The Sociopath Next Door

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lraísc for ¨P fascinating, important book about what iii.:I Í good and bad people bad, and how good jt ()III( themselves from those others." \ ! s c c ì c ¡ a \ \ D C Y \ o c · ¡ 1 !t Ht1 !1t33 BR O ADWAY BO O KS Vt !3t3 1!t Ht 31 01 U3 Nartha 5tout !h · .1 NEW YO RK � Kä|âJWâÏ Ï!± bLL¡LlAÏ! M±XÏ ÍLLK. Copyright ©200â by Martha Stout. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. For information, address Broadway Books, a division of Random House, Inc. lK¡MÏ±Í ¡M Ï1± \MJÏ±Í bÏAϱb Lr AN±K¡LA ÜKLAÍWA1 ÜLLKb and its logo, a letter B bisected on the diagonal. are trademarks of Random House, Inc. Boo|1:s|g»çL||:nC|p·|ono ISBN 0-7394-âô74-ì For Steve Stout, my brother and the person I think of first when I think of strength of character The conscience of Û people is their power -]cIn DtyJen 011 contents Acknow|cdgmcnts / xi Author`s Motc / xiii Introduction: Imaginc / I 1hc Scvcnth Scnsc / I9 TWU 1!1 Icc Fcop|c: 1hc Sociopaths / J6 Whcn Morma| Conscicncc S|ccps / 52 |UUÝ |1Y 1hc Miccst Fcrson in thc Wor|d / 70 WhyConscicncc Is Fartia||yB|ind / 86 51T Mowto Rccognizcthc Rcmorsc|css l I0J 5tY 1hc Etio|ogoICui|t|cssncss: What CauscsSociopathyî l I 20 t1û h T ¼1¤ 1hc Sociopath Mcxt Ooor l I40 1hc Crigins oIConscicncc l I64 Tt¼ Bcrnic`sChoicc:WhyConscicncc IsBcttcr l I8I t1J'' ¯ CroundhogOay l I97 TWt1Yt Conscicncc in Its Furcst Form: ScicnccVotcs Ior Mora|i¡ l 209 Motcs l 2I 9 Indcx l 233 Æ acknowledgments Much of the time, the absorbing task of writing a book feels less like authoring and more like channeling, through your fngers and a key­ board, the lessons and inspiration of countless other people, wise friends known over many years and teachers disguised as students, patients, and colleagues. I wish I could go back in time and thank them all, and I take delight in this chance to thank the people who most helped and supported me during the year I wrote The Sociopath Next Door. For her commentary and utter indispensability, and her patience, I thank my friend and colleague Carol Kauffman, she of the legendar creativity at solving problems, whose generosit never skipped a beat, even though she was in the middle of writing Pivot Points. Because none of this would have been possible without her mov­ ing commitment to her mission, and for her having been always a deep well of grace, comprehension, and heart in a wide desert, I thank my agent and treasured friend, Susan Lee Cohen. If I had attempted to design the world's most superb editor, I could not have done nearly so well as Kristine Puopolo at Broadway Books, and I thank her for her intelligence, her precision, and her ex­ traordinary ability to be quietly right, always, without ever being in­ trusive. I thank Diane Wemyss for her caring and her organizing, and for having suggested one of the events I write about, and Elizabeth Haymaker for her charm across the miles. & XI ACKN OWL E DGM E NT S I thank Steve Stout and Darcy Wakefeld, for making me believe in love again. Once again-and always-I thank my remarkable parents, Eva Deaton Stout and Adrian Phillip Stout, for showing me just how much love and light two people of surpassing conscience can bring to the world. And with awe, and more love than I could have imagined before I knew her, I would like to thank my daughter, Amanda, my frst reader and my most insightful one. She has taught me, among so many other things, that kindness and integrit come with the soul. x|: author's note The descriptions in The Sociopath Next Door do not identif individ­ uals. At the ver heart of psychotherapy is the precept of confden­ tialit, and as usual I have taken the most exacting measures to preserve the privacy of all real persons. All names are fctitious, and all other recognizable features have been changed. Some individuals who appear in the book willingly gave their consent to be anony­ mously portrayed. In these cases, no information has been included that might in any way identify them. The story in the chapter entitled "Groundhog Day" is fction. Otherwise, the people, events, and conversations presented here are taken from my twenty-fve-year practice of psycholog. However, be­ cause of my commitment to confdentialit, the people and circum­ stances portrayed in these pages are composite in nature; that is to say, each case represents a great many individuals whose character­ istics and experiences have been adopted conceptually, carefully altered in their specifcs, and combined to form an illustrative char­ acter. Any resemblance of such a composite character to any actual person is entirely coincidental. xtít J1¨J0JJ!³J 01 + e 11ð_11t Minds difer still more than faces. ÷VcItuíre Í magine-if you can-not having a conscience, none at all, no feel­ ings of guilt or remorse no matter what you do, no limiting sense of concern for the well-being of strangers, friends, or even family members. Imagine no struggles with shame, not a single one in your whole life, no matter what kind of selfsh, laz, harmful, or immoral action you had taken. And pretend that the concept of responsibil­ ity is unknown to you, except as a burden others seem to accept without question, like gullible fools. Now add to this strange fantasy the abilit to conceal from other people that your psychological. makeup is radically different from theirs. Since everyone simply as­ sumes that conscience is universal among human beings, hiding the fact that you are conscience-free is nearly effortless. You are not held back from any of your desires by guilt or shame, and you are never confronted by others for your cold-bloodedness. The ice water in your veins is so bizarre, so completely outside of their personal ex­ perience, that they seldom even guess at your condition. MART HA ST OUT In other words, you are completely free of internal restraints, and your unhampered liberty to do just as you please, with no pangs of conscience, is conveniently invisible to the world. You can do anything at all, and still your strange advantage over the majorit of people, who are kept in line by their consciences, will most likely remain undiscovered. How will you live your life? What will you do with your huge and secret advantage, and with the corresponding handicap of other peo­ ple (conscience)? The answer will depend largely on just what your desires happen to be, because people are not all the same. Even the profoundly unscrupulous are not all the same. Some people­ whether they have a conscience or not-favor the ease of inertia, while others are flled with dreams and wild ambitions. Some human beings are brilliant and talented, some are dull-witted, and most, conscience or not, are somewhere in between. There are violent peo­ ple and nonviolent ones, individuals who are motivated by blood lust and those who have no such appetites. Maybe you are someone who craves money and power, and though you have no vestige of conscience, you do have a magnifcent IQ. You have the driving nature and the intellectual capacity to pur­ sue tremendous wealth and influence, and you are in no way moved by the nagging voice of conscience that prevents other people from doing everthing and anything they have to do to succeed. You choose business, politics, the law, banking, or international develop­ ment, or any of a broad array of other power professions, and you pursue your career with a cold passion that tolerates none of the usual moral or legal incumbrances. When it is expedient, you doctor the accounting and shred the evidence, you stab your employees and your clients (or your constituency) in the back, marr for money, tell lethal premeditated lies to people who trust you, attempt to ruin colleagues who are powerful or eloquent, and simply steamroll over groups who are dependent and voiceless. And all of this you do with ? T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR the exquisite freedom that results from having no conscience what­ soever. You become unimaginably, unassailably, and maybe even globally successful. Why not? With your big brain, and no conscience to rein in your schemes, you can do anything at all. Or no-let us say you are not quite such a person. You are am­ bitious, yes, and in the name of success you are willing to do all man­ ner of things that people with conscience would never consider, but you are not an intellectually gifted individual. Your intelligence is above average perhaps, and people think of you as smart, maybe even very smart. But you know in your heart of hearts that you do not have the cognitive wherewithal, or the creativity, to reach the careening heights of power you secretly dream about, and this makes you resentful of the world at large, and envious of the people around you. As this sort of person, you ensconce yourself in a niche, or maybe a series of niches, in which you can have some amount of control over small numbers of people. These situations satisfy a little of your desire for power, although you are chronically aggravated at not hav­ ing more. It chafes to be so free of the ridiculous inner voice that in­ hibits others from achieving great power, without having enough talent to pursue the ultimate successes yourself. Sometimes you fall into sulk, rageful moods caused by a frustration that no one but you understands. But you do enjoy jobs that afford you a certain undersupervised control over a few individuals or small groups, preferably people and groups who are relatively helpless or in some way vulnerable. You are a teacher or a psychotherapist, a divorce lawyer or a high school coach. Or maybe you are a consultant of some kind, a broker or a galler owner or a human services director. Or maybe you do not have a paid position and are instead the president of your condo­ minium association, or a volunteer hospital worker, or a parent. 3 MA RT H A ST OUT Whatever your job, you manipulate and bully the people who are un­ der your thumb, as often and as outrageously as you can without get­ ting fred or held accountable. You do this for its own sake, even when it seres no purpose except to give you a thrill. Making people jump means you have power-or this is the way you see it-and bul­ lying provides you with an adrenaline rush. It is fun. Maybe you cannot be the CEO of a multinational corporation, but you can frighten a few people, or cause them to scurry around like chickens, or steal from them, or-maybe best of all-create sit­ uations that cause them to feel bad about themselves. And this is power, especially when the people you manipulate are superior to you in some way. Most invigorating of all is to bring down people who are smarter or more accomplished than you, or perhaps classier, more attractive or popular or morally admirable. This is not only good fun; it is existential vengeance. And without a conscience, it is amazingly easy to do. You quietly lie to the boss or to the boss's boss, cr some crocodile tears, or sabotage a coworker's project, or gas­ light a patient (or a child), bait people with promises, or provide a little misinformation that will never be traced back to you. Or now let us say you are a person who has a proclivity for vio­ lence or for seeing violence done. You can simply murder your coworker, or have her murdered-or your boss, or your ex-spouse, or your wealthy lover's spouse, or anyone else who bothers you. You have to be careful, because if you slip up, you may be caught and punished by the system. But you will never be confronted by your conscience, because you have no conscience. If you decide to kill, the only diffculties will be the external ones. Nothing inside of you wil ever protest. Provided you are not forcibly stopped, you can do anything at all. If you are born at the right time, with some access to family fortune, and you have a special talent for whipping up other people's hatred and sense of deprivation, you can arrange to kill large numbers of unsuspecting people. With enough money, you can accomplish this 4 T H E S O C I OPAT H N E XT DOOR from far away, and you can sit back safely and watch in satisfaction. In fact, terrorism (done from a distance) is the ideal occupation for a person who is possessed of blood lust and no conscience, because if you do it just right, you may be able to make a whole nation jump. And if that is not power, what is? Or let us imagine the opposite extreme: You have no interest in power. To the contrar, you are the sort of person who really does not want much of anyhing. Your only real ambition is not to have to ex­ ert yourself to get by. You do not want to work like everone else does. Without a conscience, you can nap or pursue your hobbies or watch television or just hang out somewhere all day long. Living a bit on the fringes, and with some handouts from relatives and friends, you can do this indefnitely. People may whisper to one another that you are an underachiever, or that you are depressed, a sad case, or, in contrast, if they get angry, they may grumble that you are laz. When they get to know you better, and get really angry, they may scream at you and call you a loser, a bum. But it will never occur to them that you literally do not have a conscience, that in such a fun­ damental way, your ver mind is not the same as theirs. The panicked feeling of a guilty conscience never squeezes at your heart or wakes you in the middle of the night. Despite your lifestle, you never feel irresponsible, neglectful, or so much as em­ barrassed, although for the sake of appearances, sometimes you pre­ tend that you do. For example, if you are a decent observer of people and what they react to, you may adopt a lifeless facial expression, say how ashamed of your life you are, and talk about how rotten you feel. This you do only because it is more convenient to have people think you are depressed than it is to have them shouting at you all the time, or insisting that you get ûjob. You notice that people who do have a conscience feel guilt when they harangue someone they believe to be "depressed" or "troubled." Aa matter of fact, to your further advantage, they often feel obliged to take care of such a person. If, despite your relative povert, you § MART HA S T OUT can manage to get yourself into a sexual relationship with someone, this person-who does not suspect what you are really like-may feel particularly obligated. And since all you want is not to have to work, your fnancier does not have to be especially rich, just reliably conscience-bound. I trust that imagining yourself as any of these people feels insane to you, because such people are insane, dangerously so. Insane but real-they even have a label. Many mental health professionals refer to the condition of little or no conscience as "antisocial personality disorder," a noncorrectable disfgurement of character that is now thought to be present in about 4 percent of the population-that is to say, one in twent-fve people. This condition of missing con­ science is called by other names, too, most often "sociopathy, " or the somewhat more familiar term, psychopathy. Guiltlessness was in fact the frst personality disorder to be recognized by psychiatry, and terms that have been used at times over the past centur include manie sans d€lire, psychopathic inferiority, moral insanity, and moral im­ becility. According to the current bible of psychiatric labels, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Í of the American Psychiatric Association, the clinical diagnosis of "antiso­ cial personalit disorder" should be considered when an individual possesses at least three of the following seven characteristics: ¦ I ) failure to conform to social norms; (2) deceitfulness, manipulative­ ness; (3) impulsivit, failure to plan ahead; (4) irritabilit, aggres­ siveness; ¦ 5) reckless disregard for the safet of self or others; ¦ 6) consistent irresponsibility; ¦7)lack of remorse after having hurt, mis­ treated, or stolen from another person. The presence in an individ­ ual of any three of these "symptoms," taken together, is enough to make many psychiatrists suspect the disorder. Other researchers and clinicians, many of whom think the APAs defnition describes simple "criminality" better than true "psychopa­ thy" or "sociopathy, " point to additional documented characteristics 5 T HE S O C I OPAT H N E XT DOOR of sociopaths as a group. One of the more frequently observed of these traits is a glib and superfcial charm that allows the true so­ ciopath to seduce other people, fguratively or literally-a kind of glow or charisma that, initially, can make the sociopath seem more charming or more interesting than most of the normal people around him. He or she is more spontaneous, or more intense, or somehow more "complex," or sexier, or more entertaining than everone else. Sometimes this "sociopathic charisma" is accompa­ nied by a grandiose sense of self-worth that may be compelling at frst, but upon closer inspection may seem odd or perhaps laughable. ("Someday the world will realize how special I am," or "You know that after me, 'no other lover will do,") In addition, sociopaths have a greater than normal need for stim­ ulation, which results in their taking frequent social, physical, fnan­ cial, or legal risks. Characteristically, they can charm others into attempting dangerous ventures with them, and as a group they are known for their pathological lying and conning, and their parasitic relationships with "friends. " Regardless of how educated or highly placed as adults, they may have a histor of early behavior problems, sometimes including drug use or recorded juvenile delinquency, and always including a failure to acknowledge responsibility for any prob­ lems that occurred. And sociopaths are noted especially for their shallowness of emo­ tion, the hollow and transient nature of any afectionate feelings they may claim to have, a certain breathtaking callousness. They have no trace of empathy and no genuine interest in bonding emo­ tionally with a mate. Once the surface charm is scraped off, their marriages are loveless, one-sided, and almost always short-term. If a marriage partner has any value to the sociopath, it is because the partner is viewed as a possession, one that the sociopath may feel an­ _Q to lose, but never sad or accountable. All of these characteristics, along with the "symptoms" listed by the American Psychiatric Association, are the behavioral manifesta- 7 MARTHA STOUT tions of what is for most of us an unfathomable psychological con­ dition, the absence of our essential seventh sense-conscience. Crazy, and frightening-and real, in about 4 percent of the pop­ ulation. But what does 4 percent really mean to society? As points of ref­ erence to problems we hear about more often, consider the follow­ ing statistics: The prevalence rate for anorexic eating disorders is estimated at 3.43 percent, deemed to be nearly epidemic, and yet this fgure is a fraction lower than the rate for antisocial personality. The high-profle disorders classed as schizophrenia occur in only about I percent of us-a mere quarter of the rate of antisocial per­ sonalit-and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say that the rate of colon cancer in the United States, considered "alarmingly high," is about 40 per 100, 000-one hundred times lower than the rate of antisocial personality. Put more succinctly, there are more sociopaths among us than people who suffer from the much-publicized disorder of anorexia, four times as many sociopaths as schizophrenics, and one hundred times as many sociopaths as people diagnosed with a known scourge such as colon cancer. A a therapist, I specialize in the treatment of psychological trauma survivors. Over the last twent-fve years, my practice has in­ cluded hundreds of adults who have been in psychological pain every day of their lives on account of early childhood abuse or some other horrendous past experience. ^ I have detailed in case studies in The Myth of Sanity, my trauma patients sufer from a host of torments, including chronic anxiety, incapacitating depression, and dissocia­ tive mental states, and, feeling that their time on earth was unbear­ able, many of them have come to me after recovering from attempts to commit suicide. Some have been traumatized by natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes and wars, but most of them have been controlled and psychologically shattered by individual human perpetrators, often sociopaths-sometimes sociopathic strangers, but more tpically sociopathic parents, older relatives, or $ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR siblings. In helping my patients and their families cope with the harm done to their lives, and in studying their case histories, I have learned that ' the damage caused by the sociopaths among us is deep and lasting, ofen tragically lethal, and startlingly common. Working with hundreds of surivors, I have become convinced that dealing openly and directly with the facts about sociopathy is a matter of ur­ gency for us all. About one in twent-fve individuals are sociopathic, meaning, essentially, that they do not have a conscience. It is not that this group fails to grasp the diference between good and bad; it is that the distinction fails to limit their behavior. The intellectual difference between right and wrong does not bring on the emotional sirens and flashing blue lights, or the fear of God, that it does for the rest of us. Without the slightest blip of guilt or remorse, one in twenty-fve peo­ ple can do anything at all. The high incidence of sociopathy in human societ has a pro­ found efect on the rest of us who must live on this planet, too, even those of us who have not been clinically traumatized. The individu­ als who constitute this 4 percent drain our relationships, our bank accounts, our accomplishments, our self-esteem, our ver peace on earth. Yet surprisingly, many people know nothing about this disorder, or if they do, they think only in terms of violent psychopa­ thy-murderers, serial killers, mass murderers-people who have con­ spicuously broken the law many times over, and who, if caught, will be imprisoned, maybe even put to death by our legal system. We are not commonly aware of, nor do we usually identif, the larger num­ ber of nonviolent sociopaths among us, people who often are not blatant lawbreakers, and against whom our formal legal system pro­ vides little defense. Most of us would not imagine any correspondence between con­ ceiving an ethnic genocide and, say, guiltlessly lying to one's boss about a coworker. But the psychological correspondence is not only there; it is chilling. Simple and profound, the link is the absence of 9 MART HA ST OUT the inner mechanism that beats up on us, emotionally speaking, when we make a choice we view as immoral, unethical, neglectful, or selfsh. Most of us feel mildly guilt if we eat the last piece of cake in the kitchen, let alone what we would feel if we intentionally and methodically set about to hurt another person. Those who have no conscience at all are a group unto themselves, whether they be homi­ cidal trants or merely ruthless social snipers. The presence or absence of conscience is a deep human division, arguably more signifcant than intelligence, race, or even gender. What differentiates a sociopath who lives off the labors of others from one who occasionally robs convenience stores, or from one who is a contemporary robber baron�or what makes the diference be­ tween an ordinary bully and a sociopathic murderer-is nothing more than social status, drive, intellect, blood lust, or simple oppor­ tunity. What distinguishes all of these people from the rest of us is an utterly empty hole in the psyche, where there should be the most evolved of all humanizing functions. For something like 96percent of us, conscience is so fundamen­ tal that we seldom even think a bout it. For the most part, it acts like a reflex. Unless temptation is extremely great (which, thankfully, on a day-to-day basis it usually is not), we by no means reflect on each and every moral question that comes our way. We do not seriously ask ourselves, Shall I give my child lunch money today, or not? Shall I steal my coworker's briefcase today, or not? Shall I walk out on my spouse today, or not? Conscience makes all of these decisions for us, so quietly, automatically, and continually that, in our most creative flights of imagination, we would not be able to conjure the image of an existence without conscience. And so, naturally, when someone makes a truly conscienceless choice, all we can produce are explana­ tions that come nowhere near the truth: She forgot to give lunch money to her child. That person's coworker must have misplaced her briefcase. That person's spouse must have been impossible to live with. Or we come up with labels that, provided we do not inspect too ¬ )0 T H E S OCIO PAT H N E XT D OOR closely, almost explain another person's antisocial behavior: He is "eccentric, " or "artistic, " or "really competitive, " or "laz, " or "clue­ less, " or "always such a rogue. " Except for the psychopathic monsters we sometimes see on tele­ vision, whose actions are too horrifc to explain away, conscienceless people are nearly always invisible to us. We are keenly interested in how smart we are, and in the intelligence level of other people. The smallest child can tell the difference between a girl and a boy. We fght wars over race. But as to what is possibly the single most mean­ ingul characteristic that divides the human species-the presence or absence of conscience-we remain effectively oblivious. Ver few people, no matter how educated they are in other ways, know the meaning of the word sociopathic. Far less do they under­ stand that, in all probability, the word could be properly applied to a handful of people they actually know. And even after we have learned the label for it, being devoid of conscience is impossible for most human beings to fantasize about. In fact, it is diffcult to think of another experience that quite so eludes empathy. Total blindness, clinical depression, profound cognitive defcit, winning the lottery, and a thousand other extremes of human experience, even psy­ chosis, are accessible to our imaginations. We have all been lost in the dark. We have all been somewhat depressed. We have all felt stu­ pid, at least once or twice. Most of us have made the mental list of what we would do with a windfall fortune. And in our dreams at night, our thoughts and our images are deranged. But not to care at all about the effects of our actions on society, on friends, on family, on our children? What on earth would that be like? What would we do with ourselves? Nothing in our lives, waking or sleeping, informs us. The closest we come, perhaps, is the experi­ ence of being in so much physical pain that our abilit to reason or act is temporarily paralyzed. But even in pain there is guilt. Absolute guiltlessness defes the imagination. Conscience is our omniscient taskmaster, setting the rules for our ~ ]] « MAR T HA S T OUT actions and meting out emotional punishments when we brea�the rules. We never asked for conscience. It is just there, all the time, like skin or lungs or heart. In a manner of speaking, we cannot even take credit. And we cannot imagine what we would feel like without it. Guiltlessness is uniquely confusing as a medical concept, too. Quite unlike cancer, anorexia, schizophrenia, depression, or even the other "character disorders," such as narcissism, sociopathy would seem to have a moral aspect. Sociopaths are almost invariably seen as bad or diabolical, even by (or perhaps especially by) mental health professionals, and the sentiment that these patients are somehow morally offensive and scar comes across vividly in the literature. Robert Hare, a professor of psycholog at the University of B ritish Columbia, has developed an inventor called the Psychopathy Checklist, now accepted as a standard diagnostic instrument for re­ searchers and clinicians worldwide. Of his subjects, Hare, the dis­ passionate scientist, writes, "Everone, including the experts, can be taken in, manipulated, conned, and left bewildered by them. A good psychopath can play a concerto on anyones heartstrings . . . . Your best defense is to understand the nature of these human predators." And Hervey Cleckley, author of the I94I classic text Te Mask of Sanity, makes this complaint of the psychopath: "Beaut and ugli­ ness, except in a ver superfcial sense, goodness, evil, love, horror, and humor have no actual meaning, no power to move him. " The argument can easily be made that "sociopathy" and "antiso­ cial personalit disorder" and "psychopathy" are misnomers, reflect­ ing an unstable mix of ideas, and that the absence of conscience does not really make sense as a psychiatric category in the frst place. In this regard, it is crucial to note that all of the other psychiatric di­ agnoses (including narcissism) involve some amount of personal dis­ tress or miser for the individuals who sufer from them. Sociopathy stands alone as a "disease" that causes no dis-ease for the person who has it, no subjective discomfort. Sociopaths are often quite satisfed with themselves and with their lives, and perhaps for this ver reason ¬ ] ? T H E S O CIOPATH NE XT D O O R there is no effective "treatment. " Typically, sociopaths enter therapy only when they have been court-referred, or when there is some sec­ ondary gain to be had from being a patient. Wanting to get better is seldom the true issue. All of this begs the question of whether the absence of conscience is a psychiatric disorder or a legal designa­ tion-or something else altogether. Singular in its ability to unnerve even seasoned professionals, the concept of sociopathy comes perilously close to our notions of the soul, of evil versus good, and this association makes the topic diff­ cult to think about clearly. And the unavoidable them-versus-us na­ ture of the problem raises scientifc, moral, and political issues that boggle the mind. How does one scientifcally study a phenomenon that appears to be, in part, a moral one? Who should receive our pro­ fessional help and support, the "patients" or the people who must endure them? Since psychological research is generating ways to "di­ agnose" sociopathy, whom should we test? Should anyone be tested for such a thing in a free societ? And if someone has been clearly identifed as a sociopath, what, if anything, can societ do with that information? No other diagnosis raises such politically and profes­ sionally incorrect questions, and sociopathy, with its known relation­ ship to behaviors ranging from spouse battering and rape to serial murder and warmongering, is in some sense the last and most fright­ ening psychological frontier. Indeed, the most unnerving questions are seldom even whis­ pered: Can we say for sure that sociopathy does not work for the in­ dividual who has it? Is sociopathy a disorder at all, or is it functional? Just as unwelcome is the uncertainty on the fip side of that coin: Does conscience work for the individual, or group, who has it? Or is conscience, as more than one sociopath has implied, simply a psy­ chological corral for the masses? Whether we speak them out loud or not, doubts like these implicitly loom large on a planet where for thousands of years, and right up to the present moment, the most universally famous names have always belonged to those who could " ]3 " MART HA ST OUT manage to be amoral on a large-enough scale. And in our present­ day culture, using other people has become almost trendy, and un­ conscionable business practices appear to yield unlimited wealth. On a personal level, most of us have examples from our own lives in which someone unscrupulous has won, and there are times when having integrit begins to feel like merely playing the fool. Is it the case that cheaters never prosper, or is it true, after all, that nice guys fnish last? Will the shameless minorit really inherit the earth? Such questions reflect a central concern of this book, a theme that occurred to me just after the catastrophes of September I I, 200!, propelled all people of conscience into anguish, and some into despair. I am usually an optimistic person, but at that time, along with a number of other psychologists and students of human nature, I feared that my country and many others would fall into hate-flled conflicts and vengeful wars that would preoccupy us for many years to come. From nowhere, a line from a thirty-year-old apocalyptic song invaded my thoughts whenever I tried to relax or sleep: "Satan, laughing, spreads his wings. " The winged Satan in my mind's eye, roaring with cynical laughter and rising from the wreckage, was not a terrorist, but a demonic manipulator who used the terrorists' acts to ignite the kindling of hatred all over the globe. I became interested in my particular topic of sociopathy versus conscience during a phone conversation with a colleague of mine, a good man who is normally upbeat and full of encouragement but who was at that moment stunned and demoralized along with the rest of the world. We were discussing a mutual patient whose suici­ dal symptoms had become alarmingly worse, apparently on account of the disasters in the United States (and who has improved a great deal since then, I am relieved to report). My colleague was saying how guilt he felt because he was torn apart himself and might not have the usual amount of emotional energ to give to the patient. This extraordinarily caring and responsible therapist, overwhelmed ~ ]4 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR by events, like everyone else, believed he was being remiss. In the middle of judging himself, he stopped, sighed, and said to me in a weary voice highly uncharacteristic of him, "You know, sometimes I wonder, Why have a conscience? It just puts you on the losing team. " I was very much taken aback by his question, mostly because cynicism was so unlike this man's usual hale and heart frame of mind. After a moment, I replied with another question. I said, "So tell me, Bernie. If you had a choice, I mean really, literally had a choice in the matter-which you don't, of course-would you choose to have a conscience like you do, or would you prefer to be sociopathic, and capable of . . . well, anything at all?" He considered this and said, "You're right" (although I had not meant to imply telepathy). 