacings, try co create balanced chords first, then experiment with exotic (imbalanced) spacings. Some of them sound surprisingly good. 7 Erase and adjust if needed. If consrructing an assigned spacing (quartd, e tc.) you may . need to shift the prioricy tabIe to fuIm the requlred spacing8.Doublings are acceptable and wen desired in some cases. commendations wilI be made within rhe comments of each example. A t this time it should be pointed out h a t there is a problem with r h e standardization ofmodal chord symbols. Throughoutthe remainderofthe text, the chord symbols given in the examples are a compilation ofsuggestions that I have received from t h e many s t u d e r m I have had from all parts o f the world. These suggested symbols work, but are open r criticism. o THE EXAMPLES: THE 'UNALTERED DIATONIC MODES T - Tertiary Q = Quartal C = Cluster M = Mixed The mixed examples are typical of h o s e found in common practice. Specific examples found in the Iisted discography will be labeled. Check marks refer to the prefkwed examples because OF true modal ~ u n o because o f dr "common practice" usage. 7. LYDIAN - Sounds best with the third next to the #4,try to avoid using the fifth, ic makes the 14 sound like a #I1 (see FO&j9#ll). 1 Example 3-1: F Lydian ~ ~11 6 ~ 4 ( ) found in "Gazelle" by Joe Henderson I CONSTRUCTIOH OF THE UNALTERED DIATONIC C H O R D S 2. IONIAN - There are two Farms of Ionim, the common one: A6/9 which is lacking complete Ianian modality, and the A I I which has the m e modal sound Example 3-2: (I) = true modality (2) = exotic (3) tradirionaI - (4) = contemporary 3, MIXOLYDIAN - Like Ionian, has rnversions, the one with true modality bar both the third and the fourth. Example 3-3: (1) - true modality (2) "Monk's Dream" 4. DORIAN - Must have a n a t u d sixth, note chat C-9 is not a modal chord. Example 3-4: 0-13 D-6 9 D Dorian (1) from uTouch"by Eberhard Weber (2) *AIice's Wonderland by Chades Mingus (3)"So WhaP by Miles Davis 5. AEOLIAN Example 5-5: - Dark and beautiful, can sound like a firsc inversion miad. A-9 b6 A Aeolian C-9/6 *-gb6 (I) a Gil Evans voicing (2)"Sea Journey"by Chick Coma (3) "The Lieb" by Ron Miller 6 PHRYGIAN - Dark and exotic, good "colors"chord. . Example 3-6: E Phrygian E susb 2 D-9/E F-11/G 7. LOCRIAN Example 3 - 2 - Use with caution! Can be roo dark and tense. (I) From "Haressa" by Steve Grossman Usually here will be no need to double any of rhe notes. Ifthe occasion does come up, try to double the roar as first choice o choose a color tone that emphasizes the primary color rone r as second choice. As an exampIe, doubling t h e root with Phrygian aIso emphasizes the b2 quality of Phtygian, doubling the root with Aeolian emphasizes the namral second. Regarding 'common practice' adjusrment OF the color tone priority table, many of the recorded exampla are by piam players voicing5 so the exampIes are derlved from what canfarms t hand shape (see Chapter WlI on the grip method). Other adjusrments are made o t enhance zhe modality of the chord An example is the incIusion of rhe perfect fifth to o Aeolian to emphasize t h e flat s x quality while darieng that che chord i not an Aeolian flat i s five (Lomian 42). COHSTRUCTlOM O F THE U N A L T E l E n D l A T O N tC C M O R D S SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Construct 5-note chords (root + four) of rhe following modes: (a) F Lydian, mixed (b) A Phrygian, duster (c) Eb Mixolydian, add t4, quartal (d)Bb Aeolian, mixed (C on top) (el Bb Dorian, mixed (C on top) I (f) E Phrygian, cluster (g) Eb Lydian,quartal I I (h) A Aeolian, cluster (E on top) 2, Construct the follorving chords as specified (include chord symbofs and use your best alligrlphy - be aware oFnear presenudon): ! (a) G Phrygian, quartd @) E Dorian, cerdary 1 1 (c) Eb Ionian, no third, cluster (dl D Lydian, tertiary b Two mixed each for the foJ1owing: (a)C MixoIyskan p4 (b) F Aeolian (c) Bb Lydian {d) D Ionian k 3. (a) Play rhrolzgh all of the abwe chords, transpose ro aIL keys. (b) Listen casefully as you play. Have a friend play them, cry to identi5 their modality. CHAPTER !I1 of the Unaltered , ... . Diatonic Mod Wrder o f Briahtn,,, LU uar~rtess !solution 4. Stab i lity 3. tmot~onal Generalizar . A 6. Palette CHAPTER I Y The Following characteristics of the unalresed diatonic modes are the seed qualities for aH subsequent modes and their chords ro be introduced i the book. The later modes/chords n have these basic qualities, with subtle enhancements according to cheir divergence from the source diatonic mode. The goal o f the following descriptions is to establish and list a mode's musicd/ernstionaI qualities, which can be referred m for compositional and a e s t h e u d use. BRIGHTNESS TO DARKNESS 1 The shifting of the semitones from right co lefr increases the mount of darkness. . 2. The increase of darkness is a redization of the e f f ~ r of dteracion s by "flatdng." THE ORDER O f BRIGHT TO DARK 1. LYDIAN 2. TONlAN brightest 3. MIXOLYDIAN 4. DORJAN 5. AEWUAN 6. PHRYGIAN 7 LOCRIAN . darkest RESOLUTION TENDENCIES 1. MOMENTUM - The desire of the mot to resolve to the home key, the rooc of the Ionian mode w t the same diatonic spelling. ih Examples: C Ph'ygian wants; .to go to ~b lonian; C Lydian wancs ro go to G Ionian The chords can cycle through chords wi& less momentum unul the home is reached. Example: D Dorian m G Mixolydian ro C Ionian As one can see, this is the Foundarion for dktonic cadence. 2. MODAL RESOLUTION - T h e desire of a modal chord co release its tension by becoming the Ionian mode with the same root. Examples: C Aeolian to C Ionian, F Mixolydian to F lonian. This method of chord comparison i s used to create r n d contour and wlII be covered in a later chapter. 3 nABILITY - The lack of any need OF the modal chord to resolve, &o could be thought . of as Iack of tension. Ionian is rhe only mode without desire to resolvt or to relieve tension (see appendix). The order of tension or Iack of stability is the same as the darkness order, except that Lydian i s less stabk than Jonian and wanrs to resolve to Ion&. CHARACTERISTICS O F THE U N A L T E R E D DIATOMIC MODES EMOTIONAL GrENERALIZATlONS The modes can and should be used t form an emotional response From the listener. The a descriptions a r e the resulr of a listener poll upon hearing differenc modes with different voicings. Being a generalization, the results are accurace in mosr cases but cannot be t o d y relied upon. Such inaccuracies come from the diversicy of t h e listener's farniEiarizadon with different kinds of music, as well as their Iife experiences and ~ I t u r a backgrounds. l THE RESULTS 1. Lydian - aggressive, urgenr, frantic, urbane, busy 2. Ionian - stable, peacehl, placid, content, hopeful 3, Mixolydian - transient, searching, suspended, floating 4. Dorian - brooding, uncertain, though tfuI, pensive 5. Aeolian - melancholy, sad, somber, darkly romantic 6.Phrygian - mysterious, exotic, haunting, spacy, psychedelic 7.Locrian - angry, tense, ugly, mean, enraged Nore that the above qualities can be affected by other musical devices like tempo, xessitura, chord spacing, as w d as syncapation, hannonk rhythm, and melody. The order of brightesr to darkest should be considered as well. We now have a simple palette o f primary mlors with which to create our harmonic scene.We can m a r e a modal Iandscape by ccontrascingbright chords with dark ones.We can bring about an emotional response from rhe Iistener by our selection of modality and by carefu1 selection o f the general key or tessitura ofall the chords. I addition, we can enhance the eficr by the n selecrion OFthe appropriate tempo and harmonic rhythm. A of the above wilI be covered in later chapters, but next we need ro constr~cc l modes and their chords that will add secondary "colots" t our palette. o It is important to grasp the concept that the second group of modes is derived from the primary group o f simple diatonic modes; that the secondary group is a form o f altereddiatonic, and that all the qualitiesof the original diatonic modes are maintained but enhanced by the quality oFthe alteration. As am example, one o f the modes we will consmct is Phrygian. with its sixth naturalized. The sixth of she unaltered diatonic Phrygian is flamed so the n e w Phrygian natural six has the same qualities of the original but a bit "brighter.* CHAPTER I Y SUGGESTED EXERCISES 1. Play all the previously constmcced modal chords, try to identify their emotional quality. Try to determine if different routs or spacings affect rhe result. 2. Listen to the following recording, make a comment on your emotional response. Name the overall modaliry. Note how tempo and key affect the end emotional result. (a) Power to the Peopk - Joe Henderson, "Power To The People" (MPS 9024) (b) American Hope - Ron M~ller, "Elerneng" Libera1 Arts (NOYUS 3058-2N) (c) S w i n g Giant - Herbie Hancock, "Crossings" (BS 2617) Id) 7he Fohwing Morning - Ebwhard Weber, T h e Following Morning" (ECM 1384) 3. Learn the acoustic source of the diatonic modes, be prepared to answer irnrnediamly. Examples: C Phrygian: Ab F Aeolian; Ab Lydian;- B Mixolydian:- The Mode: Altered bnic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) CHAPTER V THE MODES OF THE ALTERED DlATONlC NO. 1 Again, the method used For mode construction will be the fmed starting note method: chat 05 combining tetrachords. With chis group there is the incroducrion o f the Spanish Phrygian tetrachord. This is rhe darkest one we use; any furher shifting of rhe right semirunes would produce a wholly chromatic combination. THE TETRACHORD f0RMWLAS Notice t h e asymmemc organization of the semicones due t the alrwations. AIthough the o darkness order is unclear, we will simply follow the order of the vnalcered diatonic modes, with the ahration being considered a quality enhancement. Traditionally, we think of the source of this set of modes as being melodic minor (ascending), bur in order to refer to the parent scale for order of darkness, emotional characceriscic, etc., try t think of the source z o s altered Ionian - Ionian b . 3 Example 5-1:The Modes oFthe ABtered Diatonic No. 1 (Melodic Minor) Lydian-augmented - Mixolydian #4 - Mixolydian b6 -, > -, 4- >. . . . . .,. I . - - - . . . - - -...- ,Ii . . .* I . > :, . . . :
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