'Td choose to have a conscience. " "Why? " I pressed him. There was a pause and then a long, drawn-out "Well . . . " Finally, he said, "You know, Martha, I don't know why. I just know I'd choose conscience. " And maybe I was thinking too wishfully, but it seemed to me that after he made this statement, there was a subtle change in Berie's voice. He sounded slightly less defeated, and we started to talk about what one of our professional organizations planned to do for the people in New York and Washington. After that conversation, and for a very long time, I remained in­ trigued by my colleague's question, "Why have a conscience?" and by his preference to be conscience-bound rather than conscience-free, and by the fact that he did not know why he would make this choice. A moralist or a theologian might well have answered, "Because it's right, " or "Because I want to be a good person." But my friend the psychologist could not give a psychological answer. I feel strongly that we need to know the psychological reason. Especially now, in a world that seems ready to self-destruct with global business scams, terrorism, and wars of hatred, we need to hear why, in a psychological sense, being a person of conscience is - ]§ * MARTHA STOUT preferable to being a person unfettered by guilt or remorse. In part, this book is my answer, as a psychologist, to that question, "Why have a conscience? " To get to the reasons, I frst discuss people who are without conscience, the sociopaths-how they behave, how they feel-so that we can look more meaningfully into the value, for the other 96percent of us, of possessing a trait that can be aggravating, painful, and-yes, it is true-limiting. What follows is a psycholo­ gist's celebration of the still small voice, and of the great majority of human beings who fnd themselves graced with a conscience. It is a book for those of us who cannot imagine any other way to live. The book is also my attempt to warn good people about "the so­ ciopath next door, " and to help them cope. As a psychologist and as a person, I have seen far too many lives nearly obliterated by the choices and acts of a conscienceless few. These few are both dan­ gerous and remarkably diffcult to identify. Even when they are not physically violent-and especially when they are familiar and close to us-they are all too capable of mangling individual lives, and of mak­ ing human societ as a whole an unsafe place to be. To my mind, this dominance over the rest of us by people who have no conscience at all constitutes an especially widespread and appalling example of what novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald referred to as "the tranny of the weak. " And I believe that all people of conscience should learn what the everyday behavior of these people looks like, so they can recog­ nize and deal effectively with the morally weak and the ruthless. Where conscience is concerned, we seem to be a species of ex­ tremes. We have only to turn on our televisions to see this bewilder­ ing dichotomy, to encounter images of people on their hands and knees rescuing a puppy from a drainage pipe, followed by reports of other human beings slaughtering women and children and stacking the corpses. And in our ordinary daily lives, though perhaps not so dramatically, we see the contrasts just as plentifully. In the morning, someone cheerfully goes out of her way to hand us the ten-dollar bill - )5 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR that we dropped, and in the afternoon, another person, gnnnmg, goes out of his way to cut us of in traffc. Given the radically contradictory behavior we witness ever day, we must talk openly about both extremes of human personalit and behavior. To create a better world, we need to understand the nature of people who routinely act against the common good, and who do so with emotional impunit. Only by seeking to discover the nature of ruthlessness can we fnd the many ways people can triumph over it, and only by recognizing the dark can we make a genuine affrma­ tion of the light. It is my hope that this book will play some part in limiting the so­ ciopath's destructive impact on our lives. A individuals, people of conscience can learn to recognize "the sociopath next door," and with that knowledge work to defeat his entirely self-interested aims. At the very least, they can protect themselves and their loved ones from his shameless maneuverings. * ]} * the seventh sense �. ��/C . Vrtue is not the absence of vices or tb€avoidance of moral dangers; virtue is a vivid and separate thing, like pain or a particular smell. -G. K. Chesterton J his morning, |oc, athirty-ycar-old attomcy, isrunninghvc min- utcslatcIor ancxtrcmclyimportantmcctingthat,with orwith- out him, will start promptlyatcight o`clock. Mc nccdsto kccp up a good imprcssionwiththc morc scnior mcmbcrs oIhis hrm, which mcansjustaboutcvcqbody, andhcwouldlikctohavcthchrstword with thcsc wcalthy clicnts, whosc conccrns includc |oc`s budding spccial¡oIcstatc planning. Mc has bccn prcparing his agcnda Ior days bccauschcIcclsthcrcis alotatstakc, and hcvcqmuchwants to bc in thc conIcrcncc room atthc start oIthc mccting. \nIortunatcly, thcIurnaccin|oc`stownhouscsuddcnlystoppcd makinghcat inthc middlc oIthc night. Frcczingand pacing, aIraid thc pipcs would burst, hc hadtowaitIorthc cmcrgcncyrcpairman IromthcIuclcompanybcIorchccouldlcavcIorworkthis morning. Whcnthcmanshowcdup,|oclcthiminandthcn, dcspcratctogct tothcmccting, abandoncdhiminthctow:housctomthcIumacc, hoping thc Icllow would provc rcasonablyhoncst. At last, |oc was " ) 9 " MAR T HA S T OUT ablc to racc to his Audi and sct otI Ior thc oIhcc, but with only twcn¡-hvc minutcs lcItto makc athir¡-minutc drivc. Mc rcsolvcd to bcndthc rulcs alittlc andmakcupthctimc. Mow|ocisspccdingalongaIamiliarroutctowork, clcnchinghis tccthandswcaringundcrhisbrcathatthcslowdrivcrs,atallthcdriv- crs rcally. Mcrcintcrprcts acouplcoIrcd lights, passcsa linc oItraI- hc by usingthc brcakdown lanc, and clings Iranticallyto thc hopc that hc can somchowmakc it to thc oIhcc by8.00.Whcn hc hits thrccgrccnlightsina row, hcthinksthathcmayjustsuccccd.With hisrighthand, hcrcachcs ovcrtotouchthcovcrnightbaginthc pas- scngcr's scat, to rcassurchimsclIthathc rcmcmbcrcdto bringit. In additiontocvcqthingclsc, hc hastocatch a I0. I5 planc to Mcw Yorkthis morning, atripIorthchrm, andthcrcwillccrtainlynotbc timcaItcrthcmcctingtogobackhomcIorhisthings. Mishandcon- tactsthccushionylcathcroIthcbag÷itisthcrc andpackcd. And at this vcq momcnt, |oc rcmcmbcrs. Mc Iorgot to Iccd Rccbok. Rccbok is|oc`sthrcc-ycar-old blond Labradorrctricvcr, so namcdbccausc, bcIorc hcgottoobusyatthchrm,|ocuscdtotakc carly-moning runswith his cnthusiastic ncwpct. Whcnworktook ovcrandthcmomingroutincchangcd,|ocIcnccdinthcsmallback- yard and installcd a doggdoor in thc bascmcnt, allowingthc dog solo acccss to thc outsidc. Atthis point, runs togcthcr in thc park arc wcckcnds only. But cxcrcisc or not, Rccbok consumcs scvcral pounds oIScicncc Oictcvcqwcck, alongwithahugc assortmcntoI lchovcrhumanIoodandatlcastoncIullboxoIjumbobonctrcats. 1hcyoung dog`s appctitc is stupcndous, and hc sccms to livc quitc happilyIortwo plcasurcsalonc-histimcwith|oc, andhisIood. |oc got Rccbokas a puppy, bccauscwhcn|ocwas a boy, his Ia- thcrwouldnot lct himhavc apct, and hc had vowcd to himsclIthat whcn hc was grown up and succcssIul, hcwould havc a dog, a big onc.Athrst,RccbokhadbccnnotvcrydiûcrcntIromthcAudi,an- othcracquisition, amarkcroI|oc`sindcpcndcnccandmatcrialpros- pcri¡. Butsoon|ochadIallcn inlovcwiththc animalhimsclI. Mow - 20 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR cou|d hc notî Rccbokadorcd|oc unconditiona||y, and Irom puppy- hood hadIo||owcdhimaroundthchouscasiI|ocwcrcthcccntcroI a||thatwasgoodinthcunivcrsc.Ahispuppygrcwto doghood, |oc rca|izcdthatthis crcaturc had asdistinctand individua| apcrsona|- i¡asanyhumanbcing, andthathis|iquidbrowncycscontaincd at |castasmuchsou|. Mow,whcncvcr|oc|ooksintothosccycs, Rccbok wrink|cs his soIt bcigc browinto scvcra| Io|dcd-carpct Iurrows and starcsback. Inthisway, thcswcct,ungain|ydogappcarsprctcrnatu- ra||ythoughtIu|, as iIhc canrcad|oc`s mindand is conccmcd. Somctimcswhcnthcrc is a busincsstrip, |ikc today, |oc isgonc IromhomcIoradayandaha|I, orcvcna|itt|c|ongcr, andcachtimc hc comcs back, Rccbok grccts him at thc door with boundingjoy and instantancous Iorgivcncss. BcIorc hc takcs onc oI thcsc trips, |oc a|ways |cavcs |argc mbing bow|s Iu|| oI Iood and watcr Ior Rccbokto consumc in his abscncc, which Rccbok docs casi|y. But thistimc, bctwccnthcIurnaccprob|cmandhispanicaboutthc8:00 mccting,|ocIorgot.1hc doghasnoIoodandmaybccvcnnowatcr, and no way to gct any unti| tomorrow cvcning, whcn |oc rcturns Iromhistrip. Maybc I can ca|| somconc to hc|p out, |oc thinks dcspcratc|y. Butno. Hcisbctwccngir|Iricndsatprcscnt,andso no onchasakcy to his housc. 1hcimpossibi|i¡oIhissituationbcginsto dawn onhim,andhc gripsthcstccringwhcc|cvcnhardcr. Hc abso|utc|ymustmakcthis_ mccting, and hc can bc thcrc on timc iI hc just kccps going. But whatabout Rccbokî Hcwi||not starcto dcathina dayand aha|I, |ocknows, buthcwi||bc miscrab|c÷andthcwatcr-how|ongdocs ittakcan anima|to dicoIdchydrationî|ochasnoidca. Sti||driving asIastasthctraIhcw bcar, hctricstothinkabouthisoptions.1hc avai|ab|c choiccs tumb|c ovcr onc anothcr in a rush. Hc can attcnd thc 8:00 mcctingand thcn go homc and Iccdthc dog, butthatwi|| makc him miss his I0:Ió IÍight, andthctrip iscvcn morc important thanthcmccting. Hc cangotothc mcctingand|cavc in thcmidd|c. - 2) MA RT H, A S T OUT Mo, thatwouldbc sccnasoûcnsivc. Mc cantryto gcta latcrhight, butth�n hcwillbcvcqlatcIor1is appointmcnt in McwYork, may cvcnmissitcntircly, whichcouldcosthimhisjob. Mccanignorcthc doguntiltomorrow. Mccanturnaroundnow, missthc8.00mccting at thc hrm, takc carc oIthc dog, and sti|lmakc it to thc airpon I�r his I0. I5hight. Likcamaninpain,|ocmoansloud|yandslumpsinhisscat.|ust a Icw blocks Irom work, hc pulls thc carinto a spot markcd CON­ STRUCTION ONLY, dialsthcoIhcc onhisccllphonc, andtcllsasccrc- · tary!o inIorm thosc at thc morning mccting that hc will not bc ¸ attcnding. Hcturnsthc cararound andgocs homcto Iccd Rccbok. ´ i hat ¡s Conscicncc: Amazingly, Irom a ccrtain point oIvicw, thc human bcingwc arc calling |oc dccidcs to bc abscnt Irom an important mccting with somc wcalthy clicnts, an cvcnt hc has spcnt scvcral days pl ¿ nning Ior, andwhcrc hispcrsonalintcrcstsquitcclcarly rcsidc. Athrst, hc docscvcrythinghc cantogcttothc mcctingontimc, riskingallthc ¸¸ posscssions inhistownhouscto a rcpairmanhc hasncvcrmct bc- Iorc, andhisownphysicalsaIc¡inhiscar.Andthcn,atthcvcqlast minutc, hcturns around and gocs homc to Iccd a dog, a guilclcss, wordlcsscrcaturcwhocouldnotcvcnsomuchasrcprovc|oclortg- noringhim. |oc sacrihccs ahigh-stakcs dcsircoIhisownin lavoroI an actionthatno onc willwitncss ¦ cxccpt maybc thc rcpairman) , a choiccthatwillnot cnrichhimbycvcnonc pcnny. hatcouldpos� siblycauscayoung, ambitiouslawycrto dosuchathingî , · Mostrcadcrswillsmilcalittlcwhcn|octurnshiscararound. c � � IcclplcascdwithhimIorgoingbackto Iccdhisdog. Butwhya�cwc plcascdî Is|oc actingoutoIconscience? Isthiswhatwc mcanwhcn wc makc an approving rcmark about somconc's bchavior, such as ¨Hisconsci�nce stoppcdhim'î ¬ ¬ 22 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R What is this invisible, inescapable, ftusttatingly incottuptible pattofuswe call¨conscience, ¨ anyway? Thequestionisacomplicatedone,evenasitpettainstothesim- plevignetteabout]oeandReebok,because,sutptisingly,theteatea numbetofmotivationsothetthanconsciencethat,sepatatelyotto- gethet,mightcause]oe-mightcauseanyofus-tomakeanappat- euself-sactincingchoice.Fotexample,pethaps]oesimplycannot stomachthethoughtoftetumingftomhis NewYotkttipto nnd a Labtadot tettievet dehydtated and dead on hiskitchenßoot Not knowinghowlongadogcansutvivewithoutwatet,heisunwillingto takethetisk, buthisavetsiontothehotti(ingscenatioisnotxactly conscience Itissomethingmoteliker �vulsionotfeat. ¯ ,´ Otmaybe]oe is motivated bywhatthe neighbotswillthinkif theyheatReebokhowlinginhunget,ot,wotse,iftheyleatnthedog hasdied,aloneandttapped,while]oewasonabusinessttip. How willhe evetexplainhimselfto his ftiends and acquaintances?This wotgisnotteally]oesconscience,eithet,buttathethisanticipation ofsetiousembattassmentandsocialte]ection.Ifthisiswhy]oegoes back home to feed his dog, he is hatdlythe ntst human being to makeadecisionbasedonthedteadofwhatothetswillthinkofhim, tathetthanonwhathemight doifhewetesutehis actionswould temainacompletesectet.The opinions ofothetpeople keepusall inline,atguablybettetthananythingelse Otmaybethisisallamattetoftheway]oeseeshimself.Pethaps ]oedoesnotwanttoviewhimself,inhisownmindseye,asthekind ofwtetchwhowouldcommitanimalabuse, andhisself-imageasa decentpetsonis ctucialenoughtohimthat,whenhehasnoothet altetnative,hew fotgoanimpottantmeetinginthesetviceofpte- seting that image. This is an especially plausible explanation fot ]oesbehaviotTheptesetvationofself-imageisamotivatotofsome nototieg.Inlitetatuteandoftenl�histoti�alaccountsofhumanac- tion, dedicationto one'sownself-te�td is tefetted to as °honot. ° Liveshavebeenfotfeited,�atsha��beenfoughtovet¨honot.° Itis ¬ 23 " MAR T HA S T OUT anancientconcem.Andinthemodetnneldofpsycholog,howwe viewoutselves ttanslatesto the newet concept of¨self-esteem,¨ a sub]ectaboutwhichmotepsychologbookshave beenwtittenthan pethapsanyothetsi�gletopic. I Maybe]oeiswillingtotelinquishafewcateetpointstodayinot- dettofeelokaywhenhelooksathimselfinthemittottomottow, in otdettotemain¨honotable¨inhisowneyes Thiswouldbelaudable andvetyhuman-butitisnotcouscience. The inttiguingttuth ofthe mattet isthatmuch ofwhatwe do thatlookslike conscience is motivated bysome othetthingalto- gethet-feat, social ptessute, ptide, even simple habit. Andwhete ]oe is concetned, anumbetofteadetswillsttongly1avotanexpla- nationothetthanconscience because someofhisbehaviotsateal- teady questionable. He toutinely leaves his young dog alone fot many houts at a time, sometimes fot neatly two days. This veg moming,thoughheisskippinghismeetingandgoinghometofeed thedog,hestillintendstomakethatI0:Ióßightandbegoneuntil the following evening. Reebok will have no one to be with, and nowhetetogoexceptasmallfenced-inbac|atd . Consigningadog tosuchasituationisnotvegnice-itteßects,atbest,acettainlack ofempathyon]oespattfottheanimals social needs. Still,ttuthtotell,beingnicewouldnotnecessatilybeconscience, eithet. Fot btiefpetiods, anyteasonably clevet sociopath can act withsaintlikenicenessfothisownmanipulativeputposes.Andpeo- plewhodopossessconscienceateoftenunkinddespitethemselves, outofignoranceot,asin]oe'scasepethaps,inadequateempathy,ot ]usttun-of-the-millpsychologicaldenia| { ·Ç Nicebehaviot,ptudentaction,thoughtsabouthowothetpeople . -·. ��·=-- ~- ` will teact to us, honotable conduct in the intetest of out self- tegatd-like conscience, all ofthese have a positive effect onthe wotldatleastmostofthetime,andanyotallofthemmightgetthe dogfeds,times,butnonecanbedennedastheindividualscon- science.ThìsÌs becauseconscienceisnotabehaviotata!l,¸ not some- 24 m T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R thing that we do ot even something that we think ot mull ovet. Conscienceissomethin� tha � �� j \ Inothetwotds,conscienceis e ehaviotaln�tcognitive. Conscienceexists ptimatilyinthe tealmof¨affect, ¨ bettetknownas . emotion . To clati(this disti n ction, letus take anothetlookat]oe. Heis notalwaysnicetohisdog,butdoeshehaveaconscience?Whatev- idence would cause, say, a psychologist to decide that, when ]oe passeduphismeetingandwenthometotescueReebok,hewasact- ing out of conscience tathet than because ofwhat othet people wouldthink, otto ptesetve hisownself-image, otmaybe ftomthe notewotthynnancialconsidetationthat, thteeyeatsbefote, hehad paidtwelvehundteddollatsfotaputebtedLabtadotpuppyguatan- teedagainsthipdysplasiaandheattdisease? A apsychologist,Ì ampetsuadedmostbyafeatuteofthestoty wehavenotevenaddtessedunti|now-thefactthat]oefeelsaffec- tionfotReebok. Hei��motio'aJly _ atta dJ�d t�his dog. k�eb�kfol� -. .·· ~ ^ ·- lows]oe atoundthehouse,and]oe likes it.]oe gazes intoReebok's eyes. Reebokhaschanged]oeftomattophypetownettoasmitten petownet. And onaccountofthisattachment, Ì believethatwhen ]oegaveuphismotningplanandwenthometotakecateofhisdog, hemaypossiblyhavebeenactingoutofconscience.Ifwecouldgive ]oe attuth setumand askbimwhatwasgoingoninsidehim atthe momenthedecidedtotutnthecatatound,andheweretosaysome- thinglike,¨I]ustcouldn'tstanditthatReebokwasgoingtobethete hunggandthitsgallthattime, ¨then Ì wouldbe teasonablycon- vincedthat]oewasconscience-dtiveninthissituation. Ìwouldbebasingmyevaluationof]oeonthepsychologofcon- scienceitself. Psychologicallyspeaking,conscienceisasenseofob- ¡~·~¬¬ ~~¬ ··¬ ª¯*´¯´ `¯¨ ¨¨¨¯¯ ¯¯`¯�¯¯¯¯ ligation ultimately based in an emotional attachment to anothet livi�,atue,�i:��but � �t al�� y sah���nbeing) , ottoa,r � up of h�ma� b�i�gs, otevenin some casesto humani,�s a wbcle. ` C ���ci��.edo � s � ot�xistwithoutan�m ¡ l � �albond:osomeoneot something,andinthiswayconscienceiscloselyalliedwiththespec- ¯ 25 _` MA RT HA S TOUT ttumofemotionswecall¨love ¨This allianceiswhatgivesttuecon- science its tesilience and itsastonishingauthotiµ,ovetthose who have it, andptobablyalsoitsconfusingandftusttatingqualig. Conscience can motivate us to make seemingly ittational and even self-desttuctive decisions, ftom the ttivialtothe hetoic, ftom missing an 8:00 meetingto temainingsilent undettottute fotthe loveofone'scountg. !tcandtiveusinthiswayonlybecauseitsfuel isnoneothetthanoutsttongestaffections.Andwitnessingotheat� ing about an act ofconscience, even one as otdinagas feedinga dog,pleasesus, becauseanyconscience-boundchoicetemindsusof thesweetties1hatbnd A stogaboutconscience is a �togabout iheconnectednessoflivingthings, andinunconscioustecognition, wesmileatthettuenatuteofthetale.We undetstandhow exctuci- ating]oe's feelings ate ashe sttuggleswithhis conscience, andwe smile at]oeandReebok-becausewealways smileatlovets TheHistor of Conscience Notevegonehasaconscience,thisinteteningsenseofobligation based in out emotional attachments to othets Some people will nevetexpetiencetheexquisiteangstthattesultsftomlettingothets down, othuttingthem, otdeptivingthem, otevenkillingthem. !f the ntst nve senses ate the physical ones-sight, heating, tou�h, smell,taste-andthe¨sixthsense°ishowwe tefettooutintuition, thenconsciencecanbenumbetedseventhatbestItdevelcpedlatet intheevolutionofoutspec¡esandisstillfatftomunivetsal l�m�m�ttets �utkl�t,i�thed ay-to-day coutse oIotttlives, weateusuallyunabletotellthediffetencebetweenthosewhopos- sess conscience andthosewhodo not Could an ambitiousyoung lawyetconceivablyhaveaseventhsense?Yes, conceivably Coulda mothet ofsevetalyoungchildtenhavea seve�th sense? Ofcoutse shecouldCoulda ptiest,chatgedwiththespititual wlfateofanen- ¬ 2ó T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR tite community, be conscience-bound? Let us hope so. Could the powetful political leadet ofa whole nation ofpeople have a con- science?Cettainly. Ot, conttastingly, could any of these people be uttetlywithout conscience?Theanswetisonce again,unnetvingly, yes. Theanonymigof¨evil¨anditsmaddeningtefusaltoattachitself teliablytoanypatticulatsocietaltole, tacialgtoup,otphysicaltype has always µlagued theologians and, mote tecently, scientists. Thtoughout human histog, we havc ttied mightily to pin down ¨good¨and¨evil, °andtonndsomewaytoaccountfotthoseinout midstwhowould seemto be inhabitedbythe lattet. Intbe foutth centug, the Chtistian scholat Saint]etome inttoduced the Gteek wotdsynderesis todesctibetheinnateGod-givenabiligtosensethe diffetence betweengood andevil. He intetpteted Ezekiel'sbiblical visionoffout|ivingcteatutesemetgingftomacloud¨withbtightness tound about it, and nte ßashing fotth continually. ° Each cteatute hadthe bodyofa man, buteachhadfoutdinetentfaces.The face inftontwashuman, thefaceonthetightwasthatofalion,theleft face was that ofan ox, and the face in back was an eagle's. !n ]etome's intetptetation ofEzekiel's dteam, the human face tepte- sentedthetationalpanofman,thelionteflectedtheemotions,the oxsymbolizedthe appetites, andthelofgeaglewas ¨that spatkof consciencewhichwas notquenched even inthe heattofCain. . . thatmakesus,too,feeloutsinfulnesswhenweateovetcomebyevil DesiteotunbtidledSpitit. . . .Andyetinsomemenweseethiscon- science ovetthtown and displaced, they have no sense ofguilt ot shamefottheitsins. ° ]etome's illusttious contempotaty, Augustine ofHippo, agteed with]etomeconcetningthenatuteofconscience.Augustineassuted his followetstbat¨menseethe motaItuleswtitten inthe bookof |ightwhichiscalledTtuthftomwhichalllawsatecopied. ¨ Butaconspicuousptoblemtemained. SincetheTtuth-the ab- soluteknowledgeofgoodandevil-isgivenbyGodtoa|lhumanbe- " 27 * MAR T HA S T OUT ings,whyateallhumanbeingsnotgood?Whydowe¨seethiscon- scienceovetthtow anddisplaced¨ insome people?Andthis ques· tion temained at the centet of the theological discussion about consciencefotmanycentuties. Despitethe sticjwicket,the altet- native suggestion-the ptoposal that only some people had con- science-was impossibletomake,becauseitwouldhavemeantthat bywithholdingtheTtuthftomafewofHis setvants, God Himself hadcteatedevilinthewotldandhaddisttibutedit,inseemingtan- domness, amongalltheµpesandentetptisesofhumanig. Asolutionto thetheologicaldilemmaovetconscienceseemedto come inthe thitteenth centug, whenThomas Aquinasptoposed a toundaboutdistinctionbetweensynderesis, Saint ]etomes infallible God-givenknowledgeoftightandwtong,andconscientia, whichwas comptised ofmistake-ptone humanteasonasitsttuggledtoteach decisionsaboutbehaviot.To makeitschoices concetningwhichac- tions to take, Reasonwas supplied with petfect infotmation ftom God, but Reason itselfwas tathetweak. Inthissystem, fallible hu- mandecisionmaking,notalackofconscience,istoblamefotwtong decisions andactions. Doingwtongis simplymakingamistake. ln conttast, accotdingtoAquinas, ¨Syndetesis cannot ett,+tptovides ptincipleswhichdonotvag,]ustasthelawsthatgovemthephysi- calunivetsedonotvag. ¨ Toapplythisviewto outcontempotatyexample-when]oete- membetsthathis dogiswithoutfoodandwatet, God-given innate synderesis (conscience) immediately infotms him that the absolute tightactionistotetutnhomeandtakecateofthedog. Conscientia, amentaldebateabouthowtobehave,thentakestbisTtuthintocon- sidetation.Thefactthat]oedoesnottumthecatatoundinstanta- neouslybut, instead,spendsafewminutesdelibetatingisthetesult ofthe natutalweaknessofhuman teason. That]oedoes makethe tight decision in the end means, in Aquinas's scheme, that ]oe's motalvittues ate,thtoughsttengthened Reason, developinginthe tightditection.Had]oedecidedtoletthedoggohunggandthitsg, ¯ 28 ¯ | ¸ · T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR histhetebyweakened Reasonwouldhave beenditectinghismotal vittuestoHell,theologicallyspeaking. Gettingdowntotheolog's btass tacks, accotdingtothe eatly chutchfathets, ¦ I ) thetulesofmotaligateabsolute. ¦ 2) allpeople innatelykowtheabsoluteTtuth,and (3) badbehaviotisthetesult offaulgthinking,tathetthanalackofsynderesis, otconscience,and sincewe allhave a conscience, ifonlyhumanreason wete petfect, thetewouldbenobadbehaviotAndindeed,theseatethethteebe· liefs about consciencethathave been held bymuch ofthe wotld thtoughout mostofmodemhistog. Theitinßuenceonthewaywe think about outselves and othetpeople,eventoday, is inestimable. Thethitdbeliefis especiallyhatdtoletgo of. Neatlyamillennium aftet Aquinas made his ptonouncement about synderesis, when scmeone consistentlybehavesinways we nnd unconscionable, we callonanupdatedvetsionofthe°weakReason°patadigm.Wespec- ulatethatthe offendethas beendeptived, otthathis mind is dis- tutbed, otthathis eatlybackgtound makes him do it.Wetemain exttemelyteluctanttoptoposethemotesttaightfotwatdexplanation thateithetGod otnatute simplyfailedto ptovide himwithacon- science. Fotsevetalhundtedyeats,discussionsaboutconsciencetended to centetatoundthe telationship between human teason and di- vinelygivenmotalknowledge.Afewcotollatydebatesweteadded, mosttecentlytheoneovetproportionalism, adivineloopholewhetein Reasonasksustodosomething¨bad°inotdettobtingaboutsome- thingelsethatis¨good°-a¨]ustwat, °fotexample. Butatthebeginningofthetwentiethcentug, conscienceitself undetwent a fundamental ttansfotmation, due to the gtowing ac- ceptanceinEutopeandtheUnitedStatesofthetheotiesofphysi- cianscientist(andatheist) SigmundFteud.Fteudptoposedthatin thenotmalcoutseofdevelopment,youngchildten'smindsacquited anintemalizedauthotityngute,calledasuperego, thatwouldintime teplacethe actual extemalauthotig-the actual extemalauthotig ¬ 2µ ^ MAR T HA S T OUT beingnotGodbutone's ownhumanpatents.Withhis¨discoveg¨of thesupetego, Fteudeffectivelywtestedconscienceoutofthehands · ofGod and placed it in the anxious clutchesofthe all-too-human family. Thischangeofaddtessfotconscience tequitedsomedaunt- ingshiftsinoutcentuties-oldwotldview.Suddenly, outmotalguides hadfeetofclay, andabsoluteTtuth begantosubmittothe uncet- taintiesofcultutaltelativism. Fteud'snewsttuctutalmodelofthe minddidnot involve a hu- manpatt,alionpatt,anoxpatt,andaneagle.Ttipattiteinstead, his visionwasofthesupetego,theego,andtheidTheidwascomposed of all the sexual and unthinking aggtessive instincts we ate botn with,alongwiththebiologicalappetites Asuch,theidwasoneoin conßictwiththedemandsofacivilizedsocieg. Inc � nttast,theego was the tational, awate patt ofthe mind. It couldthinklogical[, make plans, and temembet, and because the egowas equipped in theseways,itcouldiutetactditectlywithsocietyand,tovaçngde- Æ gtees,getthingsdonefotthemoteptimitive id.Thesupetegogtew outoftheegoasthechildincotpotatedtheextemaltulesofhisot hetpatentsandofsocieg.Thesupetegoeventuallybecameaftee- standingfotce inthe developingmind,unilatetally]udgingand di- tectingthechild'sbehaviotsandthoughts. Itwasthecommanding, guilt-btandishing innetvoice that said no, even when nobodywas atound. Thebasicconceptofsupetegomakescommonsensetous.We onen obsetve childten intemalizing and even enfotcing theit pat- ents' tules. (Mothetftowns andsaysto hetfout-yeat-old daughtet, �'Noshoutinginthecat. ¨Pfewminuteslatet,thesamefout-yeat-old points impetiouslyathetnoisytwo-yeat-oldsistetand shouts, ºNo shoutinginthecat' ¨ ) Andmostofus,asadults,haveheatdoutown supetegoSomeofusheatitquiteoften, +nfact.Itisthevoiceinout headsthatsaystous, Idiot'Why'dyoudothat?otYouknow, ifyou don'tnnishthis tepotttoight, you'll be sotg, otYou'dbettetget youtcholestetolchecked. Andinthestogof]oe andReebok,]oe's 30 m T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR decision to miss his meeting could easily have been made by his supetego. Fotputposesofillusttation,letusspeculatethat]oe'spet- · withholdingfathetusedtosaytohimwhenhewasfout, ¨No,little i ]oey,wecan'tgetadogAdogu attemendoustesponsibiliµWhen youhaveadog,youalwayshavetointettuptwhatyoute doingand takecateofit ¨ ]oesadultdecisiontotumhiscatatoundcouldwell havebeenditectedbyhissupetego,whichinsistedthathefulnllthis vegdictum. !na¬oteabsttusemannet, Fteudhimselfmighthavewondeted whethet]oessupetegohadcaused]oetosetuphiswholemotning, unconsciouslyofcoutse-being|ntoomuchofahutg,fotgettingto putoutthe dogfood-suchthathisfathetstulecouldbe ¨ptoved, ¨ and ]oe¨punished¨ fot getting a pet FotinFteudian theog, the supetegoisnot]ustavoice, it isanopetatot, asubtleandcomplex manipulatot, aptovetofpoints.!tptos�cutes,]�dges� a � dca�tiescut sentences, a nditdoesallthisquiteoutsid eofoutconsciousawate- ness Whilethe supetego, inthe best case, canhelpthe individual getalongin socieµ, it can alsobecomethemostovetbeatingand pethaps the most desttuctive patt ofhis petsonaliµ Accotdingto pgchoanalysts, an especiallyhatsh superego, hammeting away in� sidesomeone'shead,cancteatealifelongdeptession,otevenptopel itspootvictimintosuicide AndsoFteudinttoducedthewotldtothedecidedlyseculatno· tionthatconsciencemigh�n�edtobe tepaitedinsomepeople,and thatthtoughpsychoanalysis,one�ight ��t�allyrep a itit. !naddition-moteshocki�g still � ¡ n d �ndls�ll��e�slinked the nnal establishment ofthe supetegotothe child's tesolutionof the Oedipus complex The Oedipuscomplex, sometimescalledthe Flectta complex in gitls, isfotmed whentheyoungchild begins to tealize,betweentheagesofthtee andnve,thatheotshewillnevet completelypossessthepatentoftheoppositesex !nptosaictetms, boys mustacceptthat theywillnotmatgtheitmothets, and gitls mustacceptthattheywillnotmatgtheitfathetsOedipalsttuggles, ° 3) ° ]' , MART H A S T OUT and the tesulting feelings of competition, feat, and tesentment towatdthepatentofthesamesex,atesopowetfulanddangetousto the child'sfamilytelationships, accotdingtoFteud,thattheymust bethotoughly°teptessed°otkeptftomawateness,andthistete sion°ismadepossiblebyadtasticsttengtheningoftheyoungsupet- . ego. Ftomthispointon,shouldanysexualfeelingsatisetowatdthe patentofthe opposite sex, otanytivaltousfeelingstowatdthepat- ent of the same sex, these feelings will be vanquished by the dteaded,tuth|essweaponofthenewlyfottinedsupetego-immedl- ate, unbeatable guilt. Inthisway, the supetego gains its autonomy andits ctowningadvantage insidethe mind ofthechild. !tisase� vetetaskmastetinstalledto setve outneedtotemaina patt ofthe gtoup. Whatevetelseonemaythinkofsuchtheotizing, cteditmustbe given1o Fteudfotundetstandingthat out motal sense was not a one-size-nts�allhetmeticcode, butwas instead dynamic, and intti- catelytiedupwithessentialfamilyandsocietalbonds.Withhiswtit� ings on the supetego, Fteud impatted to an awakening scienti6c wotld:hatoutusual tespectfotlawand otdetwas not simplyim- , posed on us ftom the outside. We obeythe tules, we honot the vittues, ptimatilyftom an intemalneedthatbegins in infancy aud eatly childhood to ptesetve and temain embtaced by out families andthelatgethumansocieginwhichwelive. Conscience Versus Superego Whethet ot not one believes that supetego is an inttapsychk schemet,otthatitis,touseFteud'swotds,°theheittotheOedipus complex, °supetegoitse|fmustbeacknowledgedasatichanduseful concept. A aninnetvoice acquitedthtoughoutsigni6cantchi , l�­ hood telationships, commenting on out shottcomings and tailing ~ 32 ~ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR againstoutttansgtessions,supetegoisafeatute ofsub]ectiveexpe- tience that most people tecognize easily. °Don't do that. ° °You shouldn'tfeelthatway. °°Becateful,you'llhuttyoutself.°°Beniceto youtsistet.°°Cleanupthatmessyoumade °°Youcan'taffotdtobuy that. °°Well,thatwasntvetysmatt,was it?° °You've]ust gottodeal with it. °°Stopwasting time. ° Supetego yammets atus insideout mindsevegdayofoutlives Andsomepeople'ssupetegosatetathet moteinsultingthanothets. Still, supetego isnotthesamethingas conscience. It mayfeel likeconsciencesub]ectively, andmaybeonesmallpattofwhatcon- science is, but supetego by itselfisnotconscience. This isbecause Fteud,asheconceptualizedthesupetego,thtewoutthebabywith thebathwatet, inamannetofspeaking.Ine]ectingmotalabsolutism ftom psychological thought, he counted out something else too. Quite simply, Fteud counted out love, and all ofthe emotions te- latedtoloveThoughheoftenstatedthatchildtenlovetheitpatents in addition to featingthem, the supetego he wote aboutwas en � _t�telyfe�t-b���¸d Inhisview,]ustaswe featoutpatents'stemctiti- cismswhenwe atechildten, sodowe featthe excotiatingvoice of supetegolatet on. Andfeatis all. Thete isno place intheFteudian supetego fotthe conscience-building eftects � o� ÍOVc• comp���ion, tendemess,otanyofthemo�¸ po�itivefeel� �. _ Ad�����ieu�e,�swh�ve seenin]oeandReebok,isanintet- vening sense ofobligation based in outemotional attachments to othets-all aspects ofout emotional attachments-including most especially love, compassion, and tendetness. In fact, the seventh sense, in those individuals w ho po���ss1t, is ptimatily¸lov�- and compass�on-based. We have ptogtessed, ovet the centuties, ftom faith ina God-ditectedsynderesis, to abeliefina punitive patental supetego,U anundetstandlngthatconscienceisdeeplyandaffect- inglyanchotedinoutabiligto cateaboutoneanothet.Thissecond ptogtession-ftoma]udgeintheheadtoamandateoftheheatt- 33 MA RTHA S T OUT involves lesscynicismabout human natute, mote hope fot us asa gtoup,andalsomotepetsonaltesponsibilityand,attimes,motepet- sonalpain. A an illusttation, imagine that undet some impossiblybizatte set ofcitcumstances, one night you take tempotatyleave ofyout senses, sneak ovet to the house of an especially likable neighbot, and, fotnopaniculatteason, mutdethetcat.]ustbefotedaybteak, youtecovetyout senses andtealizewhatyouhave done.What do youfeel?Whatisthespecincnatuteofyoutguilµteaction?Unseen behindyoutlivingtoomcuttain,youwatchyoutneighbotcomeout to het ftont step and discovetthe cat She fallsto het knees. She scoopsuphetlifelesspetin hetatmsSheweepsfotaveglongtime. Whatisthentstthingthathappenstoyou?Doesavoiceinside youtheadscteam,Thoushaltnotkill'You'llgoto]ailfotthis'-thus temindingyouoftheconsequencestoyoutselfOt, instead,doyou feelinstantlysickthatyouhavemutdetedananimaland�adeyout neighbot cg in gtief !n those ntst moments of watching yout sttickenneighbot,whichteactionismotelikelytobefallyou?!tisa tellingquestion.Theanswetwillptobablydetetminewhatcoutseof actionyouwilltake,andalsowhethetyouateinlluencedonlybythe sttidentvoiceofyoutsupetego,otbyagenuineconscience Thesamekindofquestionappliestooutoldftiend]oe.Doeshe decidetosactincehismeetingbeca�seofthe unconscious featin- stilled in him in childhood byhis fathets opinions about dogs, ot does he makethe sactince because he feels awful when he thinks about Reebok's ptedicament? What ditects his choice? !s it pute supetego, otis itfullyfotmed conscience? !fit is conscience, theÎ ]oe'sdecisiontobeabsentftomascheduledmeetingatwotkisami- notillusttationofthefactthat,itonicallyconsciencedoesnotalways fcllow the tules. !t places people (and sometimes animalsj abve �codes ofconduct and institutionaleµectaiions. Fcttinedwith po� tentemotions, conscience is agluethatholdsustogetbet, anditis D stickietthanitis]ust. !tchetisheshumanisticidealsmotetl:anlaws, ¬ . - 34 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R and if push comes to shove, conscience may even go to ptison. Supetegowou|dnevetdothat. A sttict supetego betates us, saying, You'te being naughg, ot You'teinadequate.Asttongconscienceinsists, Youmusttakecate ofhim¸othetotitotthem] , nomattetwhat. Feat-based supetego stays behind its datkcuttain, accusing us andwtingingitshands.Conscienceptopelsusoutwatdintheditec- tionofothetpeople,towatdconsciousactionbothminotandgteat. Attachment-basedconsciencecausestheteenagemothettobuythe little ]at of cteamed peas instead ofhet favotite nngetnail polish. Conscience · ptotectsthe ptivil � �es ofintimacy, makes ftiendskeep theitptomises, pteventstheangetedspouseftomstt|kingbackItin- ducestheexhausteddoctottopickupthephonefothisftightened patientatthteeinthemotning.Itblowswhistlesagainstinstitutions whenlives ate endangeted. Ittakestothe stteetstoptotestawat. Conscienceiswhatmakesthehumantightswotkettiskhetveglife. When it is combinedwithsutpassing motal coutage, it is Mothet Tetesa,MahatmaGandhi, NelsonMandela,AungSanSuuKyi. Insmallandlatgeways, genuineconsciencechangesthewotld. Rooted inemotionalconnectedness, itteaches peace andopposes hattedandsaveschildten.Itkeepsmattiagestogethetandcleansup tivets and feeds dogs and gives gentle teplies. It makes individual livesbettetandincteaseshumandignigovetall. Itis tealandcom- pelling,anditwouldmakeusctawloutofoutskinifwedevastated outneighbot. Theptoblem,asweateabouttosee,isthatnotevegbodyhasit. Infact,4petcentofal|peopledonothaveit. Letustumncwtoa discussion of such a petson-someone who simply has no con- science-andseewhathelooksliketous. » - ° 35 ! ` ' ! `· l ce people: the sociopaths Conscience U the window of our spirit, evil is the curtain. -Doug Horton Y henSkipwasgtowingup,hisfamilyhadavacationcottageby asmalllake inthehillsofVitginia,whetetheywentfotapatt ofeachsummet.TheyvacationedtheteftomthetimeSkipwaseight yeatsolduntilhewentawaytohighschool in Massachusetts Skip lookedfotwatdtohissummetsinVitginia.Thetewasnotalottodo thete,buttheoneactivityhehadinventeuwassomuchfunthatit madeupfotthegenetallackofexcitement !nfact,sometimesbac� atgtadeschoolinthewintet,escapingintohisownthoughtswhäe somestupidteachetwentonandonaboutsomething,hewouldg�t apictuteofhimselfplayinghis gamebythewatmVitginialake,�ud hewouldchuckleoutloud. ·� Í Skipwasbtilliantand handsome, evenas achild. "brìÌÌìa�t and handsome, ¨ hispatentsandhispatents'ftiendsandevenhisteach- etswouldtematkovetandovet.Andsotheycouldnotunders�nd, whyhisgtadeswete so mediocte, otwhy, whenthe time came, �e seemedtohavesolittleintetestingoingoutondates.Whattheydld¸ - 35 ° TH E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R notknowwasthatftomthe age ofeleven, Skiphadbeenoutwith plengofgitls,butnotquiteinthewayhispatentsandteachetswete imagining Thetewasalwayssomeone,usuallyanoldetgitl,whowas willingto succumbto SIip's flattegandhis chatmingsmile. Often thegitlwouldsneakhimintohettoom,butsometimesheandagitl would simplynnd a secluded spot on a playgtound ot undet the bleachets at the sonball neld As fothis gtades, he teallywas ex- ttemely smatt-he could have made sttaightA-plusses-but get- ting Cs was completely effottless, and so that was what he did. Occasionally, hewould evengetaD, which amused him, sincehe nevet«tudied.Theteachets likedhim, seemedto bealmostasvul- netable to his smiles and his compliments as the gitls wete, and evegoneassumedthatyoungSkippetwould end upatagoodhigh schoolandthenadecentco�lege,despitebisgtades. Hispatentshadagteatdealofmoney, wete °megatlh, ¨asthe othet kids put it. Onsevetal occasionswhenhewas abouttwelve, Skip satatthe antiquetolltopdeskhispatentshadboughtfothis bedtoom, tgingto calculatehowmuchmoneyhewouldgetwhen they died Hebased his calculations onsomennancialtecotdshe had stolenftomhisfathet's study. The tecotdswete confusingand incomplete,buteventhoughhecouldnotattive atanexactngute, Skipcouldseecleatlythatsomedayhewouldbequitetich. Still, Skip hada ptoblem. Hewasboted mostofthe time. The am�sements he putsued, eventhe gitls, eve� foolingthe teachets, even thinking about his money, did not keep him enetgized fot longet than half an hout ot so. The family wealth held the most ptomise asanentettainment,butitwasnotundethisconttolyet- hewasstillachild.No,theonlytealteliefftombotedomwasthefun hecouldhaveinVitginia.Vacationsweteaveggoodtime.Thatntst summet, when he was eight, he had simply stabbed the bullftogs withascissots,fotwantofanothetmethod. Hehaddiscovetedthat he couldtakeanetftomthe nshingshedandcaptutetheftogseas- ilyftomthemudbanks ofthelake Hewouldholdthemdownon 37 MA RT HA S T OUT theitbacks, stabtheitbulgingstomachs, andthentumthem back ovettowatchtheitstupid]ellyeyesgodeadastheybledout.Then hewouldhutlthecotpsesasfatoutintothelakeas hecould,yelling atthe deadftogsastheyflew,°Toobadfotyou,youlittlefuck-face ftogg' ° Thetewetesomanyftogsinthatlake. Hecouldspendhoutsat atimekillingthem,andstillitlookedasifthetewetehundtedsand hundteds ofthem left fottomottow. But bythe end ofthat ntst summet, Skiphaddecidedthathe could dobettet Hewas tited of stabbingthe ftogs. Itwouldbe so gteatto blowthem up, to have something that would make the fat little squitmets explode, and towatdthisendhehadateallygoodplan. Heknewplen t yofoldet boysbackhome,andoneinpatticulatheknewtookafamilyttipto SouthCatolinadutingsptingbteakevegAptil.Skiphadheatdthat ntewotkswetefotsaleandeasytogetinSouthCatolina.Withalit- tle btibe ftom Skip, his ftiendTimwould buyhim some ntewotks thete and smuggle them home in the bottom ofhis suitcase. Tim wouldbescatedtodoit,butwithapeptalkftomSkip,andenough money, hewould. Next summet, Skipwouldhavenot scissots but ntewotks' Finding cash atound the house was no ptoblem, and the plan wotkedlikeachann.ThatAptil,hecameupwithtwohundteddol- latsfotantewotksvatiegpackcalled¨Stat-SpangledBannet,°which hehadseeninagunmagazine,andanothetonehundteddollatsto sweetenthedealfotTim.AndwhenSkipnnallygothishandsonthe package, it was a beautiful thing. He had chosen °Stat-Spangled Bannet° because it contained the latgestnumbet oldevices small enoughtont, otalmostnt,intothemouthofabullftog.Thetewas a supplyoftiny Roman candles, and some ¨Lady Fingets,°which weteslimlitt|etedntectackets,andabunchofone-inchshellscalled ¨Wizatds°, and his favotite, some two-inch shells in a box labeled ¨MottalDesttuction,°whichhadaskullandctossbonesblazonedon theftont. " 38 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R That summet, he shoved the devices, one by one, into the mouthsofthecaptutedftogs,ignitedthem,andthtewtheftogshigh into the aitovetthe lake. Otsometimes hewould putthe ignited ftog down, tun on, and watch ftom a distance as the animal ex- ploded onthe gtound The displayswetemagnincent-blood, goo, lights,sometimesabignoiseandthosecolotfulßowetlikeshapes.So wondetfulwetethetesultsthatsoonhebegantoctaveanaudience fot his genius. One aftetnoon, he enticed his six-yeat-old sistet, Claite,downtothelake, lethethelphimcaptuteoneoftheftogs, andthenbefote heteyes, made anaitbomeexplosionofit. Claite scteamedhysteticallyandtanasfastashetlegswouldcatghetback tothehouse Thefamilysstately¨cottage¨satabouthalfamileftomthelake, beyondasetenestandofhundted-foothemlocks.Thiswasnotsofat awaythat Skips patents had not heatd explosive noises, and they imaginedthatSkippetmustbesettingoffntewotksbythelake. But they had long since tealizedthathewas notthe sott ofchildwho could be conttolled, and that they needed to choose theit battles vegcatefully. The ntewotks issue was not one they chose to deal with,notevenwhenslx-yeat-oldClaitecametunningintotellhet mothetthatSkippetwasblowingupftogs.Skip'smothettutnedup the tecotdplayetin the libtagas loud as itwould go, and Claite ttiedtohidehetcat,Lmily. Super Skp Skipissociopathic. Hehasnoconscience-nointetveningsenseof obligation based inemotionalattachmentsto othets-andhislatet life,whichwewillgettoin amoment,ptovidesaninsttuctiveexam- pleofwhatanintelligentadultwithoutaconsciencecanlooklike. ]ustasitisdifnculttoimaginehowwewouldfeelifwe hadno conscienceatall,soitisvetyhatdtouseone'simaginationtocon- 39 > MAR T HA S T OUT sttuctanaccutatepictute ofsuch a petson. Amotaland uncating, doesheendupisolatedontheedgesofsocieg?Doesheconstantly thteatenandsnatlandquitepossiblydtool,devoidasheisofsucha fundamental humanchatactetistic? One mighteasily imaginethat Skipgtewuptobeakillet.Intheend,pethapshemutdetedhispat- entsfottheitmoney. Maybehewound updeadhimself, otinthe bowelsofamaximum-secutigptison. Sounds likely, butnothingof thekindactuallyhappened.Skipisstillalive,he hasnevetkil|edany- one,notditectlyatleast,and-sofat-hehas notseentheinsideof anyptison.Totheconttag, thoughhehas notyetinhetitedhis pat- ents'mouey, hehasbecomesuccessfulandtichetthanaking.And ifyoumethimnow,encountetedhimasasttangetinatestautantot on the stteet, hewould look like any othetwell-gtoomed middle- agedfellowinapticeybusinesssuit. Howcouldthispossiblybe?Didhehaveatecoveg? Didheget bettet?No.Inttuth, hegotwotse. HebecameSupetSkip. Withpassing,ifnotstellat,gtades,hischatm,andhisfamily'sin- lluence, Skip did indeed get into that good boatding school in Massachusetts,andhisfamilybteathedasighoftelief,bothfothis acceptance by the school and fot his telative absence ftom theit lives. Histeachets stillfoundhimchatismatic, but his mothetand si�tethadleamedthathewasmanipulativeandspoo|.Claitewould sometimes speak of°Skippet'sweitd eyes, °and het mothetwould givehetadefeatedlookthatsaid,Idon'twanttotalkaboutit.Most evegoneelsesawonlyahandsomeyoungface. Whencollegecameatound, Skipwas accepted into!isfathet's alma matet (and his gtandfathet's befote that), whete he became legendagasapatgboyandaladies'man.Gtaduatingwithhiscus- tomagC avetage,heentetedanMBAptogtamatalessptestigious institution, because hehadngutedoutthatthe businesswotldwas a place whete he might mastetthe gameeasilyand amuse himself usinghisnatutalskills.Hisgtadesgotnobettet,buthislifelongabil- & 40 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R ig to chatm people and get themto dowhat hewanted became motetenned. When hewas tweng-six, he]oined the Atika Cotpotation, a companythat made blasting, dtilling, and lcading equipment fot metal-otemines. He hadintense blue eyes and astunningsmileat allthe tight moments, and to his newemployetsheseemedalmost magicallytalentedatmotivatingsales teptesentatives andinfluenc- ingcontacts.Fothispatt,Skiphaddiscovetedthatmanipulatinged- ucatedadultswasnohatd e tthanithadbeentoconvincehisyoung ftiendTimtobuyntewotks inSouthCatolina,andofcoutselying, inincteasinglyelegantways, cameaseasilyasbteathing. Evenbet- tet, chtonicallyboted Skip telished the ptessutes offast-ttack tisk takingandwasmotethanwillingtotakethebigchancesthatnoone elsewould.Befotehisthitdannivetsagatthecompany, hehadgone aftetthe coppet in Chile and the gold in SouthAftica, eventually makingAtikaintothewotld'sthitd-latgestvendotofbothshaftand open-pit mining equipment Atika's foundet, whom Skip ptivately viewedasafool,wassoenchantedwithSkipthathegavehimanew FettatiGT8asa¨cotpotategift.° Whenhewasthitg, Skipmattied]uliette,thelovely, soft-spoken tweng-thtee-yeat-old daughtet ofa celebtated billionaitewhohad madehisfottuneinoilexplotation.Skipmadesutethat]uliette'sfa- thetsaw him asthe btilliant, ambitious son he had nevethad. Skip sawhisbillionaitefathet-in-lawaswhathewas,aticketto]ustabout evegthingAnd,quiteaccutately, hesawhisnewwife,]uliette,asa sweet, teptessed gentlewoman who would thotoughly accept het tole aswife and socialcootdinatot, andwhowould ptetend notto knowthatSkip'slifetemained]ustasdevoidofpetsonaltesponsibil- ig and full oftandom sexual encountets as it had evet been. She wouldbeatttactiveandtespectableonhisatm,andshewouldkeep hetmouthshut. Aweekbefotethewedding,Skip'smothet,alteadyfeelingcloset * 4) * MART HA S T OUT to ]uliette than to Skip, weatily inquited of het son, ¨This mat- tiage. Doyou teallyneed to dothisto hetlife?°Skipstattedto ignote het, ashe usuallydid Butthenhewas appatentlysttuckby ' somethingfunny, and he teplied to het ptotestwith �n eat-to-eat gtin.¨We bothknowshe'llnevetknowwhathithet,°hesaid.Skip's mothet|ookedconfusedfotamoment,andthensheshuddeted. Mattied,sociallyensconced, andbtingingincloseto$80million ayeatfotAtika,Skipwasmadeptesidentofitsintemationaldivision andamembetoftheboatdbefote histhitg-slxthbitthday. Bythis time, he and}uliette hadtwo little gitls, completinghispublicdis- guiseasafamilyman Hisconttibutionstothebusinesscamewith a cettain ptice, but nothing that could not be handled i� a cost- efncientmannet.Lmployeessometimescomplainedthathewas ¨in- sulting°ot¨vicious, °andAtikawassuedwhenasectetatyclaimedhe hadbtokenhetatmwhile tgingto fotce het1o sit in his lap. The casewassettledoutofcouttwithnftythousanddollatsandagagot- detfotthesectetag.Fifgthousanddollatswasnothingtothecom- pany, telatively speaking. Hewas ¨Supet Skip, ° and his employet undetstoodthathewaswellwotththeupkeep. Oftheincident,Skiplatettematkedptivately, ¨She'sinsaneShe btokehetownatm. She sttuggledwith me,thestupidbitch.Why the helldidshe putupsuchanght?° Aetthe sectetaty, thetewete additionalchatgesofsexualmis- conduct,butSkipwassovaluabletotheotganizationthateachtime aptoblemcame up,Atikasimplydisbutsedanothetchecktomake suteitwentaway The othetboatdmembetsbegantoteíettohim astheit ¨companyptima donna. °A theyeats passed, he teceived gtantsofmotethanI millionshates, makinghimthesecond-latgest individualshateholdet,aftetAtika'sfoundet.Andin200I , attheage ofnfg-one,Skiptookovetaschiefexecutive Mote tecently, some ofhis ptoblemshavebecome s|ight|y |ess manageable,butwithhis usualattogance,Skipiscon6denthewill landonhisfeet-pethapsalittletooconndent. In2003, hewasac- " 42 " . I T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D OOR cusedofftaudbytheSecutitiesandExchangeCommission.Hede- niedthechatge,ofcoutse, andatptesentthedecisionoftheSECls pending. P|ayingtheGame No, Skip was not consigned to the edges ofsocieg, he does not dtool,andhe isnot (yet) inptison. Infact, heis tichand, inmany citcles, tespected-otatleastfeated,which masquetadesbtilliantly astespectSo what iswtongwiththis pictute?Otpethapsthe ques- tionshouldbe.Whatisthewort pattofthispictute,thecenttalflaw inSkipslifethatmakeshimintoattagedydespitehis success, and intothemaketofttagediesfotsomanyothets?Itisthis.Skiphasno emotionalattachmentstoothetpeople,noneatall.Heiscoldasice. Hismothetisthetetobeignoted, otsometimesbaited.Jissis- tetisthetetobetotmented. Othetwomenate sexualplundetand nothingmote.Hehasbeenwaitingsincechildhoodfothisfathetto doonlyonething-todieandleavehismoneytoSkipHisemploy- ees atethetetobemanipulatedandused,ashis ftiendshavealways been. Hiswife and even his childtenate meantfot the eyes ofthe wotld.Theyate camouflage. Skip is intellectually gined, and he u fabulousatthe gamesmanshipofbusiness Butbyfathismostim- ptessivetalentishisabilitytoconcealftomneatlyevegonethettue emptinessofhisheatt-andtocommandthepassivesilenceofthose fewwhodoknow. Most of us ate ittationally influenced by appeatance, and Skippethasalways lookedgood Heknows]usthowtosmile. Heis chatming,andwecanteadilyimaginehimshowetingflattegonthe bosswhogavehimtheFettati,meanwhilethinkinghimthefool,and undemeathitallbeingincapableofgtatitudetowatdanyone.Helies attfullyandconstantly,withabsolutelynosenseofguiltthatmight givehimawayinbodylanguageotfacialexptession. He uses sexu- 43 MAR T HA S T OUT alityas manipulationandhides hisemotionalvacancybehindvati- ous tespectable toles--cotpotate supetstat, son-in-law, husband,fa- thet-whichate neatlyimpenettabledisguises Andifthechatmandthesexualigandthetoleplayingsomehow fail,Skipusesfeat,asutewinnet. His icinessisfundamentallyscag RobettHatewtites, °Many people nnditdifncultto dealwiththe intense,emotionless,otptedatog'stateofthepsychopath, ¨andfot someofthemotesensltivepeopleinhislife,Skip'sintenseblueeye�, theoneshissistetseesas °weitd, ¨ maywellbethoseofthedispas- sionatehuntetgazingathispsychologicalptey !fso, thetesultwi|l ptobablybesilence. Fotevenifyouknowabouthim,knowwhathisheattislike,and havecaughtontohis modus opetandi, howwillyou callhimout? Whomcanyoupossiblytell,andwhatwillyousay?°He'saliat¨?°He's ctaz¨? °He taped me in his ofnce¨? °He's gotspoo|eyes¨? °He usedto kill ftogs¨? Butthis is a leadet ofthe communig, in an AtmanisuitThisis]uliettesbelovedhusband,andthefathetoftwo. Thismanisthe CEO oftheAtikaCotpotation,fotgoodnesssake' ]ustwhatateyouaccusinghimof,andwhatptoofdoyouhave?Who isgoingtosoundctaziet-chiefexecutive Skip, othisaccuset?Ad sealing his invulnetabilig, thete ate those who need Skip to be atoundfotoneteasonotanothet,includingpeoplewhoatewealthy and powetfulAtetheygoingtocatewhatyousay? . !nhis unassailabilig, andinmanyothetways, Skipu anexem- plagsociopath. Hehas, inthewotds oftheAmetican Psychiattic Association, °agteatetthannotmalneedfotstimulation ¨ andsoh , e --~ - often takes bi_tisks, and he_uiltlessly chatms othets into taking them, too. He has ahistotyofundocumentedchildhood °behavlot ptoblems, ¨ obscutedbyhispatents'socialptivilege. Heis deceitful and manipulative. Hecanbeimpulsivelyagg;�e with °a teck|ess distegatd fot the safety of othets, ¨ as he was with the emp|oye� whose atmhe bt�ke, andwiththe othetwomenwhose stotieswill nevetbe heatd. Pethapsthe onlyclassic°symptom¨ Skip does not ¯ 4 ¯ ¹ T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R .exhibitissubstanceabuseThecosestheevetcomestothatis one ¯�¨` ¨¯¯'¨¨"´` ¨"¯ º·~�=¬�~ toomanyscotchesaftetdinnet. Othetwise,thepictute iscomplete. Heisnotgenuinelyintetestedinbondingwithanyone,heisconsis- tentlyittesponsible,andhehasnotemotse. Andsohowdoesallofthi�t�tnin l.is mind?Whatmakes him tick?Whatexactlydoes Skip¬ao/? Mostofushaveothetpeopletomotivateusandtopopulateout desites People dtive outwishes and out dteams. Peoplewholive withus,peopl e whoatefataway, belovedpeoplewhohavedied,ag- gtavating people who will not leave, places made sentimental by whomwe knewthete, even outpets-these nll outheatts and out thoughts.Eventhemostinttovettedamongusisdennedbyhette- lationships, and pteoccupiedwithteactionsto and feelings about, antipathiesandaffectionsfot, othetpeople.Emotionalinttigue, to- mance, nuttuting, te]ection, andteunioncomptiseneatlyallofout litetatuteands�ng.Weateovetwhelminglytelationalcteatutes, and thisisttueallthewaybacktooutptimateancestots.]ane Goodall saysthechimpanzeessheobsetvedinGombe¨haveatichtepettoite ofbehavioutsthatsetve to maintainottestote socialhatmony . . . . The embtacing, kissing, pattingandholdingofhandsthat setve as gteetingsaftetsepatation. . . Thelong,peacefulsessionsoftelaxed social gtooming. The shatingoffood . The concetnfotthe sick ot wounded. °And so without out ptimotdial attachments to othets, whatwouldwebe? Evidently,wewouldbetheplayetsofagame,onethattesembled agiantchessmatch,withoutfellowhumanbeingsasthetooks,the knights, and the pawns Fotthis isthe essence ofsociopathicbe- haviotanddesire TheonlythingSkipteallywants-theonlything left-|� t� w. _ º¨"¹· . · ~ · Ski;doesnotspendanytimeseatchiugfotsomeonetolove.He cannot love. He does notwottyaboutftiends ot family membets whomaybesickotinttouble,becausehecannotwotgaboutothet people. He cates nothingfotothets, andsohecannoten]oytelling .i ¬ 4 ã MA RT HA S T OUT his patents ot his wife about his many successes in the business wotldHecanhavedinnetwithwhomevethepleases,buthecannot shate the momentwithanyoneat al| Andwhenhis childte � wete botn, hewasnotscated,butneithe�washee�cited. He candetive n�tea|ç1tom bei�g withthem,o�f�om watchingthem gto�up. ButtheteisonethingSkipca�do, andhedoesthisonething bettetthanalmostanyone els� S�ip is btilliantatwinning. Hecan dominate Hecanbendothetsto hiswillWhenhewas aboy, the ftogs died when hedecided they should die, his sistet scteamed whe n hewantedhetto,andnowhehasgoneontobiggetandbet- tetgames !n awotldwhetepeople sttuggle]usttomakea living, Skipconvincedothetstomakehimtichbefotehewasthitg.Hecan make fcols ofhis well-educated employets and even his billionaite fathet-in-law. Hecancause theseothetwise-sophisticatedpeopleto ]ump, and then laugh at them behind theit backs. He inßuences latgennancialdecisions onan intetnationalplaying neld, cantum mostsuchattangementstohisownadvantage,andnooneptotests. Otifsomeonedoescomplain,hecancutthatpetsonoffattheknees with]ustawell-placedwotdottwo. Heca ^ ftightenpeople, assault them,bteakanatm,tuinacateet,andhiswealthycolleagueswillfall allovetthemselvesmakingsutehenevetpaysthepenaltiesanyot- dinaty petson would pay. Hebelieves he canhave anywoman he wants,andmanipulateanymanhecomesactoss,including,mostte- cently, evegoneattheSecutitiesandExchangeCommission. Heis SupetSkip. Sttategies and payoffs atetheonlythtillshe knows, andhehasspenthisentitelife gettingbettet attte ga�e. Fot Skip,thegameisevegthing,andthoughheistooshtewdtosay so,hethinks_¿zztofusatenaïveandstupidfotnotyl¿n¿it his way. And this is exactlywhat happens to the human mind when ¯motionalattachmentandconscienceatemissing. Lifeisteducedto a contest, and othethu�anbeings seemto benothingmotethan gamepieces,tobemovedabout,usedasshields, ote]ected. Ofcoutse, fewindividualsequalSkipinthelevelofhisIQotin ¬ 45 ª T H E S O C I O. PAT H N E XT D O O R his physical appeatance. Bydennition, most people, includingso- ciopaths,ateavetage in intelligence and looks, andthegamesthat avetage sociopathsplayate not inthe same elite league as Supet Skip'sglobalcompetitions Manycontempotagp�chologists, my- selfincluded,tecallntstleatningaboutpsychopathyftomaneduca· tionalmovie onthesub]ect,viewedwhenwewetecollegestudents inthe I9/0s.The nebbishycasestudyinthemovie istemembeted as¨Stamp Man,°becausehedevotedhiswholelifetothe unlikely pto]ectofstealing postage stampsftomUnited Statespostofnces. Hewasnot intetestedinpossessingthe stamps, otinsellingthem fotcash.Hisonlyambitionwastoexecuteasimplebteak-inatnight andthennndaspotalittledistanceftomthepostofncehehad]ust tobbed, whetehe couldwatchthe ftenzofthentstemployeesto entetthebuildinginthemotning,followedbytheemetgencyattival ofthe police. Skinny, pale, and mouselike, the man intetviewed in the moviewas anythingbut scaty His intelligencewas avetage at most, and he could nevet have played Skip's gtand intetnational game,withitsmastetfulsttategiesandbillionaiteopponents.Buthe could play his own game, and psychologically, his simple stamp- stealinggamewassutptisinglysimilattoSkip'scotpotateone Unlike Skip's,Stamp Man'splanswete inelegantandttanspat- ent, and he was always discoveted and attested He had been to couttandthento]ailcountlesstimes, andthiswasthewayhelived hislife-tobbing,watching,goingto]ail,gettingoutof]ail,andtob- bingagain. Buthewasunconcetned,becausetheeventualoutcome ofhisschemingwasittelevanttohim. Ftomhispetspective,allthat mattetedwasplayingthegameandseeing,atleastfotanhoutotso eachtime,theittefutableevidencethathe,StampMan,couldmake . ¯ ¯ ·· ¯`¯¯´ people jump. In Stamp Man's opinion, being able to make people ¡a�, ma�t he was winning, and in this way, no less than phe- nomenally anluent Skip, he illusttates what a sociopath wants. Conttollingothets-winning-ismotecompellingthananything(ot an y one) else. � • "¯ * ··¬ '¯ ^¨¯¬~¬~m 47 MAR T HA S T OUT Pethapstheu|timate in dominatinganothetpetsonistotake a life, and the psychopathicmutdetet ot cold-blooded setialkilletis thentstthing � anyofusimaginewhenwethinkofsociopathicde- viance. Shottofa sociopathic leadetwho divetts the coutse ofan entitenation, leadingitintogenocide otunnecessagwat,thepsy- chopathic killet is sutely the most tetti(ing example ofa psyche withoutconscience-themosttetti(ing example, butnottbemost common one. Homicidalsociopaths ate nototious.We tead about theminnewspapets, heat aboutthemontelevision, see them pot- ttayedin6lus, andweateshakentooutcotebytheknowledgethat inoutmidsttheteatesociopathicmonstetswhocankillwithoutpas- sionottemotse.Butconttatytopopulatbelief,mostsociopathsate notmutdetets, atleastnotinthesensethattheykillwiththeitown two hands. We can see this ftom statistics alone About one in tweng-nve people ate sociopathic, butoutside ofptisons, otgangs andothetpoveµ- andwat-totngtoups, the incidenceofmutdetets inoutpopulationis,thankfully, fatless. Whensociopathyandbloodlustcometogethetinthesamepet- son,thetesultisadtamatic-evenacinematic-nightmate,ahottot ngutewhoseems|atgetthanlife. Butmostsociopathsatenotmass mutdetets ot setial killets. They ate not Pol Pot ot Ted Bundy. Instead, most ate onlylife-slze, likethetest of us, andcantemain unidentined fot long petiods oftime. Most people without con- scienceate motelike SkipotStampMan, otthemothetwhouses hetchi|dtenastools,otthethetapistwhodelibetatelydisempowets vulnetablepatients,ottheseduce-and-manipulatelovet,otthebusi- ness pattnetwho empties the bankaccount and vanishes, ot the chatming ¨ftiend¨ who uses people and insists she has not. The methodssociopathsdteamupto contto|othets-the schemescon- tt�vedto ensute ¨wins¨-atequitevatious, andonlyafewofthem havetodowithphysicalviolenceAtetall,violenceisconspicuous, andunlesspetfotmedagainsttheuttetlypowetless,suchaschildten otanimals,itislikelytogetthe_petpettatotcaught ¬ 48 ° T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R !nanycase,thoughtheyatehotti(ingwhentheyoccut, btutal mutdetsatenotthelikeliestresultofconsciencelessness.Rathet,the game isthethingTheptizetobewoncantunthegamutf� � �wotld ¯dominatiot. to a f��e 1uncb, butit is a l� � ys th� same game-con- tto|ling, ��kingcthet,�,,`'wiuning.'' E ��ni�g� ui� � f � shion i. .l| th�tre�ins �f��tpetsonal meaningwhen �ttach- mentandconscience a teabsent.Whenthevalueoftelationshipshas beenteducedtoneatlynothing,dominanceissometimesassettedby mutdeting people. But mote often, it is accomplished by killing ftogs,ottackingup,sexualconquests, otseducingandusingftiends, orexploitag th�copp�t i�C|i|�, cr stealingsome p�stage stamps ]usttosee people sctamble. Do Sociopaths Kow They Ae Sociopaths? Dosociopathsundetstandwhattheyate?Dotheyhavesome insight intotheitnatute,ot,instead,couldtheyteadthisbookftomcovetto covet and failto see themselves tef|ected? !nmywotk, ! am often askedthesekindsofquestions,especiallybypeoplewhoseliveshave been detailedbycollisionswithsociopathswhomtheydid �ottec- ognizeassuchuntilitwastoolate.!donotknowexactlywhytheis- sueofinsightassumessomuchimpottance,exceptpethapsfotout feelingthatifapetsongetsthtoughlifetotallywithout conscience, beotsheshouldatleastacknowledgethatvegfact.Wefeelthatif • l ¯¨. someoneisbad,heshouldbebutdenedwiththeknow|edgethahe u bad.!t seems to ustheultimateinin]usticeth�tapetsoncou|dbe �vi|,b�outassessment,andsti|| feelhne �bouthimse|f. Howevet, this is exactlywhat seems to h�ppe n. Fot the most patt, peop|ewhomweassessaseviltendtoseenothingatallwtong with t��itw �¨ º �)eig� ���ew,�o,� th� a t,inLmou,i � theit tefusal to acknowledge tesponsibility fot the decisions they .. · � .· ~� '--- ---....-�--�---¯¯"*ª¹^'" * ¯�´ make,otfottheoutcomesoftheitdecisions. !nfact,atefusaltosee � 49 - ´ MARTHA S T OUT thetesultsofone'sbadbehaviotashavinganythingtodowithone- self-¨consistent ittesponsibilig¨ in the language ofthe Ametican Psych�tnetstoneofthe antisocialpetsonal- |ty diagnosis. Skipillustt¯dthisaspectofhis petsonaligwhenhe exp¯inedtha:the employeewhoseatmhebtokehadactua|lybto- kenheto�atmwhenshe didnot submitto himteadilyenough. Peoplewithout conscience ptovide endless examples ofsuchstun- ning¨lvedonenothingwtong¨statements.Oneofthemostfamous is a quotation ftom Chicagos sadistic Ptohibition gangstet, P Capone. ¨I amgoingto St. Petetsbutg, F|otida, tomottow. Letthe wotthycitizensofChicagogettheitliquotthebesttheycan.I'msick ofthe]ob-it's athanklessoneandfu|lofgtief.Ive beenspending the bestyeatsofmylifeas a public benefactot. ¨Othetsociopaths do not bothetwith such convoluted teasoning, otthey ate not in commanding-enoughpositionstohaveanyone listentotheitoutta- geous logic. Instead, when conftontedwithadesttuctive outcome thatiscleatlytheitdoing,theywillsay,plainandsimple,¸ � ² vetdid that, ¨andwillto all apµeatances believe theitownditect lie. This (at��� ofs 9 ciopathy m�kes self-awateness imp��sible, and inthe end, ]ustasthe sociopath has no genuine te|ationshipswithothet people, hehasonlyavegtenuc�s onewithhimself . • , ´ ¹ , Ifanything,peoplewithoutconsciencetendtobelievetheitway ofbeing in the wotld is supetiotto outs They often speak ofthe naïveté ofothetpeop|eandtheittidicu|oussctuples,otoftheitcu tiosiµaboutwhysomanypeopleate unwillingto manipulateoth- ets, even inthesetvice oftheitmostimpottantambitions. Otthey theotizethatallpeopleatethesame-unsctupulous,likethem-but ate dishonestlyplayacting som�thingmythical called ¨conscience. ¨ Bythis lattet ptoposition, the· only sttaightfotwatd and honest peop|em thewotldatetheythemse|ves.Theyate being ¨teal¨ ìn a sociegofphonies Still, I believe that somewhete butied safely away ftom con- sciousness,thetemaybeafaintintetnal¬utmutingthatsomething . 50 . T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R is missing, somethingthat othet people have I saythis because I ` have heatd sociopaths speak offeeling °empty¨ ot even °hollow ° And I saythisbecausewhatsociopaths envy, andmayseekto de- sttoy as a patt oftbe game, is usuallysomethin� inthe chatactet sttuctuteofapetsonwith conscience, andsttongchatactetsateof- . ¯¯ tenspeciallytatgetedbysociopaths.Andmostofall, Isaythis be- cause it is human beings who ate tatgeted, tathet than the eatth itself,otsome aspectofthematetialwotldSociopathswanttoplay theit games withothetpeople.Theyate not somuchintetested in challengesftomthe inanimate. Eventhe desttuctionoftheWotld Ttadetowets was mainly aboutthe peoplewhowete inthem, and thepeoplewhowouldseeandheataboutthecatasttopheThissim- ,lebutctucialobsetvationimpliesthat,insociopathy,t�etete � ains someinnateidticat�onwithothethumanbeings, atiewiththe speciesitself. owevet, this thi n inbotn connection,which e�.bles envy, isone-dimensionalandstetile,especiallywhenconttastedwith thevast attayofcomplex and highlychatged emotionaltesponses mostµeoplehavetooneanothetandtotheitfellowhumanbeings asagtoup. Ifallyouhadevetfelttowatdanothetpetsonwetethecoldwish to°win,¨howwouldyouundetstandthemeaningoflove,offtiend- ship,otcating?Youwouldnotundetstand.Youwouldsimplygoon . ¯^¬ dominating, and denying, andfeelingsupetiot. Pethaps,ouwo�ld expetiencealittleemptinesssometimes,atemote senseofdissatls- íaction, butthatis all.Andwiththewholesaledenial,of,outttue impactonothetpeople, howwouldyouundetstandwhoyouwete? Once again,youwouldnot Like SupetSkip himself, SupetSkip's mittotcantellonlylies. His glass does notshowhimtheicinessof hissoul,andtheSkipwhospenthischildhoodsummetsmutilating bullftogsbyanothetwise-peacefulVitginialakewilleventuallygoto his gtave not undetstanding that his life could have been full cf lmeaningandwatmth - 5) * ` | when normal conS C lence s leeps Te price of feedom is eteral vigilance. �Thomas Jefferson . ~�- L onscience is a cteatot ofmeaning. A a sense of �onsttaint tooted in out emotional ties to o n e anothet, it ptevents life ftom devolvingintonothingbutalongandessentiallybotinggame of attempted dominance ovet out fellow human beings, and fot eveglimitationconscience imposes onus, itgives usamomentof connectednesswithanother abtidgetosomeoneotsomethingout- side ofoutoftenmeaninglessschemesConsidetingtheice-coldal- temative ofbeingsomeone like Skip, conscience is devoutlyto be wished.Sothequestionatises.Inthe 96petcentofuswhoatenot sociopathic, does conscience evet chan ¿e? Does it evetwavet ot -+·~-. ~ -~~¬• �··¬~¬ - �� ¯¯¯ ¯' ·**`+=¬~�~. weaken-otdie? ^¯ ' ·· " .�····¬�`` Thettuthisthatevenanotmalpetson'sconsciencedoes notop- etate onthe same levelallofthetime.Oneofthesimplestteasons fotthischangeabilityisthefundamentalcitcumstancesofliving.a· ø side a fallible, need-dtiven human body. When out bodies ate e�- ¯¸ 52 ¯ T H E S OC I OPAT H N E XT D O O R hausted, sick, ot in]uted, all ofout emotional functions, including conscience,canbetempotarilycomptomised. o ~ > Jo illusttatethis,ashedtivesalonginhiscat,letusgiveattotney .]oe,ownetofReebok,adizzingfevetofabout I02degtees.Wecan seetightawaythathiscommonsenseisfalteting,since,sickasheis, he is stilltgingtogettohismeetingatwotk. Butwhat abouthis motal sense? A a pitilessvitustakes possessionofhis body, what does ]oe do when he temembets that his dog Reebok, whom he loves,hasnofood?Inthisvetsionofthestog, ]oe maybatelyhave enoughenetgtogothtoughwiththeplanshehasalteadymade,let alone be able to thinkquickly, ptiotitize onthe spot, and teditect himself,ashedoesinthenonsick-]oescenatio.Fevetishandqueasy, nowhisemotionalteactiontoReebok'sdisttessisinditectcompeti- tionwithhis ownmiseg.MaybeconsciencewillstillptevailOnthe othethand,maybe]oe, weakenedbyillness,nolongetpossessesthe completesttengtbofhis convictions. Followingthe coutse ofleast tesistance,maybehewill]ustkeepdtivingandtgtosuffetthtough hisotiginalplans, andReebok,thoughnotaltogethetfotgotten,will betelegatedtcanemotionalbackbutnetfotawhile. Thisisnotteallyhowwewanttothinkabout]oe,otaboutout- selves, butitis intetesting, anditisttue Outexalted sense ofcon- science the btinget ofconnection and meaning, can at times be signincantlyanectedbysomethingastotallyittelevanttotightvet- suswtong, as untelatedto outmotalsensibilities, as the flu-ota missed night's sleep, ot a cat ctash, ot a toothache Notmal con- sciencenevetdisappeats,butwhenthebodyisweak,c.nsciencecan ¸etvegsleepyandunfocused. Passaulttothebodyis o ne o ftwothings-theothetonebeing gteat îeat-that elevate continued, wide-awake conscience to an hetoiclevelinouteyes Ifapetsonisacutelyillotsetiouslyin]uted, _ ,�taftaid,andyettemainsttuetohisothetemotionalattachments, �wethinkofthatpetson as coutageous. The classic example isthe 53 M4R T HA S T O ' ftontline soldietwho, thoughin]utedhimself, tescues his comtade ftomenemynte. Thatwe insist on the concept ofcoutage to de- sctibesuchacts is outtacitackuowledgmentthatthevoiceofcon- scienceiscommonlyoutshoutedbysubstantialpainotfeat.Andin otdetto catefotReebok, if]oeweteto makeanexttadtivehome evenwithafevetofI02, wemightseehisbehaviotashetoicinami- notwayWewoulddomotethan]ustsmileathimsentlmentallyWe mightwantto pathimon theback. Anothet bodily inßuence on conscience is, sttangely enough, hotmones ¸ 1otelatethis impaitment ofconscience succinctly�ac- cotdingtongutesftomtheNationalAdoption!nfotmationCleating- house, Ió to I8petcentoftecentbitths inthe UnitedStateswete `unwantedbythemothet¨atthetimeofconception Itisfaittoas- sume that some ofthese ptegnancies tesulted ftom ignotance ot genuineaccident,butto be sute,hundtedsof1housandsofbtand- newAmeticans ate now livingthe insecute existence ofunwanted childten simply because a physical appetite eclipsedtheit¡a���is' consciencesfot]ustafewminutes in eachcase.Whenspeakingof sexual ptessutes, weacknowledge howdifncult it can be to atgue withoutbiologicalnatute, andwetaiseinstancesofsustainedcon- science to the lofg designation of`vittue. °Notewotthyisthat, by thisdennition, weateoftenmote`vittuous°atfotgthanweweteat tweng, andthis°vittue°is achievedmetelythtoughaging. Thete ate ttagic biological subvetsions of conscience, as well. These include thevatious schizophtenic disotdets that sometimes causeindividualstoac¡based�npsychoticdelusions.Whenthehu- ¸manbtainisimpaitedinthisway, `Thevoicestoldmetodoit°isnot a]oke buta hotti(ing tealig, andfotthehaunted soulwhosepsy- chosiswaxesandwanesovettime,theteisthepossibiligof`waking¨ ftominsanigtonndthathehasactedonadelusional ideaagainst hisownconscienceandwill. Fottunately,theptessutesoutbodiesbtingtobeatonconscience atefaitlycitcumsctibed.Outsideofcombat, situationsinwhichwe 54 T H E S OC" O PATH N E XT D OOR mustmakectucialmotaldecisionswhileweatesevetelyin]uteddo nothappentousevetyday, otevenevegyeat,andfotmostpeople, sexualenthtallmentissimilatlyinftequent. Out-of-conttolpatanoid schizophteniaistelativelytate. Eventakentogethet,the biological limitationsonoutmotalsensedonotaccountfotvegmuchofthe incomptehensib|y bad behaviotwe can tead about in outnewspa- petsotseeonouttelevisionsanyhoutofanyday.Schizophtenicsate unlikelyto be otganized tettotists. Toothaches do not cause hate ctimes. Unptotectedsexdoesnotstattwats. Sowhatdoes? MoralE×clusion EachyeatontheFoutthof]uly,thelittleseasideNewEnglandtown whete I live lights 8 thtee-stogcelebtatogbonnte on the beach. Palletsofdgwoodatenailedtogethetandattfullystackedontopof one anothetin atowetlike shape that dominates outquaintland- scapefotsevetaldays befotethe Foutth. Thetowetis consttucted ]ustso,withenoughplanksofwoodandenoughspacefotaitßowin betweenthatitcanbecountedontoflameupquickly. Itisignited as datkness falls, with the volunteet nte depattment standing by, hosesatthe teady,]ustin case.The atmospheteisfestive.The band plays pattiotic songs.1hete at� hot dogs and Slutpees and a nte- wotksdisplay.Whenthebonntehasbutnedoutcompletely,thechil- dtentetutntothebeach,whetethentemenobliginglydtenchthem withtheithoses Allofthishasbeenatownttaditionfotsiµyeats,butnotbe- ingabigfanofmassiventes,Ihaveattendeditonlyonce,in2002, whenIwasencoutagedbyftiendsIwasamazedbythenumbetsof ' peoplewhohadsomehowptessedthemselvesintoouttinycotnetof .theAtlanticcoastline, some ofthemftomnf t yotmote miles away, Y | and I]ostledwiththectowdtonndaspotcloseenoughto seethe - 55 ~ MART H A S TOUT nte, but fat enough away nottoget my eyebtows singed, otsol thought.Ihadbeenwatnedthatoncethentegotgoing,thetewould be mote heat than I could imagine, and it was alteady a nineg- degteeday.Asthesunbegantoset,thetewetehootsandshoutsand callsfotthetowettobetotched, andwhenflamewasnnallyputto wood,thetewasacollectivegasp.Thenteimmediatelybegantoen- gulfthewoodensttuctuteliketheunstoppablefotceitwas,ftomthe sandupwatdtoanights|thatsuddenlyblazedAndthencamethe heat.Withthefeelofaneat-solidob]ect,awallofunbeatable,even ftightening�upetheatedaittolledoutwatdftomthenteinwavesof incteasing intensig, taking the ctowd by sutptise and pushing us awayenmasseEachtimeIthoughtIwasfatenoughaway, Ihadto movebackanothetnftyyatds,andthenanothetnfgyatds,andthen anothet. Myface hutt. Iwouldnevethavedteamedthat a bonnte couldmakethatmuchheat,notevenonethatwasthteestotieshigh. Once people had tetteated to a sufncient distance, a sense of happy fascination tetutned, and when the otnamental top ofthe towetwas consumed by the nte, tbe ctowdapplauded. The otna- mentatthe summithad been builtto tesemble alittle house, and nowthe house contained a miniatute infetno This and the vague senseofdangetandtheheatalldistutbedmesomehow, andIcould not seem to shate the feeling ofa1estive occasion. Instead, pet- vetsely, Ibegantothinkaboutthete�lityofthewitchbutningsinthe sixteenthandseventeenth�entuties, eventsIhavealwaysthoughtof as incomptehensible, andhot as Iwas, I shiveted alittle Itis one thingtoteadabouta ntelatgeenoughtoexecuteahumanbein�. It isanothetthingtostandinftontofsuchante,alongwithanexcited, hootingctowd The sinistethistotical associations would not leave me, andstubbotnlykeptmeftomtakinganydelightinthemoment. Iwondeted.Howhadthewitchbutningshappened?Howcould such nightmates have been teal? Evetthe psychologist, I looked atound atthe people. Cleatly, these wete not bewildeted Basque tefugees in I6I0, ftanticallyseatchingfotdiaboliststo butn Hete - 55 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR we wete, a ctowd ofnew-millennium, peace-loving, nonhystetical citizens,unscattedbyhatdshipotmenacingsupetstition.Thetewas noblood lust hete, otsub]ugationofconscience.Thetewas laugh- tet and neighbotly feeling. We wete eating hot dogs and dtinking Slutpeesand celebtating Independence Day.Wewete nota heatt- less, amotal mob, andwewouldbyno means have tallied atounda mutdet, letalonethestagingofatottute. Ifbysomebizattetealig watp thete had suddenlybeen a human ngute wtithing in those colossalflames,onlytheanonymoushandfulofsociopathsamongus wouldhave beenunanected otpethapsentettained Ofthe test, a fewgoodpeoplewouldhavestatedinpatalyzeddisbelief, anumbet ofespeciallycoutageouspeoplewouldhave ttiedto intetvene, and mostofthectowdwouldhavefledinundetstandabletettot.Andthe once-cheetfulbonntewouldhavebecome attaumaticimageseated intoallofoutbtainsfotthetestofoutlives. Butwhat ifthe butning human ngute had been Osama bin Laden? HowwouldthisctowdofAmeticannationals in2002 have teactedifsuddenlyconftontedwiththepublicexecutionofthepet- sonidentinedbythemasthewotld'smostdespicablevillain?Would these notmally conscience-bound, chutchgoing, nonviolent people havestoodbyandallowedit?Mightthetehavebeenenthusiasm,ot atleasiacquiescence,tathetthannauseaandhottotatthespectacle ofahumanbeingdyinginagony? Standingtheteamongallthose goodpeople,Isuddenlytealized thattheteactionmighthavebeensomethinglessthanhottot,sim- plybecauseOsamabinLadenisnot ahumanbeinginoutview.He u Osama,andassuch,tobottowanexptessionftomEtinStaubin Te Roots of Evil, hehasbe�ncompletely`excludedftomoutmotal univetse. °The intetventions ofconscience no longetapplyto him. Heisnothuman. Heisanit. Andunfottunately,thisttansfotmation ofamanintoani/makeshimscatietaswell Sometimes people appeat to desetve out motal exclusion of them,astettotistsappeattodo Othetexamplesofits atewatctim- - 57 MAR T HA S T OUT |nals,ch|ldabductots,andsetialk|llets,and|neachofthesecases,a cons|deted atgument can be (and has been) made, t|ghtly ot wtongly, thatcetta|n t|ghts to compass|onatetteatmenthave been fotfe|ted.But|nmostcases,outtendencytoteducepeopletonon- be|ngs |s ne|thetcons|deted notconsc|ous, andthtoughouth|stoty outptocl|vigtodehuman|zehastoooftenbeentutned aga|nstthe essent|ally|nnocent. Thel|stofoutgtoupsthatsomepott|onofhu- mank|ndhasatonet|meotanothetdemotedtothestatusofhatdly evenhuman|sextemelyIongand, |ton|cally, |ncludescategot|esfot neatlyevegone ofus.blacks,Commun|sts,cap|tal|sts,gays,Nat|ve Amet|cans, ]ews, fote|gnets, `w|tches, ¨ women, Musl|ms, Cht|s- t|ans,the Palest|n|ans, theIstael|s,thepoot,thet|ch,the It|sh, the Engl|sh, the Amet|cans, the �|nhalese, Tam|ls, Alban|ans, Ctoats, Setbs,Hutus,Tutsis,and Itaq|s, tonamebutafew. Andoncetheothetgtouphasbecomepopulatedbyits, anyth|ng goes, espec|ally|fsomeone |nauthot|(g|vestheotdet Consc|ence |snolongetnecessa, because consc|enceb|ndsustoo:|� i�gs a�!�t .: ���sc�¬����:�tlqt � p ����� omy · , y n ¤ s, ��¬, � �ot ys You ��«���a÷�motse, and � |m- (and maybeevenpta|seftomtheothets|nmygtoup-Ican ¬ � �� � � '¯"¨������ ·¨������� otbutn ` � Ishouldtecotdthatnothingbadactuallyhappenedatthebon- ntem 2002. AsfatasIknow,thesemacabtethoughtsoccuttedonly tome.The ßamesconsumedonlywood.Thentewas as|ghttobe- hold,andthenbumed|tselfout,]ustasplanned.Laugh|ngch|ldten, safe|nthe|thometown,tompedonthebeachandgotdousedbythe ntemen. One w|shes that human gathet|ugs could always be as peaceful. 58 . T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D OOR Te Emperor's New Clothes When conscience fal|s into a ptofound ttance, when it sleeps thtough acts of tottute, wat, and genocide, political leadets and othet ptominent individuals can make the dinetence between a gtadualteawakeningofoutseventhsense and a continued amotal nightmateHistogteachesthatattitudesandplanscomingftomthe topdealingptagmaticallywithptoblemsofhatdshipandinsecutiµ inthegtoup,tathetthanscapegoatinganoutgtoup,canhelpuste- tutntoamotetealisticviewofthe °othets ° Intime,motalleadet- shipcanmakeadiffetence. Buthistogshows usalsothataleadet withnoseventhsensecanhypnotizethegtoup consciencestillfut- thet, tedoubling catasttophe Usingfeat-based ptopaganda to am- plifyadesttuctive ideolog, suchaleadetcanbtingthemembetsof aftightenedsocieµtoseetheits asthesoleimpedimenttothegood life,fotthemselvesandmaybeevenfothumaniµasawhole,andthe conßictasanepicbattlebetweengoodandevilOncethesebeliefs havebeendisseminated, ctushingtheits withoutpiµotconscience can,withchillingease,becomeaninconttovettiblemandate Thetecuttencethtoughouthistogofthissecondµpeofleadet taisesalonglistofdumbfoundingquestionsWhydoesthehuman tacetoletatethissottowfulstogovetandovet,likeamindlessbto- kentecotd?Whydowecontinuetoallow�d:�:t�� ated byself-intete,ot By ¡heit own ,s,|ogicalissuesftomth�� to £nbluemess at.dpoliticcrlsimtoam ad � � � ��� ¯¯¯ ^ *� wat? Inthewotstinstances,whydowe let people whothink like �" ftog-killing,atm-bteakingSkiptuntheshowandplaygamesofdom- inancewith othet people's lives?What becomes ofout individual consciences?Whydowenotstandupfotwhatwefeel? Oneexplanationisoutttancelikestate,whichletsusbelievethat the ones who ate dying ate only its anyway And thete is feat, of õ9 MAR T HA S T OUT coutse-always-andoftenasenseofhelplessness.We lookatound atthectowdandwethinktooutselves,Toomanyateagainstme, ot ! don't heat any othet people ptoiesting this, ot, even mote te- signed|y, That's]ustthe waythewotld is, otThats politics. All of thesefeelingsandbeliefscansignincant|ymuteoutmotalsense,but whetethedisablingofconsciencebyauthotigisconcetned,theteis som�thingevenmoteeffective,somethingmoteelementalthanob- ]ecti(ingthe °othets, ¨mote cloying andmisetab|ethan asenseof he|plessness,andevidentlymotedifnculttoconquetthanfeatitself. Vegsimply, we ate ptogtammedto obeyauthotigeven ag�inst our _ ow conscience�. !n I96I and I962, inNewHaven, Connecticut,YaleUnivetsity ptofessotStanleyMilgtamdesignedand nlmed oneofthemostas- tonishing psychologica| expetiments evetconducted. Mi|gtam set outtopitthehumantendencytoobeyauthotityassquarelyaspos- sible against i�vidual conscience. C�ncetninghis method of·n- quig,hewtote, °Ofa|lmota|ptinciples,theonethatcomesclosest tobeingunivetsallyacceptedisthis. oneshouldnotinflictsufíeting onahelplesspetsonwhoisneithethatmfulnotthteateningtoone- self.Thisptinciple isthe countetfotceweshallsetinoppositionto obedience. ¨ Mi|gtam's expetimental ptocedute was telentlessly sttaightfot- watd, andthe n|medvetsion ofhis study has outtaged humanists, andunsuspectingcollegestudents,fotfottyyeats. !nthestudy, two men, sttangets to each othet, attive at a psychologlabotatogto patticipate in anexpetimentthat has beenadvettised as havingto dowith memogand leaming. Patticipation is tewatdedwith fout dollats, plus nµ cents fot catfate. At the lab, the eçetimentet ( Stanley Mi|gtam himself, in the nlmed vetsionj explains to both menthatthestudyconcems°theeffectsofpunishmentonleatning. ¨ Oneofthetwoi sdesignatedasthe°leatnet¨andisescottedintoan- othettoomandseatedinachait.Allwatchastheleametsatmsate mattet-of-f�ctly sttappedtothe chait, °to pteventexcessive move- - 50 " T H E S OC 1 0 PAT H N E XT DO 0 R ment, °andanelecttode is attachedtohiswtist Heistoldthathe mustleatnalistofwotdpaits(blue box, nice day, wild duck, etc) ,and thatwhenevethemakesamistake,he willteceive anelectticshock �|eachmistake,theshockwillincteaseinintensig The othet petson is told that he is to be the `teachet° in this leatning expetiment Aftettheteachethaswatchedthe leatnet get sttappedtoachaitandwitedfotelectticshock,theteachetistaken intoadiffetenttoomandaskedtotakeaseatinftontofalatge,omi- nous machine called a `shockgenetatot °The shockgenetatothas thitçswitches,attangedhotizontallyandlabeledby`volts, °ftom Ió voltsallthewayto4ó0volts, in I5-volt inctements Inadditionto the numbets, the switches ate btandedwith desctiptotsthat tange ftom SLIGHT SHOCK to the sinistetappellationofDAGER-- SEVERE SHOCK. Theteachetishandedthelistofwotdpaitsandtoldthathis ]obistoadministetatesttotheleatnetintheothettoom.Wenthe leametgets ananswettight-fotexample, teachet calls out `blue,° andleatnetanswets`box°-theteachetcanmoveontothenexttest item Butwhen the leatnet gives an.ncottect answet, the teachet mustpushaswitchandgivehimanelectticshockTheexpetimentet insttuctsthe teachet to begin at the lowest level ofshock ou the shockgenetatot,andwitheachwtonganswet,toincteasetheshock levelbyoneinctement The le�met in the othet toom is actually the expetimentet's ttainedconfedetate, anactot, andwillteceive noshocks at all But ofcoutsetheteachetdoesnotknowthis, anditisthe teachetwho isthetealsub]ectoftheexpetiment Theteachetcallsoutthentstfewitemsofthe`leamingtest, °and then ttouble begins, because the leatnet-Milgtam's accomplice, unseen intheothettoom-stattstosoundveguncomfottable. At 7ó volts, the leatnetmakesamistake onthe wotd pait, the teachet administets the shock, and the leatnet gtunts. At I20 volts, the leamet shouts to the expetimentetthatthe shocks ate becoming painful,andat Ió0volts,theunseenleatnetdemandstobeteleased - 5) MA RT HA S T OUT ftom the expetiment. / the shocks get sttonget, the leamet's ptotests soundmoteand �otedespetate,andat28óvolts,heemits an agonized scteam. The expetimentet-theYale ptofessot in the white lab coat-stands bebind the teachet, who is seated at the shockgenetatot,andcalmlygivesasequ e nceofsctiptedptods,such. as `Please continue, ¨ ot The expetiment tequites that you con- tinue, ¨ot''Whethettheleatnetlikesitotnot,youmustgoonuntil hehasleatnedallthewotdpaitscottectly. Sopleasegoon.¨ Milgtamtepeatedthisptocedutefotgtimesusingfotgdiffetent sub]ects-people who wete `in evegday life tesponsible and de- cent¨-including high school teachets, postal cletks, salesmen, manuallabotets, andengineets.Thefotçteptesentedvatiousedu- cationallevels, ftomonemanwhohadnotnnishedhighschoolto othetswhohaddoctotalotothetptofessionaldegtees.Theaimof theexpetimentwastodiscovethowlongthesub]ects(theteachets inthisexpetiment)wouldtaketodisobeyMilgtam'sauthotigwhen ptesentedwithacleatmotal impetative. Howmuchelectticshock wouldtheyadministettoapleading, scteamingsttangetmetelybe- cseanauthotigngutetoldthemtodoso? WhenI showMilgtamsnlmto alectutehallfullofpsycholog students, I askthemtoptedicttheanswetsto thesequestions.The students ate always cettain that conscience will ptevail. Many of themptedictthatalatgenumbetofthesub]ectswillwalkoutofthe expetimentassoonastheynndoutabouttheuseofelectticshock. Mostofthestudentsatesutethat, ofthesub]ectswho �emain, all buta fewwill defythe expetimentet, pethaps tellinghimto go to hell, atleastbythetimethemanintheothettoomdemandstobe fteed(atIó0volts) . Andofcoutse, thestudentsptedict, onlyatiny numbetofvetysick,sadisticsub]ectswillcontinuepushingswitches all thewayto 4ó0 volts, whete the machine itselfsays LACLK~ 5LVLKL 5MLLK. Hete iswhatactuallyhappens.Thitg-foutofMilgtamsotiginal fotgsub]ectscontinuetoshockth� t.�, w�th�, |�li�xobe . � � · -- =. - 52 t T H E S OC I O PAT H N E XT D O O R sttappedto a chait, even aftethe asks to beteleased ftomtbe ex- petiment In fact, ofthese thiµ-foutsub|ects,tweng-nve-thatis to say, 62.ó petcent ofthe total gtoup--n�vet disobeythe expeti- metetatanypoint,continuingtoptesstheswitchesallthewayto the end ofthe sequence ¦4ó0 voltsj despite entteaties and shtieks ftomthemanintheothettoom.Theteachetssweat,theycomplain, theyholdtheitheads, buttheycontinue.Whenthe nlm is ovet, I watchtheclock. Inalectutehallfullofstudentswhohave]ustseen thisexpetimentfotthentsttime,theteisalwaysstunnedsilencefot atleastone fullminute Aftet the otiginal expetiment, Milgtam vatied his design in a numbet ofways In one vatiation, fotexample, sub]ectswete not commandedto opetatethe switches zhat shockedthe leatnet, only to call outthe wotds fotthewotd-pa|r iest befote anothetpetson pushedtheswitches. Inthisvetsionoftheexpetiment,thitg-seven offottypeople ¦92.ópetcentj cont,nuedtopatticipate tothe high- estshocklevelonthe°genetatot. ¨Tbusfat,theteachetsinthestudy had beenonlymen. Milgtamnowttied his expetimentusingfotty women,speculatingthatwomenmightbemoteempathicTheitpet- fotmance was vittually identical, except that obedient women te- · potted �ote s ¹� e ss ¹ � ²¦ � �e dien � men. Stud�� usingthe Milgtam modelwetetepeatedatsevetalothetunivetsities,andsooninvolved mot ª thanathousandsub]ectsofbothgendetsandftommanywalks oflife.Thetesultstem�inedessentiallythesame. Themany-times-teplicated outcome ofhis obedience studyled . Milgtamtomakethefamousptonouncementthathashaunted,and also motivated, somanystudents ofhumannatute "A substantial ptoponionofpeopledowhattheyatetoldtodo, ittespectiveofthe contentoft � e � ' t a � dw �� h '� ' li���ationsofcoi:sci�t:ce,so lo ngas I I ' · theypetceivetbatthecommandcomesftomalegitimateautbotig. ° | · · Milgtam belie�ed t h at �uth�ti( �o�ld ;�t c���� t� sl��p mainly because the obedie�t person ma�es �n ' ad]ustment of thought, ° whichistoseehimselfasnot responsi b l e f or h is own actio �: ' ¯¬ ~�- • ••¨-. . ^• • "¨ ` · • • « « 53 & MARTHA S T OUT · In bismind,heisnolongetapetsonwhomustac�inamotallyac- countableway, butthe agentofanextetnalauthotigtowhomhe at:tibut� � all responsibilig and all initiative This °ad]ustmen: of thought° makesit muc| �asietfot|enignleadetshiptoestablishot- detand conttol, but bythe same psychological mechanism, it has countlesstimestolledoutthetedcatpetfotself-setving,malevolent, andsociopathk ¨authotities. ° WhereConscienceDrawstheLine . Theextenttowhichauthotigdullsconscienceisanectedbythepet- ceivedlegitimacyofthatauthotig Ifthepetsongivingtheotdetsis seenasasubotdinate,otevenasanequal,thesame¨ad]ustmentof thought°maynevetoccut InMilgtam'sinitialstudy, oneofthemi- notityofpeoplewhoeventuallytefusedtocontinuewiththeexpeti- mentwasathitg-twc-yeat-oldengineetwhoappatentlytegatdedthe scientistinthelabcoptas,atmost,bisintellectualpeetThissub]ect pushedhischaitawayftomtheshockgenetatotandinanindignant tone said to Milgtam, '1m an electtical engineet, and I have had shocks. . IthinkI'vegonetoofatalteady,ptobably °Inanintetview latet,whenMilgtamaskedhimwhowasaccountab|efotsho�kingthe ¸ ¸ ¸manintheothettoom,hedidn�tassignanytespo�sibiligtotheex- petimentet Instead, heteplied, ¨I would putitonmyselfcntitely ° � Hewasaptofessionalpetsonwi:h anad�a���! · e±��ti��, ��d�du- cationmustbe acknowledgedas one ofthe factotsthat detetmine whethetotnotconsciencestays alett ItwouldbeÛ gtaveaudatto- gantmistaketoimagineth�tanacad�micdegteeditectlyincteases thesttengthofcons�ienceinthehumanpsyche.Ontheothethand, educationcansometimeslevelthepetceivedlegitimacyofanauthot- ig ngute, andthetebylimitunquestioningobedienceWitheduca- tion andknowledge, the individual maybe abletoholdontothe petceptionofhiu- othetselfasalegitimateauthoti( ó " · " T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R Relatedly, in anothet petmutation ofhis expetiment, Milgtam posedan°otdinagman, °tathetthanascientist, asthepetso�who otdetedthesub]ectstoad�inistetshocks.Whenan°otdinatyman° �wasinchatg-insteadofamaninawhitelabcoat,obedienceonthe patt of the sub]ects dtopped ftom 62.ó petcent to 2O petcent. _ ªPackagingandpetceptionsatenotevegthing,butevidentlytheyget , ptetµclose. Some ofusmaytesistapetsonwho lookslikewe do, but mostofuswill obeysomeonewho looks, like anauthotig. This , nndingisofpatticulatconcetn in anagewhen out leadets and ex- pettscometousviathemagicoftelevision,wheteneatlyanyonecan bemadetoappeatpatticianandcommandinglylatgetthanlife. !nadditiontobeinglatgetthanlife, imagesontelevisionateup close andpetsonal-theyate inoutlivingtooms-andanothetfac- totthataffectsauthotity'spowettoovetwhelmindividualconscience istheptoximityofthepetsongivingthecommands WhenMilgtam vatiedhisexpetimentsuchthathewasnotinthetoom,obedience dtoppedbytwo-thitds, toaboutthesame levelaswhenan°otdinaty man° wasinchatge.Andwhen authotigwasnot close by,sub]ects tendedto ¨cheat° by using onlythe lowet shock levels onthe ma- chine The neamess ofauthotigis especially televant to the teal-life obediencetequitementsofcombatandwat.As ittutnsout,individ- ualconsciencedtawsasutptisinglyntmlineatkilling-sutptisingfot thosewhothinkofhumanbeingsasnatutalwatmakets.Thisaspect ofconscienceissotesilientinnotmalpeoplethatmilitagpsycholo- gistshaveneededtodevisewaysatoundit.Fotexample,militatyex- \ petts nowknowthatto make menkillwithanykind ofteliabilig, commands must be given by authotities who ate ptesent with the ttoops. Othetwise,themenintheneldwilltendto °cheat°ontheit otdetstokill,willintentionallymisaimotsimplyfailtonte,tokeep ftomviolatingthismightiestptosctiptionofconscience. Btig Gen S. L. A MatshallwasaUnited Statescombathisto- tianinthePacinctheatetdutingWotldWat!!andlatetbecauethe ~ ¿§ & MA RT HA S T OUT ofnclalhlstotlanoftheEutopeantheatetofopetatlons.Hewtoteof manyWotldWat!!lncldentslnwhlchalmostallsoldletsobeyedand nted theltweapons whlle thelt leadets wete ptesent to command them,butwhentheleadetsleft,thentlngtatedtoppedlmmedlately tobetween I5 and20petcent Matshallbellevedthatthegteatte- llefdlsplayedbysoldlets lna sectotwhetetheywetenotbelngdl- tectlyotdetedto nte °was due not somuchto the teallzatlonthat thlngs wete safetthete astotheblessedknowledgethatfotatlme theywetenot un d er t h e compu l sion to ta k e l i f e. " !nhlsbookOn Ki ll ing: T h e Psyc h o l ogica l C ost o f Learing to Ki ll in War an d S ociety, fotmet\. b. AtmyRangetandpatattoopetL. Co| Dave Gtossman tevlews Matshall's obsetvatlons, along wlth the FB!'s studles ofnonntlngtates amonglaw-enfotcementofncets ln the I950sand I9ö0s,andobsetvatlonsofnonntlngftomalongllst ofwats,lncludlngtheAmetlcanClvllWat,WotldWats !und!!, the VletnamWat, andthe FalklandsWat. He concludesthat °the vast ma]otlgofcombatants thtoughouthlstog, atthemomentofttuth whentheycould andshouldkllltheenemy, have foundthemselves to be consclentlous ob]ectots ' ¨ Atetwelghlng the consldetable hlstotlcalevldencethatgtoundsoldletsoftenteslstandquletlysab- otageoppottunltlesto klll, Gtossman comes to a °noveland teas- sutlng concluslon about the natute of man desplte an unbtoken . � ttadltlonofvlolenceandwat,manlsnotbynatuteaklllet.°To su� vettthebottomllneofconsclence,tobeabletothtustabayonetot pullattlggettoklllasttanget,notmalhumanbelngsmustbecate- fully taught, psychologlcallycondltloned, and commandedbyau- thotltlesonthebattleneld. AIso,lthelpstoencoutagemotalexcluslon,totemlndthettoops thattheenemysoldletsatenothlngbutits, Ktauts,slants, gooks.A PetetWatsonwtlteslnWar on t h e Min d : T e Mi l itar Uses an d A b uses o f Psyc h o l ogy, °thestupldlgoflocalcustomslstldlculed, ¨ and°local petsonalltlesateptesentedasevlldemlgods On and onthe battleneld, fotboththe ttoops and the people 55 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT DOO, R backhome,thepatticulatwatbeingfoughtmustbepotttayedasa ctucialotevenasactedsttugglebetweengoodandevil,whichisex- ¸ actlythemessagethatauthotities-onallsidesoftheconßict-have ttied to convey duting eveg ma]ot wat in histog. Fot example, thoughitisnowdifnculttotemembetanythingbutthe motalout- tage that exploded duting the nnal phases oftheVietnamWat, as that wat began, Ameticans wete tepeatedlyassutedthattheyand onlytheycouldsavetheSouthVietnamesepeopleftomafututeof tettot and enslavement Speeches by leadets duting wattime, in modemtimesbtoadcastedintooutlivingtooms,havealwayspushed hatdo�thisthemeofanabsolutelynecessagmission,thehighcall- ingthat]ustinesthe killing. And patadoxically, authotigcan mote teadilypto]ectthistakeontealigfotthevegteasonthatconscience , chetishes a high calling and a sense ofmembetship in the tight- mindedgtoup.Inothetwotds,consciencecanbetticked, andwhen itcomestokillingsttangets,ttickegisusuallytequited That psycholog can ptovide the militag with techniques to make killets out ofnonkillets, and that the militag is usingthese ptocedutes, isdispititingnews. Butbehindthebadnewsis apatti- cle ofhopethatglintslike a diamond in a sea ofdatkness.Weate beginningtoleatnthathumanbeings atenotthenatutalkillingma- chines we have at times believed outselves to be. Even undet the . despetate ptessutesofcombat,wehaveoftenleftoutweaponsun- nted, ottakenpootaim,fotwhenitwasnotsilencedundetthebell ]at ofauthotig, thete was always an outcgftom outhuman con- nectedness-thete has always been the voice of conscience-te- mindingusthatwemustnotkill Becauseitsessenceiskilling,watistheultimatecontestbetween conscience and authotity. Outseventh sense demandsthatwe not takelife,andwhenauthotityovettulesconscienceandasoldietisin- duced to kill in combat, he is veg likely to sunet post-ttaumatic sttessdisotdetimmediatelyandfotthe temaindetofhis life, along withthe deptession, divotces, addictions, ulcets, and heattdisease � 57 ª MART H A S T OUT that attend ttaumatic memog. In conttast, teseatch involving Vietnamvetetanshas shownthatsoldietswho ate notplacedinsit- uationswhete theyatefotcedto kill ate no mote likelyto develop thesymptomsofPTSDthan ate thosewho spend theit entite en- listmentathome. Thisctipplingcompetitionbetweenoutmotalsenseandoutau- thotigngutes has gone onalmostunceasinglysince humanbeings began to live in hietatchical societies, fot the past nve thousand yeatsdutingwhicha kingotaland-hungty nobleman, ottheleadet ofastateotanationcouldotdetlesspowetfulindividualstoenteta battleandkillAndappatentlyitisasttuggleofconsciencethatwill notbetesolvedinoutchildten'sotoutgtandchildten'slifetimes. Obedience 6, Conscience 4 StanleyMilgtam,whodemonsttatedthatatleastsixoutoftenpeo- plewilltendto obeyto thebittetend anofncial-lookingauthotig who isphysicallyptesent, pointed outthat peoplewho disobeyde- sttuctive authotigsuffet psychologically, too. Often a petsonwho disobeys nndshimselfat oddswiththe social otdet, andmaynudit hatd to shake the feelingthat he has beenfaithlessto someone ot something to whom he pledged allegiance Obedience is passive, anditisonlythedisobedientonewhomustbeatthe`butdenofhis action,¨to use Milgtam's wotds. Ifcoutage is actingaccotdingio one'sconscience despite painotfeat, thensttengthisthe abiligto keep conscienceawakeandinfotcedespitethedemandsofauthot- itiestodoothetwise Andsttength is impottant, becauseinchampioningthevatious causes ofconscience,theoddsateagainstus To illusttate, Iptoposeanimaginagsociegofexactlyonehun- dtedadults, in agtoupthatconfotmspteciselytoknownstatistic�. Thismeansthatoftheonehundtedpeopleinmyhypotheticalsoci- 58 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R eg, foutatesociopathic-theyhave noconscience. Ofthetemain- ingnineg-sixdecentcitizens,allofwhomdohaveconsciences,62.ó petcentwillobeyauthotigmoteotlesswithoutquestion,quitepos- siblytheauthotigofoneofthemoteaggtessiveandconttollingso- ciopathsinthe ctowd. Thisleavesthitg-sbpeoplewhohave both couscience andthe sttengthto beatthe butdens oftheitactions,a \ littlemotethanathitdofthegtoup.These atenotimpossibleodds, buttheyatenoteasyones,eithet. And thete is yet anothet challenge fot the conscience-bound, whichisthat,sttangeasitseems, mostofthesociopathsateinvisi- ble. Letus tumtothatdilemmanow, andthe tematkable case of DoteenLittleneld. " 59 " the ni cest person ¡ the world I saw a werewolf drinking a piia colada at Trader Vcs His hair was perfect -Warren Zevon Ì oteen glances inthe teatview mittot and wishes fot the bil- lionthtimethatshewetebeautiful.Lifewouldbesomucheas- ietSheappeatsptetginthemittotthismotning,testedandwithall ofhetmakeupon,butsheknowsthatifshewetenotsoskilledwith thecosmetics, otifshe wetetited, shewould look quite plain. She wouldlookplainliketheunsophisticatedgitlftomthesticksthatshe was,¸moteasifshe belongedmilkingacowthaninthedtivet'sseat ofthis black BMW She is onlythitg-fout, and hetskin stilllooks good, no lines yet, a little pale maybe. But het nose is slightly pointed, enough to be noticeable, and het sttaw-coloted hait, het mostptoblematicfeatute,staysdgandftizzlednomattetwhatshe does to it Luckily, hetbodyis excellent. She looks awayftomthe mittotanddownathetlightgtaysilksuit,consetvative butfotmnt- ting. Doteen'sbodyisgood,andevenbettet, sheknows]usthowto move. Fot a woman with a plain face, she is inctediblyseductive " 70 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Wben sbewa|ks actoss a toom, a|| tbe men in it watcb Remem- ·¸ betingtbis, sbesmi|esandstattstbecat Aboutami|eftombetapattment,sbetea|izestbatsbefotgotto feedtbedamnMa|tese Obwe||lbestupidftouftoudogwi||man- agetosutviveunti|sbegetsbomeftomwotktonigbt.Attbispoint, _ a montb aftet tbe impu|se putcbase, sbe cannot be|ieve sbe evet bougbtitanyway Sbe badtbougbtsbewou|d|ooke|egantwbensbe wa|kedit,butwa|kingittumedouttobetediousWbensbecannnd 'tbetime,sbewi||bavetogetitputtos|eep,otmaybesbecanse||it tosomeone !twas expensive, afteta|| !nbetpatkingateaontbesptaw|inggtoundsoftbepsycbiattic bospita|, sbe makes sute to patk bet cat beside]enna's tusted-out Lscott, aconvenientvisua|compatisontotemind]ennaoftbeitte|- ativep|aces intbewot|d Onemote g|ance intbemittotandtben ' Doteen picks up bet btiefcase, stuffed to ovetl|owing to make it · c|eatbowbatdsbewotks,andwa|ksup tbestaitstotbesuiteofof- | hces abovetbewatd A sbe passestbtougbtbewaitingtoom, sbe l|asbes a °Wetegood buddies¨ smi|e at !vy, tbe ftumpysectetag- teceptionistfottbeunit,and!vyimmediate|ybtigbtens °Good motning, Dt Litt|ene|d Ob mygoodness, ! |ove yout suit' !ts]ustgotgeous' ¨ °Wby, tbankyou, !vy ! cana|wayscountouyoutoputueina goodmood, ¨ Doteentep|ieswitbanotbetbigsmi|e.°8uzz:newben • mypatientgetsbete,wou|dyou?¨ Doteen disappeatsintobetofnce, and!vysbakesbetbeadand says out |oud to an empgwaitingtoom, °lbatbas got to be tbe nicestpetsonintbewot|d ¨ ! tiseat|y, notquiteeigbto'c|ock, andi nbetofhceDoteengoes to tbe window to watcb bet co||eagues attive Sbe sees ]ackie Rubensteinwa|kingtowatdtbebui|ding,witbbet|ong|egsandbet effott|ess postute ]ackie is ftom los Ange|es, even-tempeted and funny, andbetbeautifu|o|iveskinmakesbet|ook, a|ways, asusbe ¬ ¬ 7) MAR T HA S T OUT ]ustgot backftom awondetfu|vacation. Sbe is bti||iant aswe||, a gteatdea|smattettbanDoteen, andfottbisteasonevenmotetban tbe otbets, Doteensectet|ydespises bet !nfact, sbe bates bet so mu� tbatsbewou|dki||betifsbetbougbtsbe cou|dgetawaywitb it¸:tt sbe knows sbe wou|d eventua||y get caugbt. Doteen and ]ackie wete postdocs togetbet at tbe bospita| eigbtyeats ago, be- cameftiends,at|eastin]ackie'seyes,andnowDoteenisbeatingtu- motstbat]ackie mayteceive tbe Mentot oftbeYeatAwatdlbey atetbesameage.Howcan]ackiepossib|ywinanawatdfotbeinga °mentot¨attbeageoftbip-fout? Ptomtbe|awn,]ackie Rubenstein|ooksupandnotices Doteen intbe ofncewindow Sbewaves Doteensmi|esgit|isb|yandwaves back. Attbis moment, !vybuzzes Doteenfotbetntstpatientoftbe day, astunning|ybandsome,btoad-sbou|deted,butvegftigbtened- |ookingyoungmannamedDennis!nbospita||ingo,DennisisaV!! (vegimpottantpatient,, becausebeistbenepbewofafamousna- tiona|po|itician.!ntbisma]otteacbingbospita|,tbeteateanumbet ofsucb V!!s, ce|ebtities, tbe wea|tby, fami|y membets ofpeop|e wbose namesatebousebo|dwotds. Dennis is notone ofDoteen's psycbotbetapypatients. Ratbet, Doteen is bisadministtatot, wbicb meanstbatsbemeetswitbbimtwiceaweektoinquitebowbistteat- mentisgoing,to makesutetbepapetwotkisdone,andtoapptove bisdiscbatgeftomtbebospita|wbentbetimecomes Doteenbasa|- teadybeatdftomtbestahtbattodayDenniswi||wanttodiscussbis te|easeHetbinksbebasgottenbettetenougbtogobome. lo sepatatetbeadministtativetasksftomtbepsycbotbetapeutic onesisbospita|po|icy. Lacbpatientbasbotbanadministtatotanda tbetapist. Dennis'stbetapist,wbombe»otsbips, istbeta|entedDt ]ackie Rubenstein. Yestetday, ]ackie to|d Doteentbat betpatient Denniswasttemendous|yimptoved,andtbatsbep|anstotakebim onasanoutpatientwbenbe|eavestbebospita|. NowDennissitsinoneoftbe|owcbaitsinDoteenLitt|ene|d's ¬ 72 * T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ofhceandttiestomakeeyecontact,asbeknowsbesbou|difbeis goingto a ppeatwe||enougbtogo bomeftomtbebospita| 8utbe basabatdtimeandkeeps|ookingaway Sometbingaboutbetgtay suitscatesbim,andsometbingaboutbeteyes.Sti||,be|ikes bet, be tbinksSbebasa|waysbeenextteme|ynicetobim,andotbetpeop|e baveto|dbimtbatofa||tbedoctots,DtLitt|ene|distbeonewbois mostintetestedintbepatients.Anyway, sbeistbeexpett. Doteen, seated bebind bet desk, |ooks at Dennis and matve|s again at tbe petfect |ines ofbis face and bis muscu|attweng-six- yeat-o|dbody Sbewondetsbowmucbmoneybewi||endup inbet- iting 8uttbensbe temembetsbetmission, and tties to|ockin bis netvousgazewitbamatetna|smi|e °!beatyou'vebeenfee|ingmucbbettettbisweek,Dennis ° °lbat's tigbt, Dt. Litt|ene|d. !'ve beenfee|ingmucb bettettbis week. Rea||y, awbo|e|otbettet. Myideasate mucbbettetlbey'te notbotbetingmea||tbetime|iketbeywetewben!camein ° °Wbydoyoutbinktbatis,Dennis?Wbydoyoutbinktbey'tenot botbetingyouanymote?¨ °Ob,we||,!vetea||ybeenwotkingbatdontbecognitivetbetapy tecbniques Dt. Rubenstein taugbt me, you know? lbey'te okay ! " mean,tbeybe|pAnd. We||,tbetbingis, !tbink! mteadytogo bomenow.Otsoonmaybe?Dt.Rubensteinsaidsbecou|dkeepsee- ingmeasanoutpatient ° Denniss°ideas, ° tbeonestbatatenotbotbetingbimsomucbat ptesent,atetbepatanoidde|usionstbatcomp|ete|ytakeovetbis|ife fto�timetotime. Onceavibtantteenagetwbomadeste||atgtades andwastbecbampionofbisbigbscboo||actosseteam, Dennissuf- fetedapsycboticbteakdowndutingbisftesbmanyeatinco||egeand wasbospita|ized !ntbesevenyeats sincetben,bebas beeninand out ofpsycbiattic faci|ities as bis de|usionswaxed and waned but nevettea||y|eftbimWbentbesetetti[ing°ideas°bavebimintbeit gtip, be be|ievestbatpeop|eatetçingtoki||bimand |ying about tbeitinteotions,tbattbestteet|igbtsatemonitotingbistbougbtsfot 73 MAR T HA S T OUT tbeC!A,tbatevegpassingcatcontainsanagentwbobasbeensent to abduct and question bim fot ctimes tbat be cannot temembet. His senseoftea|igisftagi|eintbeextteme,andtbetotmentofbis suspieiousness,wbicb is ptesentevenwbentbe conctete de|usions ateintemission,makesitincteasing|ydifncu|tfotbimtobeatound otbetpeop|e,eventbetapists]ackieRubensteinbasdoneana|most mitacu|ous]oboffotgingatbetapeuticte|ationsbipwitbtbis|one|y youngmanwbottustsnoone. °YousayDt. Rubensteinsaidyoucou|dbediscbatged,andtbat sbe'dseeyouasanoutpatient?¨ °Yes.Yes, tbatwaswbatsbesuggested !mean,sbeagteedtbat !wasa|mostteadytogoborne ¨ °Rea||y?¨ Doteen |ooks at Dennis witb a puzz|ed exptession onbetface, as ifexpectingsomec|atincation. °lbatsnotwbatsbe to|dme. ¨ lbete is a |ong pause, duting wbicb Dennis sbuddets visib|y. Pina||y, be asks, °Wbatdoyoumean?¨ Doteen emits a stage sigb, fu|| ofcompassion, and comes out ftombebindbetdesktositintbecbaitbesideDennis'sSbettiesto putbet band onbis sbou|det, butbepu||s bis bodyawayftombet, asifsbeweteabouttosttikebimStatingouttbewindowasfatinto tbedistanceasbecan,hetepeatsbisquestion,°Wbatdoyoumean tbatsnotwbatsbeto|dyou?¨ Doteen undetstands enougb about patanoid scbizopbtenia to knowtbatDennisa|teadysuspectstbisisgoingtobenewsoftteacb- egontbe parofDt Rubenstein, tbe petsonbe thougbtwas bis on|ytea|ftiendintbewot|d. °WbatDt. Rubensteinto|dmewastbatsbewas sureyouwere mucbsicketnowtbanwbenyoucamein.Andasfotoutpatienttbet- apy, sbemadeitvetyc|eattbatsbednevetagteetoseeyououtside oftbebospita|.Sbesaidyouwetemucbtoodangetous. ¨ LventoDoteen,itisappatenttbatsometbinginDennis'sbeart 74 T H E S O C I O PAT: H N EXT , D O O R isllyingoutoftbewindowandaway, nottotetumtobimanytime soon Sbe says,°Dennis?Dennis,ateyouokay?¨ Dennis doesnotmoveotspeak. Sbettiesagain ''l'msosotglbadtobetbeonetote||youtbis Dennis? lm sute itwas ]ust a misundetstanding You know Dt Rubensteinwou|dnevet|ietoyou ¨ 8utDennis is si|ent Hebas to copewitb tbe featofbettaya| evegminute ofbis |ife,buttbis buge newwaveofit, comingftom bis wondetfu| Dt. Rubenstein, bas b|indsided bim and made bim stone-sti||,|ikeastatue Wben Doteentea|izestbatbetea||yisnotgoingtotespond at a||, sbe goestotbe pbone and ca||s fotassistance ln notime,two but|ymenta|bea|tbwotkets appeatatbetofncedootlbeyatebig, butsbeistbeautbotig, andtbeywi||obeybetotdetswitboutques- tion lbinking tbis gives bet a |itt|e sbivet ofp|easute, butweat- ing bet gtavest exptession, sbe signs tbe otdet to boatd Dennis °8oatding¨-aeupbemismtbatmakes itsound|ike tbe bospita| is puuingsomeoneupataninn-meanstbatapatientisttansfetted ftomanun|ockedwatd, sucbastbe one Dennis bas been in, to a |ocked uitwitbgteatet secutig. !atients ate boatded iftbey be- comevio|ent,otwben, |ike Dennis,tbeybavebadasetiouste|apse lfnecessaty, tbeyatetesttainedandtemedicated Doteenisfait|ycettaintbat Denniswi|| not te|| anyone about wbatsbebas]ustsaidtobim Dennisdoesnotte||bissectetsHeis too patanoid 8uteven ifbe doeste|| someone, bewi||not be be- |ieved Nooneevetbe|ievestbepatientsovettbedoctotsAndftom wbatsbe]ustsaw, bewi||beoutofitfotquite a |ongtime, and not tea||yta|kingaboutanytbing.W:tbatusbofsatisfaction,sbetea|izes tbat]ackieRubensteinbas]ust|ostbetse|fonettu|yde|ectab|eVl! patient. Hewi||bewi|d|ypatanoidabout]ackie now, andtbebest pattistbat]ackiewi||b|amebetse|f,wi||tbinksbemissedsometbing impottantinbettbetapywitbbim,otsaidsometbingbatmfu|]ackie 75 MA RT HA. S T OUT issucba|osetabouttbings|iketbat Sbewi||actua||ytaketbetap, andtbensbewi||bandtbepatientohtoanotbettbetapist.Somucb fota||tbeta|katoundtbebospita|aboutDt.Rubensteinbeingamit- ac|ewotket Blue Smoke and Mirrors Doteen Litt|ehe|d is wbat petsona|ig theotist lbeodote Mi||on wou|dca||a°covetouspsycbopatb, ¨wbete°psycbopatb¨tefetstoso- .· ¯ . ciopatby, ottbeabsenceofconscience,and°covetous¨basitsusua| tefetent. an inotdinate desite fot tbe possessions of otbets So- ciopatbsdonota|ways bave acovetous natute-some a�evegdif- fetent|ymotivated-butwben|ackofconscience andcovetousness occuttogetbetintbesameindividua|, afascinatingandftigbtening pictuteemetges Sinceitissimp|ynotpossib|etostea|andbavefot onese|ftbemostva|uab|e °possessions¨ ofanotbetpetson-beaug, inte||igence,success,asttongcbatactet-tbecovetoussociopatbset- �(�esfotbesmitcbingotdamagingenviab|equa|itiesinotbetssotbat tbeywi||notbavetbem,eitbet,otat|eastnot beab|etoen]oytbem / so mucb ^ Mi||onsays, °Hete,tbe p|easute |ies in taking tatbet tbaninbaving¨ ´ lbecovetous sociopatb tbinks tbat |ife bas cbeated betsome- bow, basnotgivenbetneat|ytbesameboungasotbetpeop|e,and sosbemusteventbeexistentia|scotebytobbingpeop|e,bysectet|y causingdesttuctioninotbet|ives Sbebe|ievessbebasbe�ns|igbted by natute, citcumstances, and destiny, and tbat diminisbing¸ot¸bet � �het on|y means ofbeingp o wetfu| Rettibution, usua||y againspeo| «|. �ven� ld�atbattbey bave�eentatgeted,istbe mostimpottantactiviçintbecovetoussociopatb's|ife, betbigbest ptiotity Sincetbisc|andestinepowetgame is ptiotign�mbetone,a||of tbecovetoussociopatb'sdeceitfu|nessandto|etancefottiskatede- - 75 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R _ votedtoit Portbesakeoftbe game, sbemaydevisescbemesand · actstbatmostofuswou|dconsideroutrageousandpoten- tia||yse|f-d e structive,inadditiontocrue|Andyetwbensucbaper- son is around us in our |ives, even on a dai|ybasis, we are often ob|ivioustoberactivitiesWedonotexpecttoseeapersondirecta •dangetous,viciousvendettaagainstsomeonewboinmostcasesbas donenotbingtoburtoroffendberWedonotexpectit, andsowe do not seeit,evenwbenitbappenstosomeoneweknow-ortous QcIbQI1dIIj. lbeactionstakenbytbecovetoussociopatbareoftenso out|andisb,andsogratuitous|ymean,tbatwerefusetobe|ievetbey _ wereintentiona|,oreventbattbeybappenedata||!ntbisway, ber truenatureæ usua||yinvisib|etotbe group Sbecaneasi|ybidein p|ainsigbt,asDoreenbasdoneamonggenuine|yinte||igent,profes- siona|peop|eattbebospita|fornear|yadecade lbecovetoussociopatbis tbe u|timatewo|finsbeep's c|otbing, , andinDoreen'scase,thedisguiseisespecia||ye|aborate Doreenis apsycbo|ogist,or,atanyrate, everyoneattbebospita|be|ievessbe isapsycbo|ogist,wbicbforDoreenLitt|ene|d'spurposesismucbtbe _ sametbing.lbetrutb,sbou|danyoneeverdiscoverit,istbatsbebas |icense, nordoessbe have adoctora|degree.Wben •¬nt - :wo,s|e di!��ce«�ubachek� d�,� i� ,�ycbo|- ogfromberstateuniversitybackbome, buttbatis a|| lberestis ³ ¸ anextravagantcbaradeWbentbeybiredberasapostdocattbebos- pita|,tbeycbeckedberreferences,buttbesewerebotbverypromi- · nentmenwbobadsuccumbedtocertainembarrassing|iaisonswitb her, tbougbtbeysbou|d bave known better lbe biringcommittee didnotcbecktbecredentia|ssbe|isted 8ecausesbecamesopresti- gious|yrecommended,tbeysimp|yassumed sbebada !b D A ter a||,wbooneartbwou|d|ieaboutatbing|iketbat?Aforberabi|ig _ to bebave |ike apsycbo|ogistwe||enougbto foo|tbe professiona|s audtbepatients,Doreenbasa|waysfe|t,andapparent|ysbeisborne outintbisopinion,tbatapersoncan|earna|otbyreadingbooks. Doreenbas]ustseenberrecoveringeigbto'c|ockpatient,drop- ¬¬ 77 " MARTHA S T OUT kickedbiminto anacute|ypatanoidstate as tettibutionagainstan |nnocentco||eague,andsentbimofftobemedicatedandconhned toa|ockedunitWbatdoessbedofottbe temaindetoftbeday?!f weweteto te]oinbetinbetofhce,wewou|dhndtbatsbeca|m|y meets witb tbe test ofbet scbedu|ed patients, makes pbone ca||s, doespapetwotk,andgoestoastaffmeetingWewou|dptobab|ynot see anytbingoutoftbe otdinaty. Mostofbet bebaviotwou|d |ook notma|tous,otc|ose enougbtopass.!etbapssbe does notdobet patientsvegmucb good,butsbedoestbemnoobviousbatmeitbet, except in tbose instances, |ike tbis moming, wben manipu|ating a patientwi||setvetodamageaco||eaguesbebastatgeted. Wby wou|d sbe ditect bet ski||s against psycbiattic inpatients? lbeybavenotbingsbewants.lbeyatedisenftancbisedbytbewot|d, andsbecanfee|powetfu|mete|ybysittinginatoomwitbtbem.lbe exceptionmigbtbetbeoccasiona|fema|epatientwboisa|itt|etoo atttactive ot, wotse, a |iu|etoo smattlben Doteenmigbtbaveto bting bet down a peg ottwo, tweakabitoftbe se|f-battedtbatis usua||ya|teadytbete intbesepatients lnbetto|easapsycbotbeta- pist, sbehndstbistidicu|ous|yeasyto dolbesetupis a|ways one- on-one,andtbepatientneverundetstandswbatbitbetwe||enougb tocomp|aintoanyoneoutsideoftbetbetapytoom. 8utwben peop|e donotptovoke in Doteen a desitefotsome- tbingtheybave,otfotsometbingtbeyare, tbensbedoesnottatget tbem. lo tbeconttaty, sbe maybe especia||ycbatmingandcoutte- ouswbensbebe|ievestbatcettainundet|ings,assbetbinksoftb e m, ate usefu| in maintaining bet sbeep's-c|otbing disguise, a disguise tbatinc|udesaptesentationofbetse|fasanexttaotdinati|ynice,cat- ing,tesponsib|e,andpitiab|yovetwotkedpetsonPotexamp|e,wben Doteenisptepatingto|eavewotkontbedaysbebassectet|ysabo- taged]ackieRubensteinandDennis,sbemakessutetostopbylvy's deskfotanendeating|itt|e cbat Sbe ttiestodotbisevegevening. !vyis tbe sectetag-teceptionist fottbe ptofessiona|s ontbe watd, * 78 * T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R and one nevetknowswbensucb a sttategica||yp|acedpetsonmay comeinbandy. Doteencomesoutofbetofnce, co||apsesintooneoftbetecep- tiontoomcbaits,andsays, °Ob!vy' !'msogtatefu|tbisdayisovet' ¨ !vy istwengyeats o|dettban Doteen Sbeisovetweigbt and weatsbigp|asticeattings Doteentbinkssbeispatbetic. !vytep|iestobetwatm|y, °!knowYoupoottbingAndtbatpoot Dennis' !'mnodoctot, but ! do se etbe patientsatound,youknow, _ , and!sottofbadmybopesup. . !guess!waswtong ¨ °No, noYoutevetyobsetvant. Hedidseembettetfotawbi|e. lbiswotkbteaksyoutbeansometimes ¨ Ofcoutse,tbismomingtbetwono-nonsenseattendantscatging Dennisofftbewatdpassedtigbtinftontofawide-eyed!vy Sbenow |ooksatDoteenwitbconcem °Youknow, DtLitt|ene|d,!wottyaboutyou. ¨ A !vymakestbisconfession,sbenoticestbatDoteen'seyesate poo|ingwitbteats, andsbecontinues ina|owetvoice, °Ob my, to- daywastettib|efotyou,wasn'tIt, deat? !b o peyouwon'ttbink!'m gettingtoopetsona|, butyou't e sosensitivetobedoingtbiskindof wotk ¨ °No, no, !vy. ! m]usttited,andofcoutse!'msadaboutDennis. Don'tte||anyone-!mnotsupposedtop|ayfavotites-butbe'sspe- cia|tome,youknow? ! wisb! cou|d]ustgobomeandgetagood nigbt'ss|eep ¨ °We||,tbat'sexact|ywbatyousbou|ddo,deat ¨ °!wish!cou|d,butwbatwitbtbeemetgencyanda||,!didn'tget mypapetwotkdone,and!tbink!'mgoingtobeupba|ftbenigbtdo- ingit¨ !vy g|ances at Doteen's bu|ging btiefcase and says, °You poot tbingLet'stbinkofsometbingnice,maybe,togetyoutmindoh . ¸ we||,wbatbappenedtodayHow'stbatnewMa|tesedoggofyouts?¨ Doteenb|otsbeteyes witbtbebackofbetbandand smi|es°Ob, 79 MAR T HA STOUT bes tettinc, !vy Actua||y, sometimes bes so cute ! cou|d]ust eat bimup ¨ !vycbuck|es. °We||¡ben, !'||betbeswaitingfotyou.Wbydont yougoonbomenowandgivebimagteatbigbug?¨ °8ettetnotbetoobig! ||squisbbimHesteeny. ¨ lbetwowomen|augbtogetbetovettbis, andtbenDoteensays, °!vy, !vyYouknow, !tbinkyousbou|dbetbepsycbo|ogist.Youa|- waysknowbowtoputmeinabettetmood. !||seeyoubtigbtand eat|ytomottow,okay?We||]ustkeeponkeepingon, !guess. ¨ ' ! || be bete, ¨ afntms !vy. Sbe beams as Doteen picks upbet btiefcaseandwa|ksaway,|istingabittotbebtiefcaseside. Doteenwa|ksbacktotbe|otwbetesbe|eftbetcat,andtbetesbe encountets}enna, ownetoftbe beat-up Lscott sbe patked beside tbismotning.]ennais anewintetnattbebospita|,and, un|ike !vy tbeteceptionist,sbeisyoung, btigbt,andptetç. Sbebas|ong,|ove|y, stick-sttaigbtaubutnbait,andDoteenbastatgetedbet. °He||o,]ennaGoingbome?¨ ]ennab|inksattbeobviousquestion,wbicbsbetbinksisptoba- b|yctiticism,sinceintetnsateexpectedtowotks|avisb|y|ongbouts. 8utsbetecoups.°Yeab.Yes Goingbome.You,too?¨ Doteen |ooks concetned. °Wbat abouttbatemetgencyconfet- enceatCbatwinHaä¨ CbatwinHa||bousesawatdditectedbytbestetnandfeatsome DtlbomasLatson,wbomDoteenknowstobe]enna'sptimagsu- petvisotlbeteis, ofcoutse,noconfetencetbetetigbtnow. Doteen basmadetbisupontbespot. ]enna tutns asben immediate|y. °lbetes an emetgency confet- ence? Nobodyto|dme. Wben?Wby?Doyouknow?¨ Doteen, nowtakingonthedemeanotofascboo|matm,|ooksat betwatcband says, °Abouttenminutes ago, ! be|ieve Didntyou pickupyoutpbonemessages?¨ °Yes, ofcoutse ! did, buttbete tea||ywasntanytbingabouta confetenceLt. Latsonsofnce?¨ ~ $0 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R °!suppose ¨ °Obno.ObmyGod!'vegotto . !sbould. We||,Ì guess!'|| ]ustgettbeteasfastasÌ can.¨ °Goodidea ¨ ]ennaistoopanickedtowondetwbyDt.Litt|ene|dknowsabout a sput-of-tbe-moment confetence tbat does not even invo|ve bet. lbeyoungintetndasbesoutoftbepatking|otandbeginstotunin bet |eatbet pumps actoss an acte of tain-soaked bospita| |awn Doteen stands in tbe patking |ot and watcbes bet go unti|, sti|| sptinting,sbemakesatutnatoundtbefarsideofabui|dinganddis- appeatsftomviewReûectinginsatisfactiontbatCbatwinHa||is|o- catedontbeexttemeoppositeendoftbegtounds, Doteengetsinto tbe bN cbecks betmakeupintbe tearviewmittot, andstattsfot bomelomottow, ottbenextday,sbewi||comeactoss]ennaagain, and ]enna wi|| ask bet about tbe confetence tbat did not exist. ¸ Doteen wi||]ust sbtug and |ook batd into ]ennas soft eyes, and | ennawi||backon Sociopathy Versus Criminalit Doteen Litt|ene|dwi||nevetbeptosecutedfotbetdeeds,inc|uding ptacticing psycbo|ogwitbout a |icense. Dennis's inf|uentia| unc|e wi||nevetdiscovetwbosbetea||yis, notwi||mostofbetotbetpa- tientsottbeitfami|ieslbeptofessiona|s attbe bospita|wi||nevet putsuebet|ega||yfotbetctimina|deceptionoftbem.Sbewi||nevet bepunisbedinanytbing|ikeacommensutatewayfottbecount|ess psycbo|ogica|assau|tssbe commits. !ntbe end, sbe is agoodi||us- ttationoftbediffetencebetweenasociopatbandactimina|,wbicb is,astounding|y,tbesame ¯hingtbatsepatatesaugb h�-yeat- o|dgit|wboisse�naswe||bebavedftomonewboissco|dedfottak- ingcandyftom betmotbet'sputse.lbe dinetence, quitesimp|y, is wbetbetot notsbe getscaugbt. - �º¬`"´' ¯``¯¯ ¯�" �¯� __�•• +� ¬s¹ � ¢+ ~¿ 8) MART HA S T OUT And adu|ts getting caugbt fot committing acts witbout con- scienceisappatent|ymotetbeexceptiontbantbetu|e. Since4pet- cent oftbe entite popu|ation is sociopatbic, one migbt teasonab|y tbinktbatoutptisonsystemisn||edtoovetl|owingwitbsociopatbs, to tbe exc|usion ofotbetgpes ofpeop|e 8uttbis is not�be case. AccotdingtoRobettHateandotbetteseatcbetswbotestconvicts, on avetage on|yabout20 petcentofptisoninmates intbe United Statesatesoc . Hmo t h e rs�are:æ to �:�·t·bis .. ,�.-.. .. -- .. - ` * 20 petcent oftbeptison:u|ationaccountsfotmotetbanó0 pet- c� tb� � s ��� � �i�e ( �_ t� , t � �, ��ed tobbe;, k|dnap- p|ng,·umer��ti�ainst tbe state (tteason, espionage, tettotism, , buttbeactua|sociopatbicbeadcountinptisons,fotbotb menandwomen,ison|yabouttwo inten !ut diffetent|y� most identined ctimina|s ate not sociopatbs. Ratbet, tbeyate peop|ewitbmotenotma|undet|yingpetsona|ities wbosebebaviotistbeptoductofnegativesocia|fotcessucbastbe dtugcu|tute,d�b�d�m es tic vio|ence, a nc��s-gen e raiona| ��statis.«z tmen fewsoctopaiccnmesate evetbtougbttotbeattentionofout|ega|system-tbatvetyfewso- ciopatbs ate ctimina|s intbefotma| sense lbemostcommon so- ciopatbic pton|e, |ike Doteen's, invo|ves ongoing deception and camouûage,andon|ytbemostllagtantctimes(kidnapping,mutdet, and so fottb, ate difncu|tfot a teasonab|yinte||igent sociopatb to concea|Some-bynomeansa||-oftbesociopatbicatmedtobbets andkidnappetsgetcaugbtlbe DoteenLitt|ene|dsoftbewot|dse|- dom do, andevenwbentbeydo getcaugbt, intbe sense ofbeing found out, tbeyatetate|yptosecuted. lbetesu|t is tbatmostso- ciopatbs ate notincatcetated. lbeyateoutbeteintbewot|dwitb youandme !ntbenextcbaptet,wewi||discusstbemanyteasonswbypeop|e · ofconscience bave so mucb difncu|g °seeing¨ and dea|ing effec- tive|y witb peop|e wbo bave no conscience. lbese teasons tange ftomtbefeattacticsusedbysociopatbs � ow maced:ense ¬ 82 ¨ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ofi|t 8utntst, |etustetutntotbebospita|oncemote,tbistime .- tosee Dt.]ackieRubenstein'smitac|e,twomitac|esinfact !tisnowfoutdaysaftetDenniswas boatdedtoa|ockedunit,a Sunday, andtbe bospita|gtounds ate empgexceptfor asma|| cat tbatttave|sup tbenattowdtive toDennis'sbui|dingandstopsbytbe ftontdoot Dt Rubensteinstepsoutanddigsinbetcoatpocketíot tbettemendous,a|uostmedieva|mastetkeytbatwi|||etbetbotbin andoutoftbetbtee-stoçstonebui|dingLvennow,afteteigbtyeats ofwotkattbebospita|, she c|utcbestbebeavypasskeyinbetband, tatbettbanputtingitbackinbetpocket,aftetsbeentetsaunit|ike tbisoneandbeatstbedoot|ockbebindbet.Sbebascometotg,one mote time, to getbettettinedpatientDennistota|ktobet.Wben shewa|ksontotbewatd itse|f-andyet anotbetmeta| dootc|oses bebindbetand|ocks-sbeseesDennissittingonagteenviny|sofa andstatingatate|evisiontbatbasnotbeentutnedonHe|ooksup, tbeiteyesmeetfotamoment,and,tobetsutptiseandte|ief,bemo- tionsfotbettocomeandsitdown lben tbe ntst mitac|e bappens. Dennis ta|ks Heta|ks and be ' ta|ks, and bete||s ]ackie Rubenstein eveçtbing Doteen Liti|ene|d saidAndtbesecondmitac|eistbat]ackiebe|ievesbim Prombometbat nigbt, sbepbones Doteenand conftonts bet Doteen denies eveçtbing, and disdainfu||y accuses bet of being dtawn into bet patient's patanoia Wben ]ackie tefuses to back down,Doteenwamsbettbatsbewi||bedamagingbetowncateetif sbegoestoanyonee|seattbebospita|witbsucbawi|dta|e.Wben sbe bangs up tbe pbone aftetta|kingwitb Doteen, ]ackie ca||s a goodftiendbackinLosAnge|esfotsuppott.Sbete||sbim,on|yba|f kidding,tbatsbetbinkssbemaybe|osingbetmind ]ackiedoesnotknowtbatDoteenisaftaud,andsoftom]ackie's petspectiv e , sbeandDoteenatepeetsattbebospita|. Pottbistea- son,]ackietea|izestbatsbewi||baveabatdtimeptessingbetpoint witbtbemoteseniotstafflbeywi||assumetbisis]ustsomekindof dispute between bet and ]ackie Atwotst, |ike Doteen, tbey may " 83 " . MART H A S T OUT suggest sbe is |etting betpatient's issues become betown. None� tbe|ess, on tbe fo||owingmotningsbe wa|ksintotbe ofnce oftbe ditectot of bet unit and te||s bim wbat bas happened. His gtay- be atdedface teddens,wbicb}a�kiennds cutiou�,sincebedoesnot seemtobeang;, eitbetatbetotatDoteen.Sbewondets,assbebas wondetedvague|ybefore,wbetbetheandDoteenbavebadanaffait Aftet be beats }ackie out, tbe ditectot does nottake quite the disdainfu|apptoachDoteendidotttbepbone, butbedoestespect- fu||ytemind]ackie€fhoweasyitistoseee|ett.ents ofctedibi|igin tbede|usions ofinte||igentpatanoids Hesaysbevepmucbdoubts tbatanytbing1eunisto|dbetactua||ybappened, andbe exptesses t bebopetbatsheand� Doteenwi||notcatgtbis disagteemeotout �ndennite|y. Sucbatiftwou|d bebadfottbeunit1dso,ina||im- pottanttespects,Doteengetsawaywitbwbatsbebasdone,asust:a| IhebappietnewsistbatDennis'stbetapywitb}ackieisnotpe tma- nent|ydistupted,andbeissoondiscbatgedftomthebospita|. lbeendofDoteenLitt|ene|d'scb�tadeeventua||ycomes,as itso · · ¸ oftendoesfotco ` etoussociopatbs,notwitb �bangbutawbimpet, audiostigated bysomeone outsideoftbesysteu !n Doteen's�ase, tbesuccessfu|»bist|e-b|owetis a consumetadvocate wbo appeats twice amontbon a |oca|te|evision sbowca||edBuyer Bewa,�. Six yeats aftet Doteens psycbo|ogica| assau|t on Dennls, tbis |oca| c�|ebtig's wife is bospita|ized fot deptession, and, comp|ete|y by �bance,DoteenisassignedasbettbetapistRank|edbe causebebe - � ' |ieves bis wifes tbetapy is somebow¸ muc�it¿up bis martiage, be usesbisexpettise:oinvestigateDt.Litt|ene|d,andteadi|ydiscovets wbat �be is-ottatbet,wbatsbeisnot Heatonce approacbestbe businessditectotoftbebospita|andexp|ainstbatiftbebosplta|wi|| × _ l ' · ¸�ick Doteenout immediate|y, nndanewtbetapistfotbiswife, and fotgivebiswife'sentitebospita|bi||,bewi||uotexpose Doteenand . bospita| onte|evision He points outquiteteasonab|ytbatfot- givi�gone bi||isa|ot|essexpensivet banpayingbacktbe¡undted� , 84 l T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R ofbi||s, otwotse, tbatwi|| be btougbt agaiosttbe bospita| sbou|d Doteen'sctedentia|s,ottbe|acktbetecf,bebtoadcasted Readingtbe n|e beissbown, tbe business ditectotisc|eat on tbe concepttigbtaway, andon bet fottietbbittbday, intbemidd|e ofeating cake at a |itt|e ofnce patg otganized by !y, Doteen is abtupt|ysummonedtotbeadministtationbui|ding. !ntbebusiness d�tectot� �fnce,tbebusinessditectot,tbemedica|ditectot, andtbe dit � ctotof�utsing(wbowantstobeptesent]ustbecausesbebates Doteensomucb,infotmDoteentbatsecutigwi||escottbettobet catand tben monitotbetto make cettain sbe |eaves tbe bospita| gtounds. Doteente||stbetbteeditectotstbattbeyatemakingabig _ _ mistak>, tbattbe consumetadvocate is |ying because be does not |ikebet,andtbatsbewi||suetbem Sbedtivesaway, andtbougbsbewastbetefotfoutteenyeats,no oneattbebospita|evetbeatsftombetagainlbebospita|adminis- ttationdoesnotputsuetbemattet,fottbeobviousteasonsofpub|ic embattassmentandmedica||iabi|ig, andtbeteisaco||ectivesigbof te|iefwbensbesimp|yvanisbes. !ntbeitptivatecvetsationsabout bet, tbe ditectot ofnutsing and ]ackie Rubenstein specu|ate tbat ´ Doteenissomewbete e|se, insome otbetstate, sti||ptacticingpsy- cbo|og Mostoftbe peop|e attbe bospita|bavevastquantities ofcon- science, and sowby, wbentbeynna||ynnd out about Doteen, do · _ tbey|etbetgowitboutangbt,most|ike|ytosttikeagainsomewbete �|se?Andwby, inapsycbiatticbospita|,�assbesobatdtoseeintbe htst p|ace? !n geneta|, bowcananyofus |ive, aswe a||do, amo�g �¸ s¿mucanc numbets ofdesttuctive |iats and conattists and fai|to conftonttbem, oteven notice tbem? Awe ate abouttosee,tbete answetstotbesectucia|questions, anda|sowayswe canbegin _ tocbangeouttesponsestotbes|ippegpbenomenonofsociopatby. - 85 " | | V | why conS C lence � S parti al ly bl ind It is easyter b l y easyto sha k e a mans f aith in hime l f To ta k e a d vantage o f that to b rea k a mans spirit U dvi l s wor k . -George Bernard Shaw Ì fsbebadtbougbtsbecou|d getawaywith it, DoteenLitt|ene|d wou|dbave tun]ackie Rubensteindownwitbbet bN tatbet tban· mete|ysabotagingbetwotkAnd-moteamazingsti||-ifs� bad ctusbedotki||ed]ackie,otanyonee|se,Doteenwou|db�veex-· petiencednogui|tottemotse,uucb|esstbebottotmostofuswou|d feelifweendedanotbetpetsons!fe Hetb|oodptessutewou|dnot bavetisenonepoint,at |eastnotftomanynegative emotionbaving to dowitbtbevictim Doteen basnosucb sense oftbings, nosev- entbsenseofbumanconnectednesstomake bet fee|sickovettbe consequencesofbetactions Potmostofus, ki||ing�omeonewou|d tesu|tinsbock, fo||owedby|ife-a|tetinganguisb, evenifwebadnot |ikedtbatpetson PotDoteen,sucbanact, ptovidedsbewasnevet caugbt, wou|dbeexpetienced as winning Tbis diffetencebetw�en notma|emotiona|functioningandsociopatbyisa|mosttoofantastic fottboseofuswitbconsciencetogtasp,ands 9 ��ª��º�'Þ� ´ e tefusetobe|ievesucbabo||ownessofemotioncanexist.Andunfot- 85 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ! ·tunate|y, outdifncu|gincteditingtbemagnitudeoftbisdi�fete�ce p|acesusinpeti| ' ` ¯ � ¯ \ Lve n witbout mutdeting anyonewitb bet cat, ot bet own two bands, Doteencausesunto|ddamagetotbepeop|eatoundbet. ln fact, diminisbingotbet|ives isbetptimaggoa|.Sinc e sbeusestbe autbotig ttappings ofan inpatient psycbotbetapist, one day, as a sideeffectoftbevengefu|campaignssbeconducts,sbemaypusba patientintosuicide,ifsbebasnotdonesoa|teadyAdyetfotfout- teenyeats, a|atgegtoupofgoodpeop|e,tbemembetsofanentite psycbiattic bospita| staff wbo wou|d spend tbeit |ast ounce of sttengtbattemptingtopteventapatient'ssuicide,ateb|indtowbat sheis,and�bentbeydiscovetbetdeception,tbeydonottrytostop bet.lbeysimp|ywatcbbetdtiveaway. Wbyate conscience-boundbumanbeingssob|ind?Andwbyate tbey so besitant to defend tbemse|ves, and tbe idea|s and peop|e tbeycateabout,ftomtbeminotigofbumanbeingswbopossessno conscienceata||?A |atgepattoftbeanswetbastodowitbtbeemo- tionsandtbougbtptocessestbatoccutinuswbenweateconftonted wtbsociopatby.Weateaftaid,andoutsenseoftea|igsuffetsWe tbinkwe ate ma�ingtbing�,ot��agge�ating,ottbatweoutse|�� =,¸~ • · .. - · · ~*¬¬ - -= -- · ··•··~ - · ·-···~ ~ � atesomebowtesponsib|efottbesociopatb'sbebaviot.8utbefotewe discuss indetai|outown]sycbo|ogica|teactionsto sbame|essness, a||owmetoputtbeseteactionsincontexbyc|eat|ydesctibingwbat we ate upagainst. Letusntsttakeacatefu||ook attbe fotmidab|e tecbniquesusedbytbesbame|esstokeepusin|ine. The Tools of the Trade lbe ntst sucb tecbnique is cbatm, and as a socia| fotce, cbatm sbou|dnotbeundetestimated. Dotee@cou|d be exteme|ycbatmingwben it suited bet put- poses.Outo|dftiendSkipusedbisconsidetab|ecbatmtoinnuence - 87 " . » MAR T HA S T OUT bisbusinessassociatesandtogteasetbefastttacktocotpotatedom- inance. � - cb ¸ ¸þ��mayseem ���µ. t:��e�is _ � te�j�j___�lbeintensecbatmofp��le wbobave noconscience, akindofinexp|icab|ecbatisma, bas been obsetved and commented on by count|ess victims, and by re- seatcbetswboattempttocata|ogtbediagnosticsignsofsociopatby. ltisapotentcbatactetisticMostoftbevictimsÌ bave known inmy wotk bave tepottedtbattbeitinitia|invo|vementwitb asociopatbic petson, and tbeit continued association even tbougb sbe ot be caused tbem pain, was a ditect tesu|t ofbow charing sbe ot be cou|dbe Count|esstimes,lhavewatcbedpeop|esbaketbeitbeads andmakestatementssucbas, °HewastbemostcbatmiqpersonÌ evetmet, ¨ot°lfe|t|ikel'dknownbetfotevet,¨ot°Hebadanenetg aboutbimtbatotbetpeop|e]ustdon'tbave ¨ Ì |ikensociopatbiccbatmtotbeanima|cbatismaofotbetmam- ma|swboateptedatotsWewatcbtbe |atgecats,fotexamp|e, and atefascinatedwitbtbeitmovements,tbeitindependence, andtbeit powet 8uttbeditectgazeofa|eopatd,sbou|donebappentobein tbewtongp|ace attbewtongtime, is inescapab|e and tetanizing, andtbefascinatingcbatmoftbeptedatotisoftentbe|asttbingtbe pteyevetexpetiences ( l speakofnob|e|eopatds, butÌ bave beatd abusedandentagedvictimsusemetapbotstbatwetedecided|ytep- ti|ian, Lnbancingtbeanima|cbatismaofsociopatbs,tbe�_uto� mi|dafnni _ fotdan_et. Conventiona|wisdombasittbat dangetous ¸e¯p|eateatttactive,andwbenweatedtawntosociçhs,we:end � toptove outtbis c|icbe. Sociopatbs ate dangetous in manyways. Oneoftbemostconspicuousistbeitpteferencefottisjsituations andcboices, andtl.eitabi|igtoconvinceotb�toì�k�nks + �btb�m ������io��-�.���� �� ¸ �.�� +" ]oyminottisksandtbti||sWew|||getoutoutwa||etsandpayfota tideonamonstetto||ercoastetwecannotimaginesut±ing, otfot aseatinamovietbeatetsbowingab|oodytbti||etweatecettainwi|| " 88 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R giveusbaddreams.Ournorma|afnnityfortbeoccasiona|tbri||can maketberisk-takingsociopatbseema||tbemorecbarming-atnrst !nitia||y, itcanbeexcitingtobeinvitedintotberisjscbeme,tobe associatedwitbtbepersonwboismakingcboicesoutsideofouror- dinaryboundaries. Letustakeyourcreditcardandí|yto!aristonigbtLetustake -¨*¯¯*"ª yoursavingsandstarttbatbusinesstbatsoundssofoo|isbbut,witb t��inds ||k������ì�¬ _� �_ Tb .� Ltu�gearriedrigbtnow. Letus |ose tbese boring friends ofyours and go oh somewbere by our- se|ves Letusbavesexintbee|evator. Letusinvestyourmoneyin tbisbottip!]ustgot Letus|augbattberu|es Letuswa|kintotbis restaurantdressedinourl-sbirtsand]eans.Letusseebowfastyour carcango Letus|ive a|ittle ·"^·º ¹³´¹~^-¹ `°� "� °" ^+. ¨ühis:h� ¡I�:i�iopatbic °spontaneig° and risktaking and°cbarm, °andtbougbwemaycbuck|eabouttbeobviouscome- ons wbenwe readtbem, tbe overa|| approacb bas metwitbnote- wortby success time and�gaa� Smeon� w� is u�t _ +by �� c�s±eu¡e|tbatour|ivesaretedious|yru|e- boundand|ack|uster,andtbatwesbou|d]oinbiminwbatisgpica||y representedasamoremeaningfu|orexbi|aratingformofexistence. 8eginningwitbLveandtbeserpent,ourbistorybooksandourc|as- sicnctionareh||edwitbta|esofpeop|ewbobavebeentakeninand sometimesdestroyedbytbes|ickta|kandmagnetismofrisktakers and evi|doers-Dickie Green|eaf and tbe ta|ented Mr. Rip|ey, SamsonandDe|i|ab,RiverCityandHaro|dHi||,lri|byandSvenga|i, NormanMai|erand]ackHengAbbott,LmpressA|exandraandtbe seeming|y immorta| Rasputin And from our own |ives, we bave memoriesofbrusbeswitbsucbpeop|etbatsend|itt|eco|d cbi||sup ourspineslbatis,ifweare|ucjwebavebadon|ybrusbes.lbeun- fortunatemust|ivewitbtbeinde|ib|ememoriesofoutrigbtpersona| catastrophestbatoccurredwbentbeyfe||victimtotbecbarmoftbe sbame|ess. $ µ MART HA S T OUT Moteovet, tbe sbame|essknowus mucb bettet tbanwe know tbe�`� _ _ dtm s e|ng��a _ �¸ � - � ce, butapetsonwbobas noconsciencecan instant|yrec- ognize someonewbo is decent and ttusting. Lven as a cbi|d, Skip knewwbicbboybecou|dta|kintoacquitingbisntewotksfotbim. A anadu|t,be immediate|ypetceivedtbat]u|iette cou|d |ive witb bim fot decades and never question bis l|otid activities Doteen Litt|ene|dsawaneasymatkin!vy, tbeteceptionist,andundetstood petfect|ywe||tbat]ackieRube n steinwasacatingpetsonwbocou|d becountedontoassumemotetbanbetfaitsbateoftesponsibi|ig Wbenasociopatbidentinessomeoneasagoodgamepiece,sbe studiesthatpetsSh���kes·bebus�:�wbo � ¡batpet- ¯ n _� i _ atedandused,and,totbisend,]ustbo _ � ¿� tcbo- § T°*'´�¯`'´ ·¬~ ·v-v ¬+ ¬ , w• w -\+ I'^-~¯^ *´'�¨" ´ª senpawncanbel|attetedandcbatmed.!naddition,sbeknowsbow toptomote a�� mLmi|i�r ¡ ¡ � � intimacybyc|aimingtbat sbe and b�rvictmare s|mi|a�:n ��� ¸ ictims onen teca||state- mentstbatahectedtbemevenaftettbesociopatbwasgone,sucbas, °Youknow, !tbinkyouand!atea|ota|ike,° ot°!tssoceartome tbat you'te my sou| mate ° !n tettospect, tbese tematks can fee| supteme|y demeaning Outtageous|y unttue, tbeybaunttbe mind nonetbe|ess Re|ated|y, peop|ewitboutconscience bave anuncannysenseof wbowi||bevu|netab|etoasexua|ovettute,andseductionisanotbet vegcommonsociopatbictecbnique.iotmostpeop|e, as�xua| |iai- soninvo|ves anemotiona|tie, evenifon|yl|eeting|y, and sucbties ate used by tbe co|d|y temotse|ess to get wbat tbeywant-a||e- giance,nnancia|suppott, infotmation,asenseof°winning, ¨otpet- haps]ustatempotagte|ationsbiptbatbastbeappeatanceofbeing notma|.lbisisaneasi|ytecognizedstog, andanotbetonetbatte- peatsitse|fofteninout|itetatuteandbistoty. 8utse|domdowetec- ognize tbe degtee ofpowetit bestows on sociopatbs, powetovet individua|s, ofcoutse, and a|so ovet gtoups ofpeop|e, and institu- tionsA sociopathwboisbidingoutinanotganizationcanbavebis " 90 " 1I · · • I T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R otbetttack s biddeniudennite|ybyJustoneottwonotma|individu- a|swbobavemadetbesing|emistakeofconsummatingtbeitatttac- tiontotbiscbatming|ydangetouspetsonDoteen,fotexamp|e,was ab|etoposeasapsycbo|ogistptimati|ybecause|ettetsottefetence wetewtitteubytwopeop|esbebadmanipu|atedsexua||y.Andwben ]ackiettiedtoexposeDoteenssociopatbicbebaviot,atbitdpetson, tbeunitditectot,tanintetfetenceptobab|yfottbesa:neteason,and ¸ ¹ tbe seductive °Dt.¨ Litt|ene|dtemainedattbebospita|fotsixaddi- tiona|yeats Andsexua|seductionison|yoneaspectoftbegame.Weatese- � = ~× ducedaswe||bytbe actingski||s of t � _� � � �incetbe scaf- ¯T�lu�� deception and i||usion, inte||igentsociopatbsoftenbecomeptoncientatacting,andevenat some oftbepatticu|attecbniquesemp|oyedbyptofessiona|actots. !atadoxica||y,tbevisib|esignsofemotionatwi||canbecomesecond natute to tbe co|d-b|ooded-tbe appeatance ofintense intetest in anotbet petsons ptob|ems ot entbusiasms, cbest-tbumping patti- otism, tigbteous indignation, b|usbing modesg, weepy sadness Ctocodi|eteatsatwi||ateasociopatbicttadematk.Makingsutetbat Iv wou|dseeandbepsycbo|ogica||yseducedbytbem, Doteenctied ctocodi|eteatsovetbetpatientDennis,andnodoubtsbectiedtbem inftontofIv again,ptofuse|y,wbensbeinevltab|ymadeuptbetet- tib|e, painfu|i||nesstbat °fotced¨bettobavebet|itt|e dogputto s|eep Ctocodi|eteatsftomtbetemotse|essateespecia||y|ike|ywbena conscience-boundpetsongetsa|itt|etooc|osetoconftontingaso- ciopatbwitbtbettutb.Psociopatbwboisabouttobecotnetedby anotbet petson»i|| tutn sudden|y into a piteous weeping ngute wbomno one, ingoodconscience, cou|d continueto ptessute Ot tbeopposite. Sometimesacotneted sociopatbwi|| adoptapostute oftigbteousindignationandangetinaoattempttoscateoffbetac- cuset,asDoteendidwitbtbebospita|ditectotswbensbewasnna||y nted. 9) MART H A S T OUT ß�ingn atut a |actots,conscience|esspeop|ecanmakefu||useof soeia|andptofessiona| to|es,wbicbconstituteexce||entteady-made maskstbatotbetpeop|eate|oatbtoJookbebindRo|esbe|pus ot- ganizeout comp|exsocie(, andtbeyatettemendous|yimpottantto us.lfwe see suspiciousbebaviot,wemay eventua||yquestionsome- oenamedDoteen1itt|ene|d,butweatequiteun|ike|ytoquestion someone ca||ed1r Doteen Litt|ene|d,no mattetbowunusua|bet bebaviot.Wete|atetotbetit|eofJcctcr wbicb bo|dsac|eatandpos- itivemeaningfot us,andwedonot tbinktoobatdabouttbebuman beingwhoca||s betse|ftbat. losomeextent,tbesameisttuefotpeo- p|�wbob�ve (|ega||y ot i||ega||y, assumed to|es and tit|es in tbe arenasoHeadetsbip,business,otganizedte|igion, education, otpat- entbo�d- • Se|dom do tbe neigbborssctutinize tbe bebaviot oftbe c�utcbdeaconottbetowse|ectmanottbebigbschoo|ptincipa|ot abusinessptodig|ikeSkip.e be|ieveptomisesftomsucbpeop|e becauseweassigntotbeind����� e as ion,wea|mostnevetcba||en�eigb�tspatentin�� tices, evenwbenwefeattbatacbi|d isbeing abused,and oftenout |ogicisnomotesubstantia|tban°H:'stbepatent. ¨ lnaddition, we ate di�ttacted ftom a petson 's actua| bebaviot wbenbeteptesents bimse|fas insomewaybenevo|ent, cteative, ot insigbtfu|.Wedonotsuspectpeop|ewboc|aimtobeanima||ovets, fot examp|e.Wegiveextta|eewaytotbosewboidentifytbemse|ves asattistsotinte||ectua|s,inpattbecauseweatttibuteanydepattutes ftom tbe notmto eccentticities we, as otdinatypeop|e, cou|d not possib|yundetstand lngeneta|,out:egatdforsucbgtoupsis acon- � ttuctive sentiment, but it does someti:nes open tbe doot fot so- copatbswbocanmimictbeotbets. '· Wotse, out tespect fot peop|e wbo appeatto be iopited and .` benevo|ent |eadets canbeabused-basbeenabusedmanytimes- tocatac|ysmicends.Witba|eadet,e�pecia||yonewboc|aimstobave ¸ Û �t:b|imemission,aswitbÛ doctototaptiestotapatent,_e tend �_ _¸¡,�tofo||owtbe - 92 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R individua|accotding|y. 8en]aminWo|man,foundetandeditotoftbe "- I nterat i on aL J ou ro f Group Tensions, wtites, °Usua||ybuman ctu- e|g incteaseswben an aggtessive sociopatb gains an uncanny, a|- mostbypnotlccontto|ovet|atge numbets ofpeop|e Histogisfu|| ofcbieftains, ptopbets, saviots, gutus, dictatots, and otbet socio- p a tbicmega|omaniacswbomanagedto obtain suppott . and in- citedpeop|etovio|ence. ¨ lnsidious|y, wbensucb8 °saviot¨abducts �benotma|popu|ationtobisputposes,beusua||ybeginswitbanap- pea|totbemas goodpeop|ewbowou|d|iketoimptovetbecondi- tion of bumanig, and tben insists tbat tbey can acbieve tbis by fo||owingbisownaggtessivep|an lnaconfusingitony, consciencecanbe tendetedpattia||yb|ind because peop|e witbout conscience use, as weapons against us, manyoftbefundamenta||ypositivetoo|sweneedtobo|dsocietyto- getbet-mpatbic emotions, sexua| bonds, socia| and ptofessiona| to|es, tegatdfottbe compassionate andtbe cteative, outdesiteto maketbewot|dabettetp|ace,andtbeotganizingtu|eofautbotity Andpeop|ewbo do bideoustbings do not|ook|ikepeop|ewbodo bideous tbingslbeteisno°faceofevi|. ¨ lfwecou|dsomebowsub- ttact a|| its botti[ing connotations, tbe actua| face of Saddam ' Hussein|ookstatbetavuncu|at,andbasoftenbeentecotdedasbav- ingabigftiend|ysmi|e Hit|etsface, bad itnotbecomeanicon of evi| becauseoftbe attocities bis |ife engendeted, migbt be consid- eteda|mostcomica|, Ch�p|inesque as itwete, initsfoo|isbexptes- siou.Lizz8otden|ooked|ikeatbeotbet|aced-upVictotian|adies inPa||Rivet,Massacbusettslame|a Smattisptetgled8undywas sobandsometbatwomensentmattiage ptoposa|sto bimondeatb tow,andfotevety|eetingCbat|esManson,tbeteistbetadiant|yin- nocentcountenanceofa}obnLeeMa|vo Wetp,conscious|yottacit|y, to]udgeapetson'scbatactetbybis otbetappeatance, buttbisbook-by-its-covetsttategisinehective inneat|ya||caseslntbetea|wot|d,tbebadguysdonot|ooktbeway tbeyatesupposedto.lbeydonottesemb|ewetewo|vesotHanniba| - µ3 MA RT H A S T OUT L�cbtetotlony!etkinsstatingatacotpseinatockingcbaitOntbe conttag,tbey|ook|ikeus Gaslight 8eingtatgetedbyasociopatbisavegftigbteningexpetience, even wbentbatsociopatb is not oftbevio|entvatieg. !n I944, Geotge Cukotditectedapsycbo|ogica|tbti||etentit|edGalight, inwbicba beautifu|youngwoman,p|ayedby!ngtid8etgman, ismadetofee| sbeisgoinginsane Hetfeattbatsbe is |osingbetmindisinllicted on bet systematica||y by Cbat|es 8oyet, wbo p|ays bet evi| but cbatming new busband. Among a numbet of otbet ditç tticks, 8oyetattangesfot8etgantobeatsoundsintbeatticwbenbe is absent, andfottbe gas|igbtto dimbyitse|f, in a menacingbouse wbetebetauntwasmystetious|ymutdetedyeatsbefote.Ofcoutse, noonebe|ieves8etgmanabouttbenoisesintbeatticottbegas|igbt otmucb ofanytbing e|se, and bet gtadua| descent intodoubting bet own tea|ig bas found its way into Lng|isb idiom as °to be gas|igbted ¨8oyetisnotvio|ent. Henevetsttikes8etgman. Mucb motesinistet-becausesbetto|osefaitbinbetownpetceptions lo suspect,andtotgtoexp|aintootbetstbatonebasbeentat- geted bya sociopatb, is to be gas|igbted ]ackie Rubensteinwas a good examp|e oftbis pbenomenon wben sbe conftonted Doteen Litt|ene|d witb tbe ctue|ty sbe bad done to Dennis. Aetwatd , ]ackiepbonedaftiendfotsuppottbecausesbefe|tsbewas |osing betmindAndwbensbettiedtote|atebetdiscovegaboutDoteen totbeunitditectot,bepo|ite|ybutc|eat|yecboedDoteen'simp|ica- tiontbat]ackie badgonea|itt|ectaza|ongwitbhetpatanoidpa- tient. Wben]ackie accused Doteenofaviciousacttowatd an unof- fendingpatient,tbe natuta|questionwas, Wbywou|dapetson|ike tbatdosucbabottib|etbing?lbisistbequestionotbetsa|waysask, 94 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ovett|yotby intimation,anditissucbabewi|deting,unanswetab|e questiontbat tbe onewbo suspects tbe sociopatb usua||y ends up ��kingit, too,on|ytonndtbatsbebasnotationa|-soundingexp|a- nation.And|iketbeinnocentnewbtideinGaslight, sbemaycometo ¸ |osefaitb,pattia||yotcomp|ete|y, inbetownpetceptions.Cettain|y �bew besitatetote||betstogagain,sincettyingtoexposetbeso- ¸ · �iopatbcastsd�ubtsonbetownctedibi|igandmaybeevenonbet ��nity. lbese doubts, outownand otbet peop|e's, ate painfu|, and y �eadi|yconvinceustokeepoutmoutbssbut.Ovettbeyeats,|isten- iugtobundtedsofpatientswbobavebeentatgetedbysociopatbs,l bave |eatned tbatwitbin an otganization ot a communig, in tbe eventtbata sociopatb is nna||ytevea|edtoa||andsundg, itisnot unusua|tonndtbatseveta|peop|esuspecteda||a|ong,eacb one in- dependent|y, eacb one in si|ence. Lacb one fe|t gas|igbted, and so eacbonekeptbetctaz�soundingsectettohetse|f. Wbywou|d a petson |iketbatdo sucb a bottib|e tbing? we ask ', outse|ves8y°apetson|iketbat, ¨we meananotma|-|ookingpetson, apetsonwbo looks]ust|ikeusWemeanapetsoninaptofessiona| to|e,otananima||ovet, otapatentotaspouse,otmaybeacbatm- l ingsomeonewebavebaddinnet,otmote,witb.Andby°sucbabot- tib|e tbing,¨ we mean a negative act tbat is inexp|icab|ybizatte, becausetbeteisnoway, basedonoutownfee|ingsandnotma|mo- tivations,tbatwe canexp|ainwbyanyonewou|devetwanttodoit intbe ntstp|ace.Wbywou|dasmatt,bandsome,ptivi|egedboy|ike Skipwanttos|augbtetsma||anima|s?!nadu|tbood,wbywou|dfab- u|ous|ysuccessfu| Skip, mattied totbe beautifu| daugbtet ofa bi|- |ionaite, tisk bis teputation bybreaking tbe atm ofan �mp|oyee? Wbywou|d Dt. Litt|ene|d, a psycbo|ogistandtbe nicest petsonin tbewot|d,sudden|ymountabtuta|psycbo|ogica|attackonatecov- eting patient, and a Vl! at tbat? Wbywou|d sbe, an estab|isbed ptofessiona| petson, knowing sbewou|d be found out, make up a meaning|esswbo|e-c|otb|ie]usttoscateayoungintem? lbese atetbe kinds ofquestionswe askoutse|veswbenwe ate ~ 95 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT exposedtosociopathicbehavot,andin mostcases,wecannotcome upwithanswetsthat sound plausible to us Speculate as we may, we �annot imagine why. Nothing sounds believable, so we think there ¬�ba ¬isu�detstanding, �tmaybe we have gteatlyexag� gerated somethinginoutobsetvations.Wethinkthiswaybecau�e the conscience-bound mind is qu�litatively diffetent ftom the conscience-ftee mind, and what sociopaths want, what motivates them,iscomple� e ly outside outexpetience. Inotdettohan amen- tally 4I petsonln�entionaäy, �s Doteen did`, otto bteaksomeone's atm,asSkip did, mostofu�wouldhaveto besetiouslythteatened bythepetsonwewetehutting,otbeundettheinßuenceofacom· pelling emotion such as tage. Petfotming such actions calmly, fot fun,has noplaceintheemotionaltepettoiteofnotmalpeople. Sociopaths,peoplewithnointetveningsenseofobligationbased inattachmentstoothets,gpicallydevotetheitlivestointetpetsol games, to¨winning,°todominati�fotthesakeofdomination.The testofus, who do possess conscience, may be able to undetstand thismotivationalschemeconceptually,butwhenweseeitintea|life, itscontoutsatesoalienthatweoftenfailto ¨see°itatall.Maµpeo- plewithout consciencewillbehave self-desttuctivelysimplyfot the ª ' *'¯ ´ ·· "¯¯ ¨ .=·- · ~~m{¸ ��¿ \ y�·· · « ·= ~, 7 putposes ofthegame. StampManspenthalfhislifein]ail fotthe · thtill,evegfew,eats,ofmakingafew postalwotketsandpoliceof- ncetsscuttyatoundfotanhoutotso.Doteengleefullyputhetown cateetatsignincanttisk]usttodamagehetcolleague'salittle.These atebehaviotswe ate notptepatedto undetstand, otevenbelieve. -= - , - - ´ Wewilldoubtoutowsnseoftealigntst. ¯"^* - · mdofteu,out se|f+oubts ateextteme.1anillusttation,thete »asthetema:kabl e pubhcteaction,whichcontinuedfotthitgyeats �ftet het death, to a cateet ctiminal named Batbata Gtaham. In I9óó,at theageofthitg-two,GtahamwasexecutedatSanQuentin fot het patt in the especially btutal mutdet of an eldetlywidow . · namedMabelMonahan. Mts.Monahan,likeIngtidBetgman'smut- " 95 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R , deredauntinGas l ig h t, badbeentumotedtokeepacacbeof]ewe|s ¹mbetbouse Gtabamandtbteeaccomp|icesentetedtbebouse,and · when no ]ewe|s wete fottbcoming, Gtabam (nicknamed °8|oody _ ßabs°bytbemedia,pisto|-wbippedtbee|det|ywoman,neat|yob|it� ,etatingbetface,andtbensuhocatedbettodeatbwitbapi||ow · · Recotded at bet execution, 8|oody 8abs's |ast wotds wete, °Good peop|e ate a|ways so sute tbeyte tigbt ° lbis assettionwas de|ivetedca|m|y, a|mostwitbanairofsympatby, andasanehective ¿as|ightingtecbnique, itwas a fait|ygood |ine ltcaused manyto doubttbeitownsenseoftea|igconcemingGtabam, and tefocused tbe pub|ic's attention on betto|e as an atttactive motbetoftbtee youngcbi|dten, tatbettbanonbetgtis|ybebaviotAftetbetdeatb, sbebecametbesub]ectofemotiona|debate,andeventoday, against tbeweightofconsidetab|e evidence, tbete atetbosewbomaintain ª tbatGtabamwasinnocentOutoftbepub|icsse|f-doubtsptangtwo n|msaboutbet, botbentit|edI Want to Live! lbe ntststattedSusan Haywatd,wbowonanOscatfotbetpetfotmance,anda I98Jte|e- visiontemakefeatutedLindsayWagnet !nbotbvetsions, Gtabam, tbesadisticmutdetess,waspotttayedasapoignant|ymisundetstood womanwbowasftamed 8atbataGtabam's|astwotds-°Goodpeop|eatea|ways sosute tbey'tetigbt°-badagas|igbtingeffectptecise|ybecausetbettutbis quitetbe opposite ln fact, one of tbemote s�tikit:g cbatactetisics ofgoodpeop|eistbattbeyatea|uostnevetcomp|ete|ysuretbeyate tigbt Good peop|e questiontbe m se|v �sconstanu, t��ive|y, and sub]ecttbeitdecisionsandactionstotbeexactingsctutioyofanin- t��ening sense ofob|igation tooted intheit attachm�nts to otber� pe o p|e lbe se|f-questioningofconscience se|d�mad�.tsabso|�t e cettainty into tbe mind, and even wben it does, cettaing fee|s tteacbetcusto us,as ifitmayttickusintopunisbingsomeoneun- ]ust|y,otpetfotmingsomeotbetunconscionab|eactLven|ega||y,we speakof °beyondateasonab|edoubt°tatbettbanofcomp|etecet- ¬ 97 ¯ MART HA S T OUT taing. ! ntbeend,8atbataGtabamundetstoodusfatbettettbanwe undetstoodbet, andbetpattingt e matkpusbedanittationa|butvety ´ sensitivepsycbo|ogica|button intbe conscience-boundpeop|ewbo sutvived bet-tbe feattbat tbeybadmade adecisionbasedontoo muc h certainty. Adding to out insecutity, most ofus comptebend instinctive|y tbat tbete ate sbades ofgood and bad, tatbet tban abso|ute cate- goties Weknowinoutbeattstbeteisnosucbtbingasapetsonwbo is I00 petcentgood,andsowe assumetbetemustbenost:cbtbing asapetsonwbois I00 petcentbad.Adpetbaps pbi|osopbica||y- and cettain|y tbeo|ogica||y-tbis is ttue. Aet a||, in tbe ]udeo- Cbtistianttadition,tbedevi|bimseIfis& fa||enange|!tobab|ytbete ate no abso|ute|y good buman beings and no uttet|y bad ones. Howevet-psycbo|ogica||yspeaking,tbetedennite|yat�peop|ewbo possess an intetvening sense ofconsttaint based in emotiona| at- tacbments,andotbetpeop|ewbobavenosucbsenseAndtofai|to undetstandtbisistop|ace peop|eofconscience, anda||tbeMabe| Monabansoftbewot|d,indanget. How Do WeKeeptbe8|indersOf Mydaugbtets nftb-gtade c|ass bad a ne|d ttip, and ! was one of tbe cbapetones. Wewentto seea p|ayca||ed Free d om Train, about Hattietlubmanandtbe Undetgtound Rai|toad Ontbe noisybus tidebacktoscboo|,oneoftbeboyswaspickingonanotbetboy,pok- ingbimandpu||ingbisbait.lbequietboybeingpokedwasdeve|- opmenta||y de|ayed, ftiend|ess, ! amto|d, and didnot bave a c|ue bowto defend bimse|f Lvenbefote one oftbe adu|ts cou|d intet- vene, a petite git| seated]ust bebind tbetwoboystappedtbe tot- mentotontbesbou|detandsaid,°lbat'stea||ymean Quitit° lbepetsonwbotecgni ts anTsia! 1v:otan3pD|ic|y " 98 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ob]ectedtoitwastenyeatso|danda||offoutfeetta||.!beboysbe badspokentostuckbistongueoutatbetand|eaptovettoanotbet bus seattobewitbone ofbis pa|s. Sbewatcbedbimgo andtben ca|m|ytesumedtbegameoftock-papet-scissotssbebadbeenp|ay- ingwitbtbe git|nexttobet. Wbatbappenstouswbi|eweategtowingup?Wbydoadu|tsstop saying°Quitit¨totbebu||ies?!begtown-upbu||iesatemotepow- etfu|,buttben,soateweWi||tbisbea|tby|itt|egit|bebavewitbtbe same kind ofdignigandse|f�assutancewben sbe istbitçyeats o|d andafootandaba|fta||et?Wi||sbebeanotbetHattiet!ubman,a|- beit witb a diffetent cause? Sad|y, given out ptesent cbi|d-teating ptactices,tbeoddsateagainstit. We taise out cbi|dten, especia||y git|s, to ignote tbeit sponta- neousteactions-weteacbtbemnottotocktbesocleta|boat-and tbuis agoodand necessaç|essonwbentbe spontaneousteaction invo|ved wou|d be to sttikeoutvio|ent|ywitbhts otwotds, otto stea|anatttactive itemftoma stote, ottoinsu|tasttangetinasu- petmatket|ine 8ut anotbet kind ofspontaneous teaction, equa||y supptessedbyoutconBict-avo:dantsockg,¡sU ¯|¯teact:on,1he ¯a:t:ta|senseO ü¬a8ymeus |suÆ`va!am |auaid¯-:Ttotespond,totocktbe boat,wben someone'sactions ate °tea||ymean¨-maybave been excised ftom betbebaviot,andpetbapsftombetveçmind !n tbeit book Womens Anger: C l inica l an d Deve l opmenta l Perspectives, gendet psycbo|ogists Debotab Cox, Sa||y Stabb,and Katin8tucknetdocumenttbewaysgit|sandwomenpetceive socia| tesponsestotbeitouttage.Cox,Stabb,and8tucknetwtitet bat°tbe ma]otigofintetactionstbey¸ git|sandwomen| desctibeinvo|vete- ]ectionofeitbettbeanget,tbegit|otwoman,otbotb.!bistakestbe fotn:ofeitbetditectattacktbtougbctiticismotdefensive tesponse, otmote passive te]ection sucb as witbdtawa| andminimizationof tbegit|'sotwoman'sconcetnsandfee|ings. ¨Andbasedonbetstud- 99 MAR T HA S T OUT iesofado|escentgit|s,educatot[Mike|8townmaintainstbatide- a|izedfemininigcandangetous|yendotse°si|enceovetoutspoken- ness. ¨ lokeeptbeb|indetsoffout|ife-enbancingseventbsense,aswitb mostimptovementsintbebumancondition,wemuststattwitbout cbi|dtenApattofbea|tbyconscienceisbeingab|etoconftontcon- science|essnessWbenyouteacbyoutdaugbtet,exp|icit|yotbypas- 'sivete]ection, tbat sbe mustignote betouttage, tbatsbe mustbe ´ · ~~ - ^ - ` kind and acceptingtotbe point ofnot defendingbetµfototbet peop|e,tb�tsb� mustnot tocktbeboatfotanyteason,youatenot sttengtbeningbetptosocia|sense,youatedamaging�t- andtbentst petsonsbewi||stopptotectingisbetse|f Cox, Stabb, and8tucknet atgueempbatica||ytbat°tbetequitementtosupptessouttageattbe otbettobstbewo m anofanoppottunigtodeve|optbiskindofau- tonomy ¨ !nstead,asLynMike|8townbassaid,weneedtosuggest °tbepossibi|ity, evenundettbemostopptessiveconditions,fotcte- ¸ ativetefusa|andtesistance ¨ Donot set bet uptobe gas|igbted Wben sbe obsetves tbat someonewboisbeingtea||ymeanisbeingtea||ymean,te||betsbe istigbtandtbatitisokaytosaysoout|oud]ackieRubensteincbose tobe|ievebetpatientDennis, andnottobe|ievebetdangetousco|- !eagueDoteenLitt|ene|d !twasagood,mota|cboice Sbesaid,ef- fective|y, °lbat's tea||y mean. Quit it, ¨tbougb saying so out |oud causedbetto beviewedasattoub|emaketbymanyoftbe |essin- sigbtfu|peop|eatoundbet A fottbe boys-in R aising C ain: Protecting , t h e Emotiona l Li f e o f Boys, |eading cbi|d psycbo|ogists Dan Kind|on and Micbae| lbompson tecotd tbeit concem about tbe ftequencywitb wbicb °vu|netab|e fatbets tutn to time-bonoted defensive tesponses to mmntaintbenc(ionu�t'Iatbetknowsbest. '¨!atents,especia||yfa- the:s�¸ ypica||y uac|¡heit sonsto obey autbotigno mattet wbat, and·given tbe wtongcu|tuta| and po|itica| citcumstances, citcum- v °; stances tbat bave occuttedwitb motbid tegu|atigtbtougbout bis- )00 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R tog,tbisisa|�ssontbatmaywe||comewitbasuicidec|ause lbat patentswisItofostetacettaintespect¡ot|egitimateautbongisun- | detstandab|e, andptobab|yimpottantfottbefunctioningofsocieg asweknowit. 8utto dti||cbi|dtenintellexive, no-questions-asked obedience is to beat a botse tbat is mote tban ba|f-dead a|teady Obediencetoappatentautbotigisaknee-]etkteactioninmostpeo- plequitewitboutttaining,andtosensitizetbistellexistomakeout cbi|dtenbypetvu|netab|etoanyaggtessiveotsociopatbic°autbotity¨ ' ¡ wbomaycomea|ong|atetintbeit|ives � lo evetyone's dettiment, obedience and tbe bigbet va|ues of pattiotism and dug can become indistinguisbab|e motivations. Lnbancedintbisway, tenexiveobediencecanconsumetbeindivid� '¡ tta|befotebeevenbasacbancetowondetwbetbetbebimse|fmigbt be tbe best autbotigwben it comes to bis own |ife and bis own countg, and|ongbefotebecanaskquestionssucbas°Do!andmy countçmentea||ywanttongbtandpetbapsdiefottbisexetna|'au- thorig's'se|f-intetest?¨ Sti||, !be|ievewemaynowbestandingattbeedgeofamodetn possibi|igtbousands ofyeats intbe making. !ntbepast, fotstatk . . . teasonsofsutviva|,bumanbeingsttu|yneededtbeitcbi|dtennotto �psetanybatd-wonapp|ecatts,nottoquestiontbingstoomucb,uot todisobeyotdets.Lifewaspbysica||ybatdandptecatious,andcbi|- dtenwbo cba||enged out autbotigmigbt a|| too easi|y end up as �eadcbi|dten.And so,unti|tecentcentutie � ,w� taisedbumansfot ¸ wbommota|outtagewasanextteme|uxug,andtowbomtbeques- ;/I1ODH1� ofautbotigfe|t|ife-tbteatening.!ntbisway, genetationaftet �enetatiou, we wete unwitting|y set up fot sociopatbic takeovets. 8utnow, fotmostofusintbedeve|opedwot|d, sutviva|conditions no|ongetbo|d.Wecanstop.Wecan|etoutcbi|dtenquestiontbings. And wben tbey ate gtown, tbey can, witboutdoubiing tbeit own s �nses, |ook tbe gtown-up b�||ies intbe eye a nd say°!bat's t�a|ly * - � � × +··º . · t' U C3D Quitit '' wbatabouttboseofuswboatea|teadygtown,wewbobave - )0) ¨ MAR T HA S T OUT baddecadesofptacticeinignotingoutowninstincts?Howcanwe avoid beinggas|igbted, anda||owoutse|vestotecognizetbe peop|e atounduswbobavenoconscience?lbisistbeconcetnaddtessedin tbenextcbaptet ltis anintetestingquestionwitbatatbetsutptis- inganswet ¯ )02 ¯ S l X how to r ecogmze the r emors e l ess In the desert, an old monk had once advised a traveler the voices of God and the Devil are scarcely distinguishable. -Loren Ei sel ey Ì n my ptactice, one oftbe questions I amasked most often is, °HowcanI te||wbomtottust?¨Sincemypatientsatesutvivotsof psycbo|ogica|ttauma,mostofwbombavebeendevastatedbyotbet bumanbeings,tbisisnotasutptisingconcemfottbemtobaveOn tbeotbetband,myfee|ingistbattbisissueisaptessingonefotmost ofus, eventbosewbobavenotendutedsevetettauma, andtbatwe . a||tgvegbatdtoassesstbe|eve|ofconsciencetbatexists,otnot, inotbetpeop|eWeateespecia||yintetestedintbeconsciencequo- tientoftbe peop|ewe bave c|osete|ationsbipswitb, andwbenw� meetanatttactivenewpetson,weofteninvestconsidetab|ementa| enetginsuspiciousness ovet, guesses about, andwisbfu|tbinking concetningtbisquestion. lbeunttustwottbydo notweatspecia|sbitts, otmatksontbeit fotebeads, andtbe facttbatwe mustonenmakectucia|decisions aboutotbetpeop|ebasedonnotmucbmotetb�nguesswotk|eads ustoittationa|sttategiestbatteadi|ybecome|ife|ongsupetstitions. 103 MA RT HA S T OUT °Dontttustanyoneovettbirç, ¨°Nevetttustaman,¨°Nevetttusta woman,¨ °Nevetttustanyone¨atetbe m o st popu|atexamp|esWe wantac|eattu|e, even asweepingone, becauseknowingwbomto bewatyofis so impottantto us,buttbesewide-btusbsttategiesate ineffective, and, wotse, tbeytendtoptoduce anxiegand unbappi- nessinout|ives Apatt ftom knowing someonewe|| fot manyyeats, tbete isno foo|ptoofdecisiontu|eot|itmustestfotttustwottbiness,anditisex- tteme|yimportanttoacknow|edgetbisfact,unnervingtbougbitmay beUncettaintyintbis tegatdis simp|ya patt oftbe bumancondi- tion,and!bavenevetknownanyonewbogotatounditcomp|ete|y, except by tbe most exttaotdinag |uck. Puttbetmote, to imagine tbete isaneffective metbod-ametbodtbatone bastbusfatbeen unab|eto hgute out-istobeatup on onese|fin awaytbatis de- meaningandunfait Wben it comes to ttustingotbetpeop|e, we a||make mistakes. Someoftbesemistakesate|atgettbanotbets. Havingsaidtbis, wben peop|e askme aboutttust, ! tep|ytbat thete is bad news and good news.!be bad news is tbattbete ttu|y ate individua|s wbo bave no conscience, and tbese individua|s ate nottobettusted ata||. !etbapsanavetageofJoutpeop|einatan- domgtoupofonebundtedate|imitedintbisway!begoodnews- tbe vety good news-is tbat at |east nineg-six peop|e out of a bundtedateboundbytbeconsttaintsofconscience,andcantbete- fotebecountedontobebaveaccotdingtoa teasonab|ybigbbase- |ineofdecencyandtesponsibi|ig-tobebave, inotbetwotds,mote ot|essaswe||asyouand! doAndtomymind,tbissecondfactis agteatdealmotecompe||ingtbantbehtst. !tmeans, astonisbing|y, tbat to a cettain standatd of ptosocia| bebaviot, out intetpetsona| wot|dsbou|dbeaboutnineg-sixpetcentsafe Andsowbydoestbewot|dseemtobesotettib|yunsafe? How doweexp|aintbesixo'c|ocknews,otevenoutownpetsona|badex- petiences?Wbatis going on bete? Cou|d it conceivab|y betbata ¬ )04 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R mete4petcentoftbepopu|a�ionistesponsib|efotneat|ya||oftbe buman disastetstbatoccutintbewot|d,andinoutindividua||ives? lbisisanattestingquestion,onetbatoffetstoovetbau|manyofout assumptions about buman socieg So ! wi|| tepeat tbattbe pbe- nomenonofconscienceisovetwbe|ming|ypowetfu|,petsistent,and ptosocia|. Un|ess undettbe spe|| ofa psy�botic de|usion, exteme tage, inescapab|edeptivation, dtugs, ota desttuctive autbotigng- ute, apetsonwboisconscience-bounddoesnot-insome sense be carrct-ki||ot tape in co|d b|ood, tottute anotbet p�tson, stea| someone's|ae savings,tticksomeoneintoa|ove|esste|ationsbipas sport, otwi||fu||yabandonbisowncbi|d. Cou|dyou? Wbenweseepeop|edoingsucbtbings, eitbetintbenewsotin ( `¸ ¸ outown|ives, wboatetbey?Ontbetateoccasion,tbeyatefotma||y insane, otundettbeptessute ofsome tadica|emotion. Sometimes tbeyatemembetsofagtouptbatisdespetate|ydeptived, ottbeyate substanceabusets,ottbefo||owetsofama|evo|ent|eadet.Butmost oftentbeyate none oftbese. Ratbet, most often, tbeyate peop|e wbobavenoconscience.lbeyatesociopatbs. Cettain|ytbeveçwotstoftbeuntbinkab|edeedsweteadabout in out newspapets andtacit|yasctibe to °buman natute°-tbougb tbe events sbockus as notma|bumanbeings-atenot tel|ective of notma|bumannatureata||, andweinsu|tanddemota|izeoutse|ves wbenwe assume so. Mainstteam buman natute, tbougb fat ftom petfect, isveç mucbgovetnedby adiscip|iningsense ofintetcon- nectedness,andtbegenuinebottotsweseeonte|evision,andsome- timesenduteinoutpetsona||ives, donottel|ect¸ica|bumankind. !ustead,tbeyatemadepossib|ebysometbingquitea|iento outna- tute�tbeco|dandcomp|eteabsenceofconscience. 1bisis,!tbink,somewbatdifncu|tfotmanypeop|etoaccept.We b�ve a batd time acknow|edging tbat patticu|at individua|s ate sbame|essbyxbeitnatute, andtbetestofusnot so, dueinpattto ltefetTO astbe°shadowtheoç°of natuteSbadowtbe- " )05 " MA RTHA STO UT oty�tbe simp|e and ptobab|y accutate notion tbat we a|| bave a °sbadow side¨ notnecessati|yappatentftomout usua| bebaviot- maintainsinitsmostexteme fotmtbatanytbingdoab|eotfee|ab|e byonebumanbeingispotentia||ydoab|eotfee|ab|ebya||.!notbet wotds,undetcettaincitcumstances (tbougbtbeyatecitcumstances weatebatd-ptessedtoimagine,anyoneata||cou|dbe,fotexamp|e, adeatb-campcommandant.!tonica||y, goodandkindbeatt�dpeop|e ate onentbemostwi||ingtosubsctibetotbistbeotyintbetadica| fotmtbatptoposes tbeycou|d, in some bizattesituation, be mass mutdetets. !t fee|s mote democtatic and |ess condemnatog (and somebow|essa|atming,tobe|ievetbatevegoneisa|itt|esbadytban toaccepttbatafewbumanbeings |iveinapetmanent andabso|u ! e mota| nigbttime lo admittbatsome peop|e |iteta||ybave no con- scienceis nottecbnica||ytbe sameas saying tbatscme bamanbe- ingsateevi|,butitisdistutbi�g|yc|oseAndgoodpeop|ewantveg mucbnottobe|ieveinthepetsonincationofevi|. Ofcoutse, tbougb not evegone cou|d bea deatb-camp com- mandant, manyifnot most peop|e ate capab|e ofovet|ookingtbe bottincactivitiesofsucbapetson, owingtotbeviscosityofpsycbo- |ogica| denia|, mota| exc|usion, and b|ind obedience to autbority Askedaboutoutsensetbatweatenotsafeinoutownwot|d,A|bett Linsteinoncesaid, °lbewot|disadangetousp|aceto |ive, notbe- cause oftbepeop|ewboate evi|, butbecauseoftbepeop|ewbo don'tdoanytbingaboutit¨ lo dosometbingaboutsbame|esspeop|e,wemustntstidentify tbem So, inoutindividua||ives,bowdowetecognizetbeonepet� son out of (mote ot |ess, twenty-nve wbo bas no conscience and who is potentia||ydangetous to out tesoutces and outwe||-being? Deciding wbetbet ot not someone is ttustwottby usua||y tequites knowingtbatpetsonwe||fota|ongtimeandintbecaseofidenti- [ingasociopatb, mucbbettetand|ongettbanonewou|dbavea|- |owedbadtbesociopa tbbeenweatingamatkonbisfotebeadattbe outsetlbisbattowingdi|emmaissimp|yapattoftbebumancon- ¬ )05 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R dition.8utevengiventbefami|iatigtequitement,tbeptessingques- l tiontemains,°Howcan!te|wbomtottust?¨-otmotetotbepoint, wbomnot tottust. Aftet|isteningfota|mosttweng-nveyeatstotbestotiesmypa- tie�tste||meaboutsociopatbswbobave invadedandin]utedtbeit |ives,wben!amasked,°Howcan!te||wbomnottottust?¨tbean- swet!giveusua||ysutptisespeop|elbenatuta|expectationistbat! wi||desctibesomesinistet-soundingdetai| ofbebaviototsnippetof body|anguageottbteateninguseof|anguagetbatistbesubt|egive- away !nstead,!takepeop|eabackbyassutingtbemtbattbetip-oh isnoneoftbesetbings,fotnoneoftbese thingsiste|iab|yptesent Ratbet,tbebes t c|ueis,ofa||tbings,tbepigp|ay1emostte|iab|e .= ' · .\.. . ×. sign,tbe mostunivetsa|bebaviotofunstupu|ous peop|e isnot di- tected,asonemigbtimagine,atoutfeatfu|ness.!tis,petvetse|y, an zppea|tooutsympatby ¸ �¯` !ntst|eatned:bi���!wassti||agtaduatestudentinpsycbo|- ogandbadtbeoppottunitytointetviewacoutt-tefettedpatienttbe systembada|teadyidentinedasa°psycbopatb. ¨ Hewasnotvio|ent, ptefettinginsteadtoswind|epeop|eoutoftbeitmoneywitbe|abo- · tateinvestment scams !nttiguedbytbisindividua|andwbatcou|d possib|ymotivate bim-!wasyoungenougbtotbinkbewas atate sottofpetson�lasked,°Wbatisimpottanttoyouinyout|ife?Wbat doyouwantmotetbananytbinge|se?¨!tbougbtbemigbtsay°get- ting money, ¨ ot °staying out of]ai|,¨ wbicbwete tbe activities to wbicbbedevotedmostofbistime!nstead,witboutamoment'sbes- itation,betep|ied, °Ob,tbatseasy.Wbat!|ikebettettbananytbing e|seiswben peop|e fee|sotgfotme lbetbing! tea||ywantmote tbananytbi�,�|��outof|ifeis peop|espity ¨ � !wasastonished,and uotetbana|itt|eput �ff. !tbink!wou|d bave|ikedbimbettetubebadsaid°stayingoutof]ai|,¨oteven°get- tingmoney. ¨A|so,!wasmystined Wbywou|dtbisman-wbywou|d anyone-wisbtobepitied, |eta|onewisbtobepitiedabovea||otbet ambitions? ! cou|dnotimagine 8utnow, aftettweng-nveyeats of - )07 MART H A S T OUT |isteningtovictims, I tea|izetbeteisanexce||entteasonfottbeso- ciopatbicfondnessfotpig.Aobviousastbenoseonone'sface,and ]ustasdifncu|ttoseewitbouttbebe|pofamittot,tbeexp|anationis tbatgoodpeop|ewi|||etpatbeticindividua|sgetbywitbmutdet,so to speak, andtbetefote any sociopatb wisbingto continuewitbbis game,wbatevet it bappens to be, sbou|d p|ay tepeated|yfotnone otbettbanpig. Mote tban admitation-mote even tban feat-pig ftom good peop|e is catteb|ancbeWbenwepity, we ate, at |e�st1ttbe mo- ment,deí�nse|ess, �nd1ikesomanyoftbeotbetessentia||ypositive buman cbatactetistics tbat bind us togetbet in gtoups-socia| and ptofessiona| to|es,sexua|bonds, tegatdfottbe compassionate and tbe cteative, tespect fot out |eadets- out emotio:i�[vu|netabi|ig wbenwepigis usedagainstusbytbo �_ b�bavenoconscience Mostof� �wou|d agr��tbatgiviagspe caldispensati�ntosomeone wboisincapab|eoffee|inggui|tisabadidea,butoften,wbenauin- dividua|ptesentsbimse|faspatbetic,wedosononetbe|ess. !ig andsympatbyatefotcesfotgoodwb�ntbeyateteactionsto desetvingpeop|ewbobavefa||enonmisfottune.8utwbentbesesen- timents·tewtestedoutofusbytbeundesetving,bypeop|ewbose " · . bebaviotisconsistent|yantisocia|,tbisisasutesigntbat somethingis wtong, a poten:ia||y usefu| danget signa| tbat we often ovet|�ok. !etbaps tbe most easi|y tecognized examp|e is tbe batteted wife wbose sociopatbicbusband beats bettoutine|yand tben sitsattbe kitcbentab|e, bead in bis bands, moaningtbat be cannot contto| bimse|fandtbatbe isa pootwtetcbwbom she mustnndit in bet beatt to fotgive. lbete ate count|ess otbet examp|es, a seeming|y end|essvatieg,someevenmotellagtanttbantbevio|entspouseand somea|mostsub|imina|Andfottboseofuswbodobaveconscience, sucbsituations,nomattetbowbtazen,seemtoptesentusemotion- a||ywit�akindofem�eddedngutepuzz|e,in�bicbtbebackgtound design(tbeappea|fotpig,continua||yovetcomesoutpetceptionsof tbemot�impottantembeddedpicttite(tbeantisocia|bebaviot, . ¯ - ¸, - . =~~- ~ , ¸. . _ ¯ 108 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R !n|ongtettospect,sociopatbicappea|sfotpigateptepostetous andcbi||ing.Skipimp|iedtbatbedesetvedypatbybecausebebad btoken someone's atm Doteen Litt|ene|d teptesented betse|fas a . " ´ ¯-«·~ poorovetwotkedsou|wbowastoosensitiveto�iu�sbetpatæuts' ¯]ain. Ftom ptis o n� a | o ve|y a nd endea � ing 8a � b�taGtah � ¬ �� - ¯p|ained to tepottets tbat sociegwas pteventing bet ftom taking ptopetcate ofbetcbi|dten And as fottbe |ikes oftbe afotemen- tioned deatb-camp ofncia|-in tbe I94ó intettogations tbat pte- cededtbeNutembetgWatCtimesltibuna|,testimonyftom actua| deatb-camp guatds inc|uded tbeit desctiptions ofbowawfu| itwas t� beincbatgeoftbectematotiums,onaccuntoftbe sme||. !nin- . tetviews bigb|igbtedby8titisbbistotianRicbatd Oveg, tbe guatds comp|ained tbat itwas difncu|t fot tbem to eat tbeit sandwicbes Sociopatbsbavenotegatdwbatsoevetfottbesocia|conttact,but tbeydoknowbowto use ittotbeitadvantage.Anda||ina||, I am sute tbat iftbe devi| existed, be wou|dwantus to fee|veg sotty fotbim * t · ··+-º^ i ' Wbendecidingwbomtottust, beatinmindtbattbe combina- tion ofconsistent|y bad ot egtegious|y iudequate bebaviot witb hequentp|aysfotyou� piµisasc|os�toawarningmatkonacon- science|ess petson's fotebead as you wi|| evet be g�ven Apetson , whose behaviot iuc|udes botboftb�sefeatutes isnotnecessati|y a massmutdetet,otevenvio|entata||,butissti||ptobab|ynotsome- oneyousbou|d c|ose|ybeftiend, take onasyoutbusiness pattnet, asktotakecateofyoutcbi|dten,Or matty Poor Luke Wbat about tbe most ptecious component oftbe socia| conttact? Wbatabout|ove? Hete isonewoman's quietca|amig, a stogtbat wi||nevetbeontbesixo'c|ocknews. " 109 · ^ �' MAR T HA S T OUT My patient Sydneywas not ptetty. At fotg-hve, sbe bad ditg b|ondbaittbatwastuminggtayandatoundmotbet|ybodytbatbad nevetbeeng|amotous8utsbeownedahneinte||ectanda|ong|ist ofacademic and ptofessiona| accomp|isbments.At a univetsig in betbomestateofP|otida, sbe badbeenptomotedto anassociate ptofessotsbipmepidemio|ogbefotesbewastbip. Sbestudiedtbe popu|ationeffectsofsubstancesusedinindigenous medicines, and befotebetmattiagesbebadttave|edextensive|yinMa|aysia,Soutb Ametica, and tbe Catibbean Wben sbe moved ftom P|otida to Massacbusetts, sbe becameaconsu|tantto anetbnopbatmaco|og gtoupbasedin Cambtidge. 8utI |ikedbetmostfotbetgent|ede- meanotandtbetbougbtfu|, inttospective apptoacbsbetooktobet |ife One oftbe tbings I temembet bestabout bet wastbe soft watmtbofbet speakingvoice dutingtbe btiefhfteentbetapyses- sionswebadtogetbet. Sydneywasdivotcedftomamannamed Luke.lbedivotcebad dtainedbet|ifesavingsandcausedbettogointodebt,becausesbe badneededtomakesutesbegotcustodyofbetson,]onatban,wbo waseigbtwbenI knewSydney, andon|yhve attbetimeoftbedi- votce.Lukebadputupanexpensivesttugg|e,votbecausebe|oved ]onatban,butbecausebewasentagedwitbSydneyfotmakingbim moveoutofbetbouse. lbebouseinSoutbP|otidabadaswimmingpoo|.Luke|ovedtbe p o o| °Lukewas|ivingintbissbabby|itt|eapattmentwbenI metbim, ¨ Sydneyto|dme°lbatsbou|d'vetaisedatedl|agfotmetigbttbete, atbitg-hve-yeat-o|dmanwbo dgonetogtaduatescboo|atP÷ cigp|anning,actua||y-|ivingintbatawfu||itt|ep|ace 8utI ignoted it. Hesaidbetea||y|ikedtbebigpoo|bisapattmentcomp|exbad SowbenbesawI badmyownpoo|,begota||bappy.WbatcanI te|| you?Mybusbandmattiedmefotmypoo|.We||,tbatsnotentite|y ttue, butintettospect,itwasdehnite|ypattofit.¨ ¯ ! !0 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R SydncyovcrlookcdLukc`slilcs¡lc,andhisattractiontohcrs,bc- causc shc thought shc had lound somcthing rarc, an cxtrcmcly intclligcnt, attractivc thirty-hvc-ycar-old man, with nowilc and no cx-wivcs, whosc intcrcsts sccmcd similar to hcrs, and who trcatcd hcrwcll. ¨Hctrcatcdmcvcqwcllathrst, I musts · ay. Hctookmcout. Hc alwaysbroughtmchowcrs. Ircmcmbcrallthoscbirds-ol-paradiscin longboxcs, all thosc orangc tÍowcrs. I had to go out and buy somc rcallytallvascs. Idon'tknow. Hcwassoh-spokcnandsortolquictly charming÷wc had grcat convcrsations. Hc was anothcr acadcmic ]pc, likc mc, or so I thought. Whc� I mct him, hc wasworking on ' a planningprojcctthrough a lricnd olhis at thc univcrsi¡. Always '' drcsscd up in suits. Actually, that's whcrc I mct him, thc univcrsi¡. Micc, upstanding placc to mcct somcbody, wouldn`t you sayî Hc toldmc hc thoughtwcwcrcalotalikc,and IgucssI bclicvcd him.¨ Asthcwccks passcd, Sydncy lcarncdthat sincc Lukchadbccn twcn¡ or so, hc had livcd with a succcssion olwomcn, always in thcirhomcs,andthathavingaplaccolhisown,cvcnanincxpcnsivc �nc, had bccn an unusual dcparturc lrom his prclcrrcd situation. Butshc ovcrlookcdthisinlormation also,bccauscshcwaslallingin lovcwith Lukc. And shc thoughthc was inlovcwith hcr, too, bc- causcthatwaswhathc toldhcr. 'Jmjusta lrumpyacadcmic. Mo onchadcvcr bccn soromantic with mc. It was a good timc-I should probably conlcss that. 1oo ' badithadtobcsoshort.Anyway . . . 1hcrcIwas,thislrumpythir¡- t¹nvc-�car-oId carccr]pc, and allolasuddcn Iwasthinking about a whitc wcdding, thc wholc ninc yards. I`d ncvcr donc that bclorc. I 1 mcan, Ialwaysthoughtitwasasillylairytalcthcytclllittlcgirls,not • ¸ DLIIIVLII LII _ I`d cvcrhavc�rwant-andthcrcIwas,wantingit,plan- ning itcvcn. ¨P lorthc lact that hc'd livcdollthosc othcrwomcn-doyou bclicvc I actuallylclt sorqlor himî I tho�ght hc was scarching lor ¨` ! ) ! ¨ MAR T HA S T OUT thc right pcrson or somcthing, andthcyusuallyjustthrcw him out altcr a whilc. Mow I undcrstand why, but I ccrtainly didn`tthcn. I thought, How1oncly, howsad. Hcsaidonc olthoscwomcnwas ac- tuallykillcd in a carcrash. Hc cricd about itwhcn hc told mcthat. I Iclt sobadlorhim. " Sixwccks altcrthcymct, Lukc movcd into Sydncy's housc, and cight months latcr thcywcrc marricd, a big church wcdding, lol- lowcdbyalormaldinncrrcccptionpaidlorbyhcrlamily. ¨Oocsn't thc bridc's lamily always pay lor thc wcddingî¨ shc askcdmcwqly. 1womonths altcrthc wcdding, Sydncydiscovcrcd shc was prcg- nant. Shc had always wantcd childrcn, buthad bclicvcd shc would ncvcrmarry. Mow hcrdrcam olmothcrhood was coming truc, and shcwas ovcqoycd. ì • ¨It sccmcd likc such a miraclc to mc, cspcciallywhcn thc baby startcdto movc. Ikcptsayingto myscll, 1hcrc's abrand-ncwpcrson inthcrc, somconcwhoncvcrwasbclorc,somconc I' mgoingto lovc lorthc rcstolmylilc. Itwas incrcdiblc. Lukcwasobviouslyalotlcss cxcitcdthan mc, butstillhc said hcwantcdthc baby, too. Hc said hcwasjustncrvous. HcthoughtIwasuglywhilcIwasprcgnant, but I hgurcd hcwasjustbcing morc honcstthanmostmcn arc aboutit. Ironic, huhî ¨IwassohappyaboutthcbabythatIdidn`tlctmyscllknowwhat I!hinkI alrcadykncw, ilthat makcs anyscnsc. I think I rcalizcdthc marriagc wasn't going to work whilc I was prcgnant. 1hc doctor told mc thc worst risk olmiscarriagc was ovcr altcr thc hrst thrcc ' months, and so ol coursc I took this litcrally, and at thc lourth month, Iwcnt out and boughtacrib.1rcmcmbcrit was onthc day thcy dclivcrcdit, Lukc camc homc and toldmchc'dquithisjob.|ust likc that. Itwas as ilhc kncvthatnowhc had mc. I was aboutto havc a baby, and so I would dchnitclytakc carc olthings. I would fakc carc olhimhnancially bccausc nowI didn'thavca choicc. Hc - ))2 T H E S O C I O PAT H . N E XT D O O R was wrongaboutthat, but I cansccwhy hcthought it. Hcmust`vc thought l` ddojust about anythingto ho|d ontothat scmb|ancc oI Iami|y. ¨ CI coursc, that was not what Lukc said to Sydncy, or to hcr Iricndsorhcr Iami|y. Hcto|dthcma||thathcwasdcprcsscd,Iartoo dcprcsscdtowork, andwhcncvcrothcrswcrc around, hc Icllsilcnt, · |ookcdhangdog, and ingcncra|p|aycdthc partoIa dcprcsscd pcr- ' son. 1o makc mattcrs cvcn morc conIusing Ior Sydncy, a numbcr oI pcop|c to|d hcr that dcprcssion among hrst-timc Iathcrs was common. ¨But I ncvcrrca|Iy thought hc was dcprcsscd,¨ Sydncyto|d mc. ¨Somcthing didn`tsccmright. l`vc bccn a li ¡ tlc dcprcsscd myse|Iat timcs, and this justwasn`t it. For onc thing, hc had way too much cncrgwhcnthcrcwassomcthinghcrcal|ywantcdtodo.Anda|so÷ this sccms likc a sma|| thing, but it madc mc prctq nuts�hc _ ¿ wou|dn`t gct hc|p. I saidwc shou|d spcnd somc moncyIor athcra- pist, or maybc somc kind oímcdication. But hc avoidcdthat idca |ikcthc p|aguc. ¨ Whcn |onathanwas born, Sydncytook a two-month matcrni[ |cavc Irom hcrtcaching,whichmcantthataUthrcc mcmbcrs oIthc g Iami|ywcrcathomctogcthcr,sinccLukcwasnotworking.ButLukc sc|dotncvcnlookcdat hisncwson, prcIcrringtorcadmagazincsby · thc poo|or to go outwithhis Iricnds.Andwhcn|onathan cricd, as ncwborns wi||, Lukc wou|d gct angq, somctimcs cnragcd, and dc- thatSydncydosomcthingaboutthc noisc. ¨Hc actcd|ikc a marqr, l think isthc bcstway to putit. Hc'd ho|dhiscarsandmakcthcsctormcntcdIaccsandpaccaround,asiI · thc baby wcrc cqingjust spccihca||yto crcatc prob|cms Iorhim. I I was supposcd to Icc| sorq j or him or somcthing. It was . I' dhad a C-scction, and I rca||ycould`vc uscd somc hclp at but I cndcd up wishing that |onathan and I cou|d just bc - 1 13 MAR T HA S T OUT 1hc samcpcop|cwhohadto|dSydncyaboutdcprcsscdhrst-timc IathcrsnowassurcdhcrthatncwdadssomctimcsIc|tuncomIortab|c around thcirncwborns and so kcptthcir distancc Iorawhi|c. 1hcy insistcdthat Lukc nccdcdsympathyandpaticncc. ¨ButLukcwasn't'kccpinghisdistancc`thcwaythcythought. Hc was tota||yob|ivious. |onathanmight aswc||havcbccnabund|c oI rags, Ior a||hc carcd÷an annoying |itt|c bund|c oIrags. Sti||,don`t youknow, Iwantcdtobc|icvcthoscpcop|c. iwantcdtobc|icvcthat somchow,somehow' iIlcou|d managc cnoughundcrstandingandpa- ticncc, cvcrythingwas goingto bcokay.Wcwcrc goingto bc arca| Iami|y, cvcntua||y÷ � wantcdsomuchto bc|icvcthat. ¨ Whcn hcr matcmiq |cavc was ovcr, Sydncywcnt backtowork andLukcstaycdbythcpoo|. Sydncycontactcd anaupair agcncyto hnddaytimcchi|d carc, bccausc itwas c|carthatLukcwas not go- ingtotakccarcoI|onathan.AcraIcwwccks, thcyoungsittcrcon- hdcdinSydncythatshcIc|t ¨wcird¨kccpingthcbabywiththcIathcr a|ways prcscntbutncvcrshowinganyintcrcst. ¨I can`t undcrstandwhyhc ncvcr cvcn |ooks at his baby. ls hc quitca||right, ma'amî¨thc sittcrcautious|yaskcd Sydncy. \singavariantoIthccxcuscLukchadprovidcd,ancmbarrasscd Sydncyto|dhcr, ¨Hc`sgoingthroughahardtimcinhis|iIcrightnow. Youcanjust kind oIprctcndhc'snotthcrc andyou'||bc hnc. ¨ Sydncy rccountcd how thc sittcr |ookcd outthrough thc g|ass doors oIthc dcn toward thc swimming poo|, prcsumab|y sccing a rc|axcd and tan Lukc sitting thcrc in thc F|orida |atc aItcmoon. Cockinghcrhcadtooncsidcincuriosiq, shcsaidsoIt|y, ¨Foorman.¨ Sydncy to|d mc, 'J|| a|ways rcmcmbcr that. 'Foor man.' Foor Lukc. ltwashowI Ic|t abouthim, too, somctimcs, dcspitcmysc|I. ¨ Butthctruthwas that thc pcrsonSydncyhad marricd was not ¨poorLukc¨ ata||, norwas hc a dcprcsscd hrst-timc Iathcr, norwas hc goingthroughahardtimc inhis|iIc. Rathcr, hcwas sociopathic. LukchadnointcrvcningscnscoIob|igationtoothcrpcop|c, andhis bchavior,thoughnotphysica||yvio|cnt,rcucctcdthisdangcrousIact. ¬¬ ! !4 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R ForLukc, socicta|ru|cs and intcrpcrsona|cxpcctations cxistcd on|y to scrvc his advantagc. Hc to|d Sydncythat hc |ovcd hcr, and thcn wcntsoIarastomarqhcr,primariþIorthcopportuniqtocnsconcc himsc|Ias akcptman inhcrhon � st|y carncd and comIortab|c |iIc. Hc uscd his wiIc`s dcarcst and most privatc drcams to manipu|atc hcr, andthcirsonwas anaggravationhc moodi|yto|cratcd on|ybc- causc thc baby sccmcd to sca| hcr acccptancc oI his prcscncc. Cthcrwisc,hc ignorcdhisownchi|d. Soonhcbcganto ignorc Sydncyaswc||. ¨ItwaskindoI|ikchavingaboardcr,aboardcryoudon`t|ikcvcry J _ muchandwho docsn`t payrcnt. Hcwasjustkind oIthcrc. Forthc mostpart,wc |ivcd thcsc para||c| |ivcs. 1hcrcvas|onathanandmc, a|ways togcthcr, andthcnthcrcwasLukc. I rca||ydon`tknowwhat hc did most oIthc timc. Somctimcs hc`d |cavc Ior a day ortwo. I _ don'tknowwhcrchcwcnt-Istoppcdcaringaboutit.Crsomctimcs hc'dhavcaIricndovcrIordrinks,a|waysunannounccd,whichcou|d bckindoIaprob|cmattimcs. And hc`d rackupbigphonc bi||s. But most|yhcjustsataroundbythcpoo|, orwhcnthcwcathcrwasbad, hc'd comc in and watch T or p|ay computcr gamcs. You know, ¸thosccomputcrgamcsthirtccn-ycar-o|d boys p|ay. ¨Lh, and I ncarly Iorgot÷Ior a coup|c oImonths, hc co||cctcd |ithographs. I don`tknowwhatputhimontothat ¸ buthcwas rca|ly ' cxcitcd about itIorawhi|c. Hc` dbuy3 ncwonc÷thcywcrc cxpcn- sivc, |ct mc tc||you÷andhc`dcomc bringingit mto show mc, |ikc ¸ a kid, |ikc nothingwas wrongbctwccnus and hc wantcd mc to scc í , thc ncwadditionto his art co||cction. Hc must`vc co||cctcd about thirp oI thcm÷ncvcr Iramcd thcm÷and thcn onc day hc just �roppcdthcwho|cbusincss.Momorc intcrcstin|ithographs. Cvcr. ¨ º \ Sociopaths somctimcs cxhibit bricI, intcnsc cnthusiasms~hob- bics, projccts, invo|vcmcntswithpcop|c÷that arcwithoutcommit- mcntorIo||ow-up.1hcsc intcrcsts appcarto bcgin abrupt|yandIor rcason, and to cnd thc samcway. ¨Ihad a ncw husband anda ncw baby. It shou|d`vc bccnonc oI 115 MAR T HA S T OUT thc happicsttimcs oImy |iIc, anditwas onc oIthc worst. I'dcomc homc Iromwork, rca||ytircd, andthc sittcrwou|d|ctmcknowt _ at Lukchadn`tsomuch asg|anccdat|onathana||day, and ahcrawhi|c myown husband bcganto disgustmc so muchthat I cou|dn`t cvcn s|ccp inthcbcdroom. I`mashamcdtotc||youthis, but I s|cptinmy own gucstroomforaycar. ¨ Cvcra||,thcgrcatcstdiIhcu|tySydncyhadintc||ingmc hcrstory washcrpainIu|cmbarrassmcntaboutwhathadhappcncdtohcr|iIc. ^shcputit, ¨Youcan'timaginchowhumi|iatingitistoadmit, cvcn just to admit to yoursc|I, that you actua||y marricd somcbody |ikc that. AndIwasn`takidwhcnI did it, cithcr. Iwasthir[-hvca|rcady, not'o mcntion I`dbccnaround thc wor|d scvcra|timcs. I shou|d'vc knownbcttcr.ButIjustdidn`tscc it. I didn`tsccitata||, and,togivc , nysc|I a |itt|c brcak, I don`t think anyonc c|sc who was around at thc timc saw it, cithcr. 1hcse days, cvcqbody tc||s mc thcy ncvcr drcamcdhc`dcndupactingthatway. AndcvcrybodyhasadiIIcrcnt thcoi¸about `what`swrongwithLukc. ' IIitwcrcn`t socmbarrassing, itwou|dbcIunny. OiûcrcntIricndshavcdccidcdit`scvcqthingIrom schizophrcniato � omcthing |ikc attcntion dchcitdisordcr. Canyou imagincî¨ !nsurprising|y, notasing|cpcrsongucsscdthatLukcsimp|yhad noconscicnccandthatthiswaswhyhcignorcdhisob|igationstohis wiIc��nd his chi|d. Lukc`s pattcm did not ht anyonc`s imagcs oI �o- ciopathy, cvcn nonvio|cnt sociopathy, bccausc Lukc,thoughhchad a high IQ, was csscntia||y passivc. Hc did not go about cutting throats,cithcr|itcra||yorhgurativc|y, inanattcmpttoachicvcpowcr orwca|th. Hcwas no corporatc shark, andccrtain|ynoIast-ta|king, high-octanc Skip. Hcdidnothavc cnoughvita|i|cvcnto bcanor- dinaq con man, or cnough physica| couragc to robbanks ¦or post oIhccs) . Hcwasnotamovcr. Hcwas,incûcct,Û nonmovcr. Hisprc- dominantambitionwastobcincrt,toavoidwork, andtohavcsomc� onc c|scprovidca comIortab|c |iIcs[|c, andhc cxcrtcdhimsc|Ijust ¯...,- .. rcachthis midd|inggoa|. ) ) 5 ·· T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R And sohowdidSydncyhna||yrccognizc his rcmorsc|cssncssîIt wasthcpiqp|ay. ¨Evcn aItcr that rca||y ug|y divorcc, hc sti|| hung around thc housc, and I domcanncar|ycvcqday. Hc gotanothcrcrummy|it- t|c apartmcnt, and hc a|ways s|cpt thcrc, but during thc day hc'd hangoutatmyhousc.IknownowthatIshou|dn`thavc|cthim, but IIc|tsorqIorhim, anda|sohcwas payinga|itt|cmorc aucntionto | onathan. Whcn he'd comc homc Irom kindcrgartcn, somctimcs Lukc wou|d cvcn mccthim atthc bus,wa|k him homc, givc him a |itt|c swimming |csson or somcthing. I Ic|t nothingIorthc man. I rca||y ncvcrwantcd to scc him again, but I wasn't going out with anyonc�|ikc I`mgoing to trust anothcr man, rightî÷and Ithought itwasagoodthingiI|onathan cou|d gcttoknowhisIathcr, gcta|it- t|cattcntionIromhim. Ihgurcditwasworththc nuisancc iImychi|d cou|d havc at |castpartoIadad. - · r =¬- · ~* ¨Wc||,thatwas a mistakc. Mysistcrwas thc oncwho ca||cdthc shot. Shc said, ' Lukc docsn`thavc arc|ationshipwith|onathan. Hc ' has arc|ationshipwithyourhousc. ` And oh boy, was shccvcrright. Butthcn I cou|dn'tgct rid oIhim ¸ 1hings gotrca||yawIu| andcom- p|icatcdand . . . crccpy. Itwasrca||ycreep. " Shc shuddcrcd,thcntookadccpbrcath andwcnton. ¨Whcnhc÷|onathan÷was inthchrst gradc, I rca|izcd I hadto gct Lukc out oIour|ivcsoncc andIora||.¸1hcrc wasjustno pcacc, no . . . wc||, Iwanttosayjoy.Whcnsomconcdocsn`tcarcaboutyou at a|| |ikc that, having him aroundyou so much rca||ysucks outthc pcacc and thc joy Irom your |iIc. Hc kcpt just showing up. Hc'd �omc in, orgoouttothc poo| and makc himsc|IcomIortab|c, just |ikchcsti|||ivcdthcrc, and I`dgctrca||ymorosc, rca||ytcnsc. I' dstay ª thchouscwiththc shadcsdrawnjustsohcwou|dn`tbcinmy|inc sight. Itwas crazy. 1hcnI rca|izcd-|onathan'sspiritswcrc going own, too. Hcdidn`trca||ywantLukc around, cithcr . ¨So I startcd asking him to |cavc. Mow, iI I wcrc ovcr at somc- c|sc`s housc andthcy askcd mc to |cavc, I`d |cavc÷wou|dn't ! ! 7 MAR T HA S T OUT youî~iIon|yIormyowndigniq. MotLuk-Hc actcd|ikc hchadn't cvcnhcardmc,whichwas Iair|ycrccpya||(o|cavc _ r z,andt _ c _ hc � ac _ _ |ikcnothinghadhappcncd.So I' d gct rca||y angq, and instcad oI just asking him to |cavc, I'd scrcamathimtogct out, or I' dthrcatcntoca||thc po|icc. Anddo youknowwhathcdidî¨ ¨Hcuscd|onathan, ¨I said. ¨1hat's right. Howdidyouknowî Hcuscd|onathan. Forcxam- p|c, wcwcrcoutbythcpoo|, a||thrcc oIus, andLukc stancdtocq. Actua|tear camcoutoIthcman'scycs. 1hcnI rcmcmbcrhcpickcd upthc nctwc uscdto skim thc poo| andstartcd skimming, |ikc hc was a suIIcring marqrwhoonlywantcd to hc|p, and thcn|on got tcarIu|, too, and hc said~and I'||rcmcmbcrthis Ior thc rcst oImy |iIc÷|onathan said, 'Ch no. Foor Oaddy. Oo wc havc to makc him |cavcî' ¨Andthcn Lukc |ookcdatmc, |ookcdmc right inthc cycs, and itwas asiII' dncvcr mct himbcIorc inmy|iIc. Hc|ookcdthatdiI- Icrcnt. 1hosc wcrc thc crccpicst cycs I`vc cvcr sccn, |ikc bcams oI icc÷it'src ¿ ||yhardtocxp|ain.AndI rca|izcd, a|| oIasuddcn,thatin Lukc's gthis was a||somc kind oIa_contro| § amc¸_ Itwa � somc kindoIa gamc, and I had|ost, big-timc. Iwas stunncd. ¨ y ithinaycaraItcrthissccncbythcpoo|,Sydncy|cItF|oridaand hcrunivcrsiqpositionthcrcandmovcdwith|onathantothcBoston arcato bc c|oscrto hcrsistcr, and hItccnhundrcd mi|cs away Irom Lukc. A Icwmonths|atcr, shc startcda bricIthcrapywith mc. Shc nccdcdtoworkthrough somc oIthc issucs |chovcr Irom hcrmar- riagc,cspccia||yhcrsc|I-b|amcthatshchadmarricdLukcinthc hrst p|acc�si|icntpcrson,andIhavccvcqrcason tothinkhcr |iIc is happicrnow. Shcwou|dsomctimcsjokc that, in thc casc oI hcr prob|cmwith Lukc, thc Iamous ¨gcographic curc¨ just mightwork, a|though shckncwthatthc |ongcrjoumcyoIscII-' Iorgivcncsswou|d bcmorc comp|icatcd. Sydncy was ab|c to gain a ccrtain undcrstanding oI hcr cx- ¬ ! !8 ¯ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR husband`s |ack oIconscicncc, and this ncw pcrspcctivc was hc|pIu| to hcr. Hcr grcatcst rcmaining conccrn was thc cmotiona|vu|ncra- bi|iqoIhcrcight-ycar-o|dson, |onathan.1hc|asttimcÍ sawSydncy, shc to|d mc that shc and |onathan wcrc sti|| having tcarIu| discus- sionsaboutF|oridaand howmuchhc Ic|t sorqIorOaddy. ) ) 9 ¯ S | V | h the eti ology of gui ltless ness : what causes sociopathy? Since adolescence Î have wondered why so many people take pleasure in humiliating others. Clearly the fact that some are sensitive to the sufering of others prves that the destructive ure to hurt is not a universal aspect of human nature. -Alice Mi ller Ì nmany ways, Lukc,Oorccn,andSkiparcvcrydiIIcrcntIromonc anothcr. Lukc Iavors incrtia. Hc |ikcs to |oungc, and to |ct rc- sponsib|c ¨Iricnds¨ andIami|ymcmbcrstakccarcoIcvcqthingc|sc. Oorccniscnvious,andachronicma|contcnt.Shccxcrtsagrcatdca| oIcncrgtryingtomakc othcr pcop|c looksma||crso that shccan Icc|biggcr.AndSkipwou|d|ikctorunthcwor|d, Iorhisownbcnc- ht, oIcoursc, andas a grandiosc Iorm oIcntcrtainmcnt. B � twhat thcsc thrcc divcrsc|y motivatcd human bcings havc in common is that, inthcintcrcstoIthcirindividua|ambitions,they can do �pj |^8 at u �ous|cn+cu|i� �, � ��i :|cmdcsircs w " ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯¯" �¨ . somcthing diIIcrcnt, butthcy a|| gct whatthcywant in cxact|ythc samcIashion,whichistosay,comp|ctc|ywithoutshamc.Skipbrcaks thc |aw and ruins carccrs and |ivcs, and hc Icc|s nothing. Oorccn makcs hcrwho|c |iIc into a |ic, and tormcnts thc hc|p|css Iorthc thri||oImakinghcrco||cagucs|ookbad, anda||withoutthcs|ightcst !20 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R b|ip oIcmbarrassmcnt or accountabi|iq. Forsomconc to takc carc oIhim, arcnt-Ircchousc,andaswimmingpoo|, Lukc|ovc|css|ymar- rics a dcccnt woman who wants to havc a Iami|y, and thcn stca|s somc oIthcjoyIrom his son`s chi|dhood inanattcmptto rctainhis own chi|d|ikc dcpcndcncy. And hc makcs such dccisions without thinking¬icc,|ctaloncbcingassai|cdbygui|t. Monc oIthcsc pcop|c has an intcrvcningscvcnthscnsc oIob|i- gation bascd in cmotiona|attachmcnts. Whilc, sad|y, this common- a|iqamongthcm docsnotmakcthcmcxtrcmclyrarc, it docsmakc thcmproIound|ydiIIcrcnt Irom al| pcop|c who dohavc conscicncc. AI|thrccarcmcmbcrs oIagroupapart, ahumancatcgoqinwhich thc distinguishingIcaturc÷thc abscncc oIconscicncc÷cuts across a||othcrpcrsonaliqIcaturcs andcvcngcndcrintcrmsoIhowindi- | vidua|spcrccivcthcirsurroundingsandgoaboutthcir|ivcs. Oorccn is morc|ikcLukcand Skipthanshc is likcanywoman inthcwor|d whohasconscicncc, and |aconic LukcanddrivcnSkiparcmorc likc cach othcrthan any conscicncc-bound man orwoman oIanytcm- pcramcntwhatsocvcr. What carvcs this dccp and yct strangc|y invisib|c dividing |inc ^ acrossthchumanraccîWhydosomcpcop|cnothavc aconscicnccî Whatcauscs sociopathyî Likc so many human charactcristics, both physical and psycho- |ogica|, thc primaryqucstion isthat oInaturcvcrsus nurturc. Is thc charactcristicborn inthcb|ood,orisit crcatcdbythc cnvironmcntî Formostcomp|cxpsycho|ogica|Icaturcs,thc answcris,vcqproba- b|y, both. lnothcrwords, a prcdisposition Ior thc charactcristic is prcscnt at conccption, but thc cnvironmcnt rcgu|atcs how it is cx- prcsscd. 1his is truc both Ior traits wc considcr ncgativc and Ior thosc wc think oI as positivc. For cxamplc, |cvc| oI intcl|igcncc wou|d appcar to bc strong|y dctcrmincd by gcnctic makcup but ¸ part|y shapcd by an c|aboratc too|box oIcnvironmcnta| Iactors as . wc||, such as prcnata| carc, car|y stimu|ation, nutrition, and cvcn )2! 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Lsµec.a||ys.acetbeexµesu:eeítbekeaaa.aae:µbaac:.s.s,psy· ¯ ·:OtOgtm> bave vea1e:e1 vbetbe:attacbaeat 1.se:1e: a.¿btbe eav:eaaeata|:eeteísec.eµatby 1be s.a.|a:.t.es a:e ebv.eas vbe suûe: í:ea attacbaeat 1.se:1e:a:e .aµu|s.ve aa1 eaot.eaa||y ce|1, aa1 a:e seaet.aes 1aa¿e:eus|yv.e|eatteva:1 µateats,s.b|.a¿s,µ|ayaates,aa1µets1beytea1testea|,vaa- g o�:.�s, aa1sta:tû:es,aa1tbeyeíteasµea1t.ae.a1eteat.eaíac.|.- t|esvbeatbeya:eyeua¿aa1.a]a.|vbeatbeybeceaea1u|ts,]ust sec.eµatbsAa1cb.|1:eav.tbseve:eattacbaeat1.se:1e:sa:e _ tbeea|ycb.|1:envbea:e a|aest as íua1aaeata||y sca:yte us as sec.eµatbs a:e 1bese·.a.|a:.t.esbavebeeaaet.ce1.anaayµa:tseítbeve:|1 scaa1.aav.aa cb.|1 µsyc.at;, íe: exaaµ|e, a cea1.t.ea ca||e1 · . 'ea:|yeaet.eaa|í:ust:at.ea.stbeu¿bttebecause1bya|acleímu- oe·.c.:·, b�tveeaaetb�:aadcb.|1,aa1ínScand|aav|a,tb.s1.· a¿nest.c te:a ( ear l y em ; tiona l f strat i� n ) .s use1 te íla¿ a cb.|1s ¿:eate:tbaaave:a¿e cbaace eí1eve|eµ.a¿a sec.eµatb.ccba:acte: 1.se:1e: by a1u|tbee1 La:|y eaet.eaa| í:ust:at.ea .s stat.st.ca||y ,l.ale1teíacte:stbataayaaleaetbe:·.aíaatattacbaeatae:e1.í- ûcu|t,sucbasµ:ete:ab.:tb,ext:eae|y|evb.:tbve.¿bt,aa1aate:· aa|substaace abuse1u:.a¿µ:e¿aaacy 1be:ea:eseaea.ae:1es.¿aµ:eb|eas.atb.sl.a1eí:esea:cb Ie:.astaace, ce:ta.aíacte:s,sucbasaatema|substaaceabuse cu:� |a¿ µ:e¿aaacy, ceu|1 eas.|y .aµ|.cate sec.eµatb.c aetbe:s, aa+ ·_ tbe:eíe:ea:etu:atetbe¿e�et.cexµ|aaat.eaßuttbeaa]e:µ:eb|ea v.tb tbe eçuat.ea eíattacbaeat 1.s � r�e: aa1 sec.eµatby, cesµ.te tbesc.eat.ûca||yteaµt.a¿ceaaeaa|.t.esetbetve,.stbe.:µetsis- teataa1uacealab|e c.ss.¬:|omy v.tb ���¡ect tetbe·:�1eaa:líe�· tareses.eµat;Qu.te �a|.l� sec.eµtbs �|i|d:ea ar1 ada Awatt��laeat 1.se:+e:s a:e s e |1e� cba:a.a¿ �: .�e:· ' # . )33 ~~ ± MARTHA S TOUT petsonallyclevet. Ontheconttag,theseunfottunateindividualsate � _ atOT-putting,notdotheymakeanygteateffottsto ¨fake° being notmal. Manyate isolates. Theit emotionalptesenta- tion isfIatand uninviting, ot sometimes ditectly hostile, andthey tendto swingbetweenthe distinctlynonseductive exttemesofbel- l ¹ · ¸ hgetentindiffetenceandunmeetableneediness.Noneofthisallows in anywayfotthe chameleonlike manipulations an� c�n games of thesociopath,withbissmilingdeceptionsanddisatmingchatisma, otfottheintetmittentsuccessinthematetialwotldthatthetathet sociablesociopathoftenachieves Manycliniciansandpatentshavetepottedthatsociopathicchil- dtentefusetofotmwatm telationships withfamilymeubets.They tend:oçuäwayboth ��dyhysically. And, of coutse, sodochildtenwithattachmentdisotdets Butvetyunlikethesitua- tionwiththesadattachmentdisotdetchild, detachmentftomfam- ¸ þ '�"� c l ¹¯"� �~�l(¤l¹h youngsociopath� ) �of beinginthewotldthanitistobethecauseofit `¯¯so,su�g � e ¿ � �_� · j¿¸ aof�hatoneoftheun- detlying neutobioloical dencits in sociopathy may be. The so- ~ º´´¯`´¨`¯¨`�'^ ciopathswho have been studied teveal a si p iÞ - � º'. � � 9· �± � ����l¹'9P²³ ³���'9'�' i 9^�¹¸ t ����'�!�� bt ¶ Andftomexamininghetitabilitystudies, wecanspecu- latethatthe neutobiologicalundetpinningsofthe cote petsonali t y featutesofsociopathyateasmuchasó0 petcenthetitableThe te- maining causes, the othet ó0 petcent, ate much foggiet. Neithet childhoodmaltreatmentnotattachmentdisotd�tstoaccount fottheenvitonmentalconttibutiontotheloveless,manipulative,and guiltless existence that psychologists call sociopathy How non- genetic factots affectthe developmentofthis ptofound condition, andtheyalmostcettainlydohaveaneffect, isstillmainlyapuzzle ThequestiontemainsOnceachildisbomwiththislimitingneuto- logical glitch, what ate the envitonmental factots that detetmine - )34 - T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R ½IICLI CI e:aetbev.||¿eeate1.sµ|aytbeíu||·í|e1¿e1s,aµteaseí Aa1atµ:eseat,ves.aµ|y1eaetlaev Culture .seat.:e|yµess.b|etbattbeeav.:eaaeata|.aílueaceseasec.eµa- a:eae:e:e|.ab|y|.ale1v.tbb:ea1cu|tu:a|c|a:acte:.st.cstbaa aayµa:t.cu|a:cb.|1·:ea:.a¿íacte:sla1ee1,:e|at.a¿tbeeccu:- eísec.eµatby te cultu:es bas se ía: beea ae:e í:u.tíu| íe: tbaa|eel.a¿íe:tbeaasve:.asµec.ûccb.|1·:ea:.a¿va:.� ��t�o. lastea1 eíbe.a¿tbeµ:e1ucteícb.|1bee1abusev.tb.atbe e:eíattacbaeat 1.se:1e:, aaybe sec.eµatby.ave|vesseae LCÏÕLLLLÏ betveeatbe.aaateaeu:e|e¿.ca|v.:.a¿eí.a1.v.1ua|saa1 |a:¿e:sec.eµ.avb.cbtbeyea1uµsµea1.a¿tbe.:|.ves 1b.sbyµetbes.s.sbeua1tebe1.saµµe.at.a¿teseaeµeeµ|e.be- �ausetbeu¿ba|te:.a¿tbe cea1.t.eas eíµ:e¿aaacy, cb.l1b.:tb, aa1 t:eataeateaaaass.vesca|eveu|1beaesaa||µ:e]ect,c|aa¿- ia¿tbeva|uesaa1bel.eísysteaseíaaeat.:ecu|tu:e.saaeveaae:e ¿�@ II tCua1e:tal.a¿,v.tbat.aebe:.zeatbatseeas1.staataa11.s- wea.¿btíee|a|.tt|e|ess1auate1.íveve:ete.1eat.( seteícb.|1-:ea:.a¿µ:act.cestbatveceu|1t;tece::ect.aeu:|.íe- ßutµe:baµssec.eµ.stbet:ue µa:eateíce:ta.atb.a¿s, aad v.||eveatua||yûa1tbat, asw.|l.aaka|µb la¿e sa.1 .atbeea:ly +eat.�t|ceatu:y, °1beµ:eµe:t.aete.aûueacetbecba:acte:eía cb.|1.sabeutI00yea:sbeíe:ebe.sbe:a. t:earece:1e1ebse:vat.eas,ve1elaevtbatsec.eµatbs,byva:- ieus aaaes, bave ex.ste1 .a a|| l.a1s eísec.et.es, ve:|1v.1e aa1 tb:eu¿beut b.ste:y. A aa .|lust:at.ea, µsycb.at:.c aatb:eµe|e¿.st Jaae m. mu:µby1esc:.bes tbe lau.tceaceµteíso»|:»¸:::, vb.cb , :eíe:steaµe:seavbese °a.a1laevsvbatte1ebut 1ees aet1e .t ma:µbyv:.testbat.aae:tbvestAlasla, so»|:»¸::: °a.¿btbe " !j5 " . ·· · · . MAR T HA S T OUT aµµ|.e1te a aaavbe, íe:exaaµ|e, :eµeate1|y|.esaa1cbeatsaa1 stea|stb.a¿saa11eesaet¿ebunt.a¿,aa1,vbe ¸ tbeetbe:meaa:e eut eítbe v.||a¿e, tales sexua| a1vaata¿e eí :naay veaea 1be lau.ts tac.t|y assuae tba¡ k un l angeta .s .::eae1.ab|e A1 se, ac· ce:1.a¿temu:µ¦,tbet:a1.t.eaa|lau.taµµ:eacbtesucbaaaavas te.as.sttbatbe¿ebuat.a¿,aa1tbea, .atbeabseaceeív.taesses, µusbb.aeíítbee1¿eeítbe .ce 1beu¿bsec.eµatbyseeastebeua.ve:sa|aa1t.ae|ess,tbe:e.s ,re1.b|eev.1eacetbatseaecu|tu:esceata.aíeve:sec.eµatbstbaa 1eetbe:cu|tu:es lat:.¿u.a¿|y, sec.eµatbyveu|1aµµea:tebe:e|a· t.ve|y :a:e.ace:ta.aLastAs.aaceuat:.es,aetab|yJaµaaaa1 Cb.aa stu1.es ceaducte1 .a betb :u:a| aa1u:baaa:eas eí1a.vaaave W ¬ ^ ' íeua1a:eaa:lab|y|evµ:eva|eaceeíaat.sec.a|µe:seaa|.µ1.se:1e:, :aa¿.a¿í:e�0.0J µe:�eatte0. I4 µ�:ceat,vb.cb.s aetaeaebut .s.aµ:ess.ve|y|esstbaatbewestemve:|1saµµ:ex.aateave:a¿eeí 4 µe:ceat,vb.cbt:aas|ateste eae .a tveaµ·hve µeeµ|e. Aa1 1.s- tu:b.a¿|y, tbe µ:eva|eace eísec.eµatby.atbe Ua.te1states seeas te be .ac:eas.a¿ 1beI99I Lµ.1ea.ele¸.c CatcbaeatA:ea stu1y, sµease:e1bytbeNat.eaa|last.tuteeímeata|Hea|tb,:eµene1tbat .atbehíteeayea:sµ:ece1.a¿tbestu1y,tbeµ:eva|eaceeíaat.sec.a| µeneaa|.µ 1.se:1e: ba1 aea:|y 1eub|e1 aaea¿ tbe yeua¿ .� Ame:.ca |tveu|1be1.íhcu|t� c|es.a¿.aea.aµess|b|e, :e�xµ|a� :ucba1:�aat.ca||y:aµ.1sb.ít.ate:aseí¿eaet.cse:aeu:eb.e|og Aµµa:eat|y, cu|tu:a| .aílueacesµ|ay ave:y.aµe:taat:e|e.atbe1e- ve|eµaeat( e:aet,eísec.eµatby.aaay¿.veaµeµu|at.ea» • ^ tevµeeµ|eveu|11.sa¿:eetbat,í:eatbew.|1westeítbeµast tetbece:µe:ateeut|avseítbeµ:eseat,Aae:.caasec.eµsee:::ste a||evaa1eveaeaceu:a¿eae·h:statt.tu1es´1evete1te �beµa:su.t eí1ea.aat.ea. kebe:t Ha:ev:.testbatbe be|.eves °eu: sec.eµ.s aev.a¿.atbe1.:ect.eaeíµe:a.tt.a¿, :e.aíe:c.a¿, aa1.aseae .a- staaces actua||yva|u.a¿seaeeítbet:a.ts |.ste1 .atbePsyc h opat h y C h ec kl ist-traits sucb as .aµu|s.v.µ, . sµas.b.|.p |acl eí :e· ¾ ¬¤ ¯ ¯ ¯¯´` ae:s� ¯|atb.seµ.a.eabe.s,e.ae1bytbee:.stsvbeµ:eµesetbat - !j5 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Aae:.caa cu|tu:e, v|.c| |e|1s .a1.v.1ua|.sa as a ceatu| va|ue, tea1s te leste:t|e 1eve|eµaeat eíaat.sec.a| be�av.e:, aa1 te1.s¿u.se.tl�et|e:ve:ds,.aAae:.ca,t|e¿u.|t|ess aaa.µu� etet|e:µeeµ|e b|ea1s°v.t|sec.a|exµectat.easte a auc| 1e¿:eet|aa.tveu|1.aC|.aae:et|e:ae:e¿:euµ-ceate:e1 lbe|.evet|e:e.sas|.a.e:s.1eeít|.sce.a,tee,eaet|atbe¿st|e eív|ycena.acu|tu:es seeate eaceu:a¿e µ:esec.a| be- seauc|a¿a.astt|ee11s,|ev.s.tt|atseaesec.et.es|ave apes.t.ve .aµactea.ac.µ.eatsec.eµat|s,v|ea:e be:av.t|aa.a· � ' teµ:ecess.ate:µe:seaa|eaet.eas.at|eusua|vay:l� tesu¿¿estt|att|eeve::.1.a¿be|.eísysteaseíce:ta.acu|tu:es g ·¸c11 �LOIo_� be:asec.eµat|steceaµeasatece¿a.t.ve|yíe:v|att|ey aiss.a¿eaet.eaa||y. laceat:astv.t|eu:ext:eaeeaµ|as.se� .a1.v.1ua|.sa aa1 µe:�e�a|ceat:e|, ce:ta.a cu|tu:es,aaay.a Last As.a.1ve||t|ee|e¿.ca||yeat|e.ate::e|ate1aesseía|||.v.a¿t|.a¿s !ate:est.a¿|y,t|.sva|ue.sa|set|ebas.seíceasc.eace,v|.c|.saa.a- teoea.a¿seaseet ob||¿at.ea:eet�1.aaseaseetceaaecte1aess.lí �a.a1.v.1�.| d�esaet,e:.íaeu:e|e¿.ca||y|ecaaaet,exµe:|e�ce|.s coaaect.eateet|e:s.aaaeaet.eaa|vay,µe:|aµsacu|tu:et|at.a- s|stseaceaaecte1aessasaaatte:eíbe|.eícaa.ast.||ast:.ct|y ce¿� _ a.t.veua1e:staa1.a�eí.ate:µe:seaa|eb|.¿a � . �� ¿ . · P .ate||ectua|¿:asµeteaes1ut.esteet|e:s.saett|esaaeat· t:.buteast|eµeve:íu||y1.:ect.ve eaet.eaveca||ceasc.eace, but µe:|aµs.t.seaeu¿|toex:actµ:esec.a|behavor í:eaat|eastseae ia1.v.cua|sv|eveu|1|avebe|ave1ea(.aaat.sec.a�vays|a1t|ey beea|.v.a¿.aasec.eµt|ateaµ|asoe1.a1.v.1ua|.sa:at|e: t|aa.n- te::e|ate1aess 1|eu¿|t|ey|aclaa .ate:aa| aec|aa.sa t|atte||s • t|eat|eya:eceaaecte1teet|e:s,t|e|a:¿e:cu|tu:e.as.ststet|ea t|att|eya:e seceaaecte1~ as eµµese1 teeu:cu|tu:e, v|.c| .a- t|ea:eseua1.a¿|yt|att|e.:ab.|.µte act¿u.|t|ess|yeat|e.: be|a|í.s t|e u|t.aate a1vaata¿e 1|.s veu|c exµ|a.av|y a weste:aíaa.|yby.tse|ícaaaet:e1eeaabe:asec.eµat|1|e:ea:e !j7 · ` MAR T HA S T OUT tee aaay etbe:ve.ces .a tbe |a:¿e: sec.eµ .aµ|y.a¿tbat b.s aµ- µ:eacbtetbeve:|1.sce::ect. A a t.ay exaaµ|e, ba1 sl.µ tbe Aae:.caa beea be:a .ate a st:ea¿|yßa11b.stca|ta:e,e:sb.ate,vea|1bebavel.||e1a||tbese í:e¿s:!e:baµs,e:µe:baµsaet.H.sb:a.avea|1bavebeeatbesaae, bata||tbeµeeµ|ea:eaa1b.awea|1bave aa.ata.ae1tbat:esµect íe:|.íevasaecessa:y. Lve;eae.ab.sve:|1vea|1bavebeeaeítbe saae a.a1, .ac|a1.a¿ b.s vea|tby µa:eats, b.s teacbe:s, b.s µ|ay- aates, aa1 aaybeeveatbe ce|eb:.t.es be saweate|ev.s.ea sl.µ vea|1 st.||bave beea sl|µ Hevea|1bave íe|t ae beae:íe:tbe í:e¿s, ae¿a.|t.íbe aa:1e:e1 tbea, ae:eµa¿aaace, batbea.¿bt bave:eí:a.ae1í:ea1e.a¿ sebecaaseb.sca|ta:eba1aaaa.aeas|y taa¿btb.aa|essea, seaetb.a¿eatbe e:1e:eíµ:eµe:tab|eaaa- ae:s, abeatbevteût.a-a|esseatbatb.sµe:íect|y¿ee1.ate||ect ba1aaste:e1.sec.eµatbs1eaetca:eabeattbe.:sec.a|ve:|1,bat tbey1evaat,aa1aee1,teb|ea1.av.tb.t. Cícea:se, I aa.aµ|y.a¿tbat ea:evaca|ta:evea|1 teacb a cb.|1|.lesl.jtbatbecea|1te:ta:esaa||aa.aa|saa1st.||beµass- ab|y1.s¿a.se1aaea¿as,aa1:e¿:etía||y,Itb.altb.s:eûectsaía.:as· sessaeateiea:ca::eat¡|.¿bt Warriors �` • !` ^ î· 4 ¹ w.tb.atbeceatexteíbaaaasec.eµasavbe|e,ac:essa||ca|ta:es, .stbe:e aa,tb.a¿abeattbe|acleíca:.a¿aa1tbe abseaceeícea- sc.eacetbatcea|1 be ceas.1e:e1 µes.t.ve, e:at |eastaseía|:A .t baµµeas, í:ea a ce:ta.a µe.at eí v.ev, tbe:e .s eae sacb tb.a¿ wbetbe:tbev.ct.abeaí:e¿e:aµe:sea,sec.eµatbscaal.||v.tbeat exµe:.eac.a¿aa¿a.sb, tbas, µeeµ|evbe bave ae ceasc.eace aale exce||eat,aaaab.va|eatva::.e:s.Aa1aea:|ya||soc.et.es-ßa11b.st, sb.ate,Cb:.st.aa,e:µa:e|ycaµ.ta|.st-aaleva:. 1eseae exteat,vecaatb.aleísec.eµatbsasbeia¿sbaµe1aa1 " !38 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R aa.ata.aecbysec.eµbecauseaat.easseeítea:equ.:ece|1·b|ee1e1 ll||e:s, í:ea aaeayaeus íeet se|1.e:ste tbeceaçue:e:svbebave aa1e,aa1ceat.aueteaale,buaaab.steç. Sec.eµatbsa:eíea:|ess a�1suµe:.e:va::.e:s, sa.µe:s, ua1e:ceve:assass.as, sµec.a| eµe:a- t.ves,v.¿.|aates, aa1baa1·te-baa1sµec.a|.sts, becausetbeyexµe:.- eaceaebe::e:vb.|el.||.a¿ (e:vb.|ee:1e:.a¿l.||.a¿, aa1ae¿u.|t aíte:tbe1ee1.s1eaeßyía:aestµeeµ|e-tbebu|leíeu:a:a.es- caaaetbeseeaet.ea|ess,aa1.ítbeya:eaetca:eíu||ycea1.t.eae1, aestae:aa|µeep|eaaleíeu:tb·:atel.||e:satbest,eveavbeatal- .a¿tbe|.veseíetbe:µeeµ|e.s1eeae1tebeaecessaç.Aµe:seavbe caa|eela�etbe:µe:sea.atb� e y-a, a|�|ysb�etb.a+ e�1.s u�· usua|,aa1Í va:,va|uab|e ¯ 1 ' · e St:aa¿e|y,seaeactsa:eseeaet.eaa||ybaal:uµttbattbeyrequire tbeabseaceeíceas¬eace,]ustasast:eµbys.cs:eç � .:es.ate||.¿eace aa1a:t:eçu.:esta|eat. Cíva::.e:svbecaaeµe:atev.tbeut cea- sc.eace, L. Ce| Lave C:essaaav:.tes, .a ©» k.||.»¸, wbetbe: ca||e1 sec.eµatbs, sbeeµ1e¿s, va::.e:s, e: be:ees, tbey a:e tbe:e, tbeya:ea1.st.acta.ae:.µ, aa1.at.aeset1aa¿e:aaat.eaaee1s tbea1esµe:ate|y ° ßuttbesesaaeaat.easµayaceacea|e1µ:.cev.tb.atbe.:be:- ce:síe:tbe¿|eçtbeybesteveat|e.:stee|·ce|1l.||e:s.atbeûe|1. 1beµatbtesucb¿|eç1eesaet¿e uaaet.ce1byetbe:síe:vbea ¿u.|t|essl.||.a¿.sasµec.a|aµt.tu1e,etbe:svbev.||aeve:ûa1tbea- se|vesve:l.a¿beb.a1 eaeay |.aes 1be se|í·aµµe.ate1 :eaa.a at beae, aaea¿tbe:esteíus, aa1aa.a|y.av.s.b|e t:ea kaabete ßa¿b1a1,tbe¿|e:.ûcat.eaeíl.||.a¿-tbe¿|aae:.z.a¿eítbe1eeµest .aí:act.eaeíae:aa|ceasc.eace-bas beeaa|ast.a¿íeatu:eeíeu: ,aa.ast:eaacu|tu:e, aa1aayve||betbe aestµem.c.euseav.:ea- aeata|.aílueace eía||eatbe vu|ae:ab|e soc.eµatb.c a.a1s .aeu: a.1st.1beevae:eísucbaa.a11eesaetaecessa:.|yl.||,butasve a:eabeutteûa1.atbeaextcbaµte:,vbeabe1ees,be.saeta|vays tbeµe:seaeaeveu|1bavesusµecte1 - !j9 ¯ c l u d 1 the sociopath next door It may be that we are puppets-puppets controlled by the strings of society. But at least we are puppets with perception, with awareness. And perhaps our awareness is the first step to our liberation. �Stanley Mi lgram Ì wantedtota|ktosoæeone,andItb|nk|t'sbecauseæyfatbets|n pt|son ¨ Hannab,tbeptetg,tb|n-||ppedtwenty-two-yeat-o|dwbo wasæynewpat|ent,d|tectedtb|sbatelyaud|b|eteæatktobett|gbt, towatdone ofæyboo�be|ves. Ateta æoæent, sbe|ookedatæe d|tect|y, sby|y, andtepeatedbetse|f ¨I needsoæeonetota|kto. my fatbets|npt|son ° Sbeæadeat|nygasp,as|ftbeeffottoftb|sæucbspeecbbadex- baustedbet|ungs,andtbensbewass||ent Lspec|a||ywbenpeop|eateveçft|gbtened,acetta|naæ� f do|ngtbetapy|ss|æp|y|now|ngbo�toatapbtas�tbec��entsof t|e¡e�s���eated b�!o�eyouw|t�����d|n]�c���| ~pa- tromz|ngl 1en�tds||gbt|y, æyhng ets|���dat � undæy| andtt|edtotecaptuteHannabsgaze,wb|cbbadnowdtoppedtotbe tust-co|otedOt|enta|tug betw��noutcba|ts. ´ ¡ ª ¸¡ �_ I sa|dqu|et|y, °Youtfatbets|npt|son?° °Yes Sbe |ooked up s|ow|y wben sbe answeted, a|æost sut- - !40 " ¬ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R pt|sed,asu!badg|eanedtb|s|nfotæat|onte|epatb|ca||y. °Hek|||ed aæan. !æean,bed|dn'tæeanto, butbek|||edaman. ¨ °Andnowbes|npt|son?¨ °Yes.Yes, be|s. ¨ Sbeb|usbed,andbeteyesh||ed. ! aæa|ways |æptessedbytbefacttba��ventbet|n|estaæount ofbe|ng||stenedto, tbebatestsuggest|onoftbeposs|b|||gofk|nd tteatæent,canbt|ngsucban|ææed|atetushofeæot|on.¸!tb|nkth|s .|s because we ate a|uost nevet tea|1y ||stenedto. !næy wotk as a ¸ psycbo|og|st, ! aæ teæ|ndedeveçdayofbow|nftequent|ywe ate beatd, anyofus, otoutact|ons evenæatg|na||yundetstood. And \ \ \ . ·one oftbe |too|es ofmy ¨ ||sten|ngptofess|on |s |ts |essontbat |n æanyways, �� cbofusu|t|mate|yteæa|nsaæystetytoevetyonee|se. °How|ongbasyoutfatbetbeen|npt|son?¨!asked. °Aboutfotg-onedays.1betewasatea|ly|ongtt|a|.1beyd|dn't keepb|æ|npt|sondut|ngtbett|a|¨ °Andyoufe|ttbatyouneededtota|ktosoæeone?¨ °Yes.!can't. . . !t's]ustso. . Deptessed.!tb|nk!'ægett|ngde- ptessed.!bavetostattæedscboo|. ¨ °medscboo|?Youæean|nSepteæbet?¨ !twas]u|y. °Yes.!w|sb!d|dn'tbaveto.¨ 1beteatscaæe,sound|essones,noweep|ngno|ses,as|ftbetest ofbetweteunawatesbewascty|ng.Stteaæsfe||ftoæbeteyesand to||ed downonto bet wb|te s||k sb|tt, æak|ngttans|ucent sta|ns. Apattftoætb|s,betdeæeanotteæa|neduncbanged,sto|c.Hetface d|dnotfa|| ! aæ a|ways æoved bysto|c|sæ. Hannab's was exteæe. ! was booked. Us|ngbotb fotehngets, sbe sboved betstta|gbtb|ackba|t |nto subæ|ss|on beb|nd bet eats. Het ba|t was so sb|ny |t |ooked as |f soæeone bad po||sbed |t. Sbe gazed past æe, attbe w|ndow, and asked,°Doyouknowwbat|t's||kefotyoutfatbettobe|nptison?¨ ~ )4) ¯ t ' ¯ , [ MAR T HA S T OUT °No,ldon't,°lsa|d.°maybeyou'||te||æe. ° AndsoHannabto|dæebetstoty,ottb|spattof|t. Hetfatbetbadbeentbept|nc|pa|oftbepub||cb|gbscboo||otbe æ|dd|ec|asssubutbwbeteHannabwasta|sed,|nad|ffetentstate,a tbousandæ||eswestofßoston.Accotd|ngtoHannab,bewasanex- tteæe|y||kab|eæanwbonatuta||ydtewpeop|etob|æ~a°stat, °as Hannabput|t~andwasæucb|ovedbytbestudents,tbeteacbets, and neat|y eveçone e|se |ntbe sæa||coææun|gtbatsuttounded tbeb|gbscboo|.Hewasa|waysattbecbeet|ead|ngptact|cesandtbe footba||gaæes,andwbetbetotnottbeboæeteamwonwaspetson- a||y|æpottanttob|æ. ßotnandta|sed|ntbetuta|m|dwest,bebad°sttongconsetva- t|veva|ues, ° Hannabsa|d. He be||eved|npatt|ot|sæand aæ|gbt||y defendedcountç, anda|soeducat|onandse|f-bettetæent. Hannab was b|s on|ycb||d, andfotas|ongassbecou|d teæeæbet, be bad to|dbettbat,eventbougbsbewasnotaboy, sbecou|dbewbatevet sbewantedtobe.G|t|s cou|dbewbatevettbeywantedtobe.G|t|s cou|dbedoctots. Hannabcou|dbeadoctot. Hannab|ovedbetfatbetdeat|y. °Hestbesweetest, æostæota| æan|ntbewot|d. Hetea||yis, " sbeto|dæe. °Yousbou|dbave seen a||tbepeop|ewbocaæetotbett|al1bey]ustsattbeteandct|edfot - . · �· b|æ,ct|edandct|ed.1beyfe|tsosotçfotb|æ,buttbetewasnotb- |ngtbeycou|d do.Youknow?Notb|ngtbeycou|ddo. ° 1bek||||ngtookp|aceonamatcbn|gbtwbenHannab,aco||ege sopboæote attbe t|æe, bappenedto beboæeonspt|ngbteak. ln tbeweebouts,sbebadbeenwakenedbyavety|oudno|seouts|de betpatentsbouse. °ld|dntknow|twasagununt|||atet, °sbeto|dæe. Sbegotups|eep||yto|ookatound,andfoundbetæotbetstaud- |ng]ust|ns|detbeopenftontdootoftbebouse,weep|ngandwt|ng- |ngbetbands.1be matcba|twastusb|ng|n °You know, |tstbewe|tdesttb|ng. lcanst|||c|oseæyeyes and " 142 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR seebetstand|ngtbete||ketbat-tbew|ndwasb|ow|ngbetbatbtobe atound-and |t was ||ke ! knew eveçtb|ng, eveçtb|ng tbat bap- pened, t|gbtattbatæoæent, befote ! evenknewanytb|ng. !knew wbatbadbappened. !knewæyfatbetwou|dbeattested. !saw|ta||. We||,tbats||keap|ctuteftoæ an|gbtæate,t|gbt?1bewbo|etb|ng was||kean|gbtæate.Youcan'tbe||eve|tsbappen|ng|ntea|||fe,and youkeeptb|nk|ngyou||wakeup Soæet|æes!st|||tb|nk! æJustgo· |ngtowakeup,andeveçtb|ngwasJustsoæek|ndofbott|b|edteaæ. ßutbowd|d!knoweve:ytb|ngbefote !evenknewanytb|ng? !saw æy æoæ stand|ngtbete ||ke. . ||ke |twas bappen|ng |ntbe past, ||kede]aN otsoæetb|ng.!twaswe|td.Otæaybenot.maybe|tJust seeæstbatwaynow,wben!teæeæbet|t.!don'tknow. ° AsoonassbesawHannab,betæotbetgtabbedbet,as|fpu|||ng betdaugbtetoutoftbewayofanoncom|ngtta|n,andscteaæedat bet, °Don't go out tbete' Don't go outtbete' ° Hannab æade no æovetowatdtbeouts|de,notd|dsbeptessbetæotbetfotanexp|a· nat|on. SbeJuststoodtbete|nbettett|nedæotbet'seæbtace. °!d nevetseenbet||ketbatbefote, ° Hannab sa|d. °St|||,||ke! keepwant|ngtosay, |twasa|æostas|f! dbeentbtougb|ta|teady. ! knew! dbettetstay|ns|de. ' Atsoæepo|nt~Hannab|snotsutebow|ongth|stook-betIa- tbetcaæe|nbytbew|de-openftontdoot,totbep|acewbetesbeand betæotbet stoodc|utcb|ngeacbotbet. °Hed|dntbavetbegun|nb|sband.Hedtopped|touttbete|n tbeyatdsoæewbete. ° Weat|ngon|ypaJaæapants,bestoodbefoteb|s||tt|efaæ||y. °He|ookednne. Hewas sott of pant|ng, but! æeanbe d|dn't |ookftigbtenedotanyb|ng,andfotJustasecond,Justaboutba|fa second, !tbougbt æaybeeveçtb|ngwasgo|ngtobeokay ° A sbeto|dæetb|s,Hannabsteatscaæeaga|n °ßut!wastooscatedtoaskb|æwbatbappened.Atetawb||e, moæ|etgoofæe. Sbewentandsbeca||edtbepo||ce !teæeæbet ~ !4j ~ MAR T HA S T OUT sbeaskedb|æ,' lsbe butt?'Andbesa|d, l tb|nkso. ltb|nkl butt b|æ tea||ybad Andtbensbewent|ntotbe k|tcben andsbe ca||ed tbepo||ce.1bat'swbatyoutesupposedtodo,t|gbt?¨ °k|gt,¨lsa|dltbadnotbeenatbetot|ca|quest|on. lnb|tsandp|eces, Hannab|eatnedwbatbadbappened. Lat||et dut|ngtbatawfu|n|gbt,Hannab'sæotbet,a|waysa||gbts|eepet,bad beatdno|sescoæ|ngftoætbe||v|ngtooæ,sounds||kebteak|ngg|ass, andbadtousedbets|eep|ngbusband1beteweteæoteno|ses. 1be æanoftbehousebecaæeconv|ncedtbetewasan|nttudettobedea|t w|tb,andgotoutofbedtoptepate.Catefu||y(accotd|ngtob|sw|fe, |atet,~byon|ytbed|æ|||uæ|nat|onofat|nybook||gbt~betookout tbe gun boxtbat be kept |ntbe bedtooæ c|oset, un|ocked |t, and |oadedtbegun.H|sw|fep|eadedw|tbb|æs|æp|ytoca||tbepo||ce. Heneveteventep||edtotb|sentteag. Heb|ssedatbetcoææand- |ng|y,°Staybete' ¨Andst||||nneatdatkness,be|ehfottbe||v|ngtooæ See|ng b|æ, ot, æote ||ke|y, beat|ng b|æ, tbe ptow|etí|ed tbe bouse by tbe ftont doot. Hannab's fatbet gave cbase, sbot at tbe æan,and°bysbeetb||nd|uck,¨asoneofb|sattotneyswou|dput|t |atet,b|tb|æ|ntbebackoftbebead,k||||ngb|æ|nstant|y.A|thap- pened, tbe|nttudetfe||ontbes|dewa|kbetweentbe |awn andtbe cutb.1b|sæeant,tecbn|ca||y,tbatHannab'sfatbetbadsbotanun- atæedæanontbestteet. Sttange|y, |ncted|b|y, none|gbbotscaæeoutoftbe|tbouses °Lveçtb|ngwassoqu|etaftet. Soveç,veçqu|et,¨Hannabsa|d toæetbete|næyofnce. 1bepo||ceatt|ved qu|ck|y aftet Hannabs æotbetca||edtbeæ, fo||owedbyafewæotepeop|eandas||entaæbu|ance.Lventua||y, betfatbetandbetæotbetwetetakenawayto tbepo||cestat|on. °Myæotbetca||edbets|stetandæyunc|etocoæestayw|tbæe fottbetestoftben|gbt,]ust||kelwassudden|ya||u|eg|t|a||ovet aga|n.1beyweten'tanybe|p.1beyweteptettybystet|ca|. ltb|nkl ]ustfe|ttea||ynuæb ¨ 1benextday, and|ntbefo||ow|ngweeks,tbes|tuat|onoccup|ed ¬ 144 " T H E S OC [ O PATH N E XT D O O R tbe |oca|æed|a's|ntetest. 1be sboot|ngbadtaken p|ace|naqu|et æ.dd|e-c|asssuburb.1besbootetwasanotd|naçæ.dd|e-c|assæan w|tbnoknownbistotyoív|o|ence.Hebadnotbeendtunk,notbad be beenus|ngdtugs.1be deadæanwasaknowníe|on, adtug�d- d|ct, and ]ust beíote be was sbot, be bad btoken |ntotbe bouse tbtougbaw|ndowNooneexcepttbe ptosecut|ngattomeyd|sputed tbatbewasatobbet,ottbatHannab'síatbetbadputsuedandsbot b|æbecausebebadbeenan|nttudet|ntbebouse 1b|swasav|ct|æ'st|gbtscase. 1b|swasa,un-contto|case 1b|s was a get-tougb-on-ct|æe case. !tc|eat|y|||usttatedtbe dangets oí be|ngav|g||ante.Otæaybe.tdeæonsttatedconc|us|ve|ytbatbom ownets ougbt to bave |ncteased t|gbts 1beACL\ got æad,tbe NkAevenæoteso. 1betewasa|ongtt|a|, asHannabbadsa|d,andtbeoanappea| andanotbet|ongtt|a|.!ntbeend,Hannab'síatbetwasconv|ctedoí vo|untaçæans|augbtetandsentencedtoaæax|æuæoítenyeats|n pt|son 1be attotneys sa|d |t was æote |.ke|yto be °on|y°two or tbtee 1be news oía b|gb scboo|pt|nc|pa| sentencedtotenyeats |n pt|soníotsboot|ngabutg|atonb|sítont|awnatousedsttongemo- t|ons1beteweteptotestsona||s|des.1bedec|s|onwasunconst|tu- t|ona| ltdehed coææonsense andnatuta||aw1beconv|ctedæan was a dangetous se|í-appo|ntee and a t|gbts v|o|atot. He wasan Amet|canbeto and aíaæ||y-ptotectot. Hewas av|o|entæadæan. Hewas8 æatgttotbecause,toanynuæbetoícaases. 1btougb a|| oítb|s, |æposs|b|y, Hannabwasgo|ngto co||ege, æak|ngA's,andapp|y|ngtoæed|ca|scboo|s,act|v|t|esdogat|ca||y |ns|steduponbybeteæbau|edíathet. °He]ustwou|dn'ta||owæy||íetobetu|nedbya||the 'stup|d|g. ' 1bat'swbatbesa|d.° AndHannabgot|ntoneatlyeve;æed|ca|scboo|sbeapp||edto, desp|tebetíatbet'spted|caæent. Sbeto|dæetbat°|íanyth|ng,tbe wbo|etb|ngptobab|ybe|pedæeget|n. Hewasacause. ° !45 MAR T HA S T OUT !|n|sbedw|tb betnattat|ve, Hannab seatcbedtbtougb a sæa|| |eatbetbandbag, found& t|ssue, andbegantob|otbetcbeeksand dabattbestteaksonbetsb|tt.1b|ssbed|deventbougbtbetewasa fu||boxoft|ssuesmp|a|ns|gbtona||tt|etab|e]ustatbet|efte|bow. °So you see, I dont tea||y need tbetapy' exact|y. ßut I tea||y wou|d ||ke to ta|k to soæeone. I tea||y don't want to be tb|s de- ptessedwbenIstattæedscboo|.Idon'tknow.Doyoutb|nk|twou|d bea||t|gbtfotæetoseeyou?° : ¹ Hannabbadaffectedæew|tbbetstoç,andw|tbbetdeæeanot. I fe|ttteæendoussyæpatbyfotbet, and I to|dbetso.1o�yse||, I wondetedbowæucbbe|psbewou|dactua||ybeab|etoacceptftoæ æe,tbepsycbo|og|ca|ttauæatbetap|stsbe bad ca||edbecausesbe badseenæynaæe |n anewspapetatt|c|e. Out |oud,weagteedto �eetonceaweekíotawb||e,soHannabcou|dbavesoæeonetota|k to.1beæed|ca|scboo|sbebadnna||ycbosenwas|nßoston, andat . betæotbetsutg|ngsbebadæovedeastt|gbtaftetbetco||egegtad- uat|on, sosbecou|dbe°sett|ed |n¨befotec|assesstatted,andaway ftoætbectaz|nessbackboæe.Hetæotbetfe|ttbes|tuat|onw|tbbet busbandwas°negat|ve° fot bet daugbtet. I tbougbt Î bad se|doæ beatdsucbanundetstateæent, and I assutedHannabtbat,yes, |t wou|dbea||t|gbtfotbettoseeæe. Aftetsbe|eft,Ipacedatoundæyofncefotaæ|nuteottwo,stat- |ngouttbeta|�w|ndowsontoßoston'sßackßay,wa|k|ngovettot|f- 0e papets ontbe w|de, c|utteted desk, and tben tetum|ngtotbe w|ndows,asl oftendoaftetasess|on|nwb|cbsoæeonebasto|dæe agteatdea|, butnotneat|yevetytb|ng.A I paced, Iwas|ntetested notsoæucbmtbe|ega|andpo||t|ca|quest|onsofwbo,wbat,wben, andwbete,buttatbet|npsycbo|ogspetenn|a|quest|on o fwby. Hannabbadnotaskedwby-as|n "Why d|dæyfatbetsboottbat gun?Why d|dntbe]ust|ettbeæango?°Iteflectedtbat,eæot|ona||y, sbecou|dnotaffotdto askwby, as tbeanswetæ|gbtbetoounset- t||ng. 1be ent|te te|at|onsb|p w|tb bet fatbet was at stake. And æaybe tb|s was tbe teason sbe needed æe, to be|p bet nav|gate ¬ 145 ¬ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR tbtougbtbe conce|vab|eanswetstotb|s pet||ousquest|on. letbaps betfatbetbadbeencaugbtup|ntbeftenzyoftbeæoæentandbad _ sbottbeguna|æostacc|denta||y, b|tt|ngtbe|nttudet|etba||y|ntbe bead°bysbeetb||nd|uck, °astbeattomeybadsa|d. Otpetbapsbet fatbetbadgenu|ne|ybe||evedb|sfaæ||ywas|ndanget,andb|spto- tect|ve|nst|nctsbadtakenb|æovet.OtpetbapsHannabsfatbet,tbe faæ||yæan,tb|s otd|naçæ|dd|e-c|ass b|gb-scboo|pt|nc|pa|,was a k|||er ln subsequent sess|ons, dut|ngtbat suææet anc |ntbe fa|| as Hannabbeganæed|ca|scboo|, sbeto|dæeæoteaboutbetfatbet. lntbek|ndofwotkldo,loftenbeataboutbebav|otsandeventstbat tbepat|entbetse|f, ovetbet ||fei|æe, bas gtownusedto andtb|nks ofasnotæa|,buttbatto æe sound d|st|nct|yabnotæa| andsoæe- ¡¯ t|æesa|atæ|ng.1b|sk|ndoftepott|swbatlsoonbegantogetftoæ HannabA sbedescr|bedbetfatbet,tbougbsbeobv|ous|ybe||eved sbewastecount|ngunteæatkab|estot|es, lp|ecedtogetbettbep|c- tute ofaoeæot|ona||y:o|�|nd|v|dua|wboseæeanandcontto|||ng act|ons æade æe ct|�g�. A|so, l Becaæe faæ|||atw|tb tbe undet- standab|ebazeæy|nte|||gentyoungpat|entwas|ost|nwben|tcaæe ~-.. .~- · ¡ ] · - . tosee|ngbetíatbetfotwbatbewas · ¹ ld|scovetedtbatHannabsfatbetdea|tw|tbb|sptetgw|fe and b|sb|gb-acb|ev|ngdaugbtetæote||kettopb|estbanbuæanbe|ngs, usua||y|gnot|ngtbeæcoæp|ete|ywbentbeywetes|ckotbav|nga d|fhcu|tt|æefotsoæeotbetteason. 8ut, |ov|ng|y, Hannabte|ntet- ¸. • r ptetedbetfatbetsca||oustteatæentofbet. � ´ ¸ .¸ _ * ¹ ·¯ ' ¡ °He'srea||ypt�JoIæe, °sbesa|d,°otso lvea|waystbougbt~ ,andsobecan'tstand|twbenlæakeæ|sta|es.Oncewbenlwas|n tbe fouttbgtade,æyteacbetsent anote boæe tbatlwasn'tdo|ng æyboæewotk. Dadd|dntspeaktoæefottwoweeksaftettbat l know|twastwoweeksbecauselbadtb|s||tt|eca|endat~lst|||bave |tsoæewbete~and l æatked offtbe days, one byone lt»as as|f suddeu|yld|dn'tevenex|st.ltwasawfu|. Ob, andanotbetgoodex- aæp|e, æote tecent. lwas |nb|gbscboo|a|teady~|isb|gb scboo|, " )47 " MA RT H A S T OUT youknow?~and !gottb|stea||ybuge,ug|yb|em|sbonæycbeek. ° Sbepo|ntedtoaneæptyspaceonbet|ove|ycoæp|ex|on.°Hed|dnt sayawotdtoæe~wou|dnteven|ookatæe~íottbteedays. Hes sucb a petíect|on|st ! guess be wants tosbowæe oíí, andwben soæetb|ngs wtong, be tea||y cant do tbat. !t æakes æe íee|bad aboutæyse|ísoæet|æes,but!suppose!canundetstand|t,æoteot |ess ° Hannabdesct|bedat|æe|nbetcb||dboodwbenbetæotbetbad beenct|t|ca||y|||and|ntbebosp|ta|íotneat|ytbteeweeks.Hannab be||evedbetæotbetbadconttactedpneuæon|a,butsbesa|d, °!was tea||ytooyoungto teæeæbetæucb about |t.° Hannab's auntbad takenbettoseebetæotbetdut|ngtb|st|æe.ßutbetíatbetbadnot v|s|ted b|s w|íe oncewb||e sbewas bosp|ta||zed, andwbenme te- tumedboæe,bewasangçandag|tated, concemedtbatb|spa|e�nq ·· · weakenedw|íe°æ|gbtnotgetbetbeau;back,°asHannabphtased|t. A íotHannabspteµæotbet,°1betetea||y|sn'tæucbtote||, ° Hannabto|dæe°Sbessweetandgent|eSbea|waystookgoodcate o íæe,espec|a||ywbenÌwas||tt|eSbe||kes togatden,andsbedoes a|otoícbat|t|es andsucb Sbes]ustatea||yn|ce|ady. Ob,andsbe wastbeboæecoæ|ngqueenwbensbewas|nb|gbscboo| Dad||kes tote||peop|etbat ° Wben !ptessedHannababoutbetæotbetsteact|ontobetía· tbet's neg|�ctíu| bebav|ots, sbe sa|d, °! don'tknow. Ì æean, to be bonest,tbetewetetb|ngstbatwou|dveæadeæetea||yangç|í!'d beenmoæ,butsbenevetsa|danytb|ng Sbe]ustk|nd oígoesbet ownway.L|ke!sa|d,sbesasweet,gent|e|ady-tbat'sptobab|ywbat you dbeat|íyouasked soæeonewboknows bet~and !guesswbat goes a|ongw|tb tbat |s sbe nevet tea||y stands up íot betse|íveç æuch. Sbecetta|n|ynevetconítonts Dad. ! æean, !tb|nk!d ía|nt deadaway|ísbeevetd|dtbat Sbe'stbepetíect|adyHeton|y||tt|e ûaw,|íyoucou|devenca|||ttbat, |sbetvan|gSbestea||ybeaut|íu|, and!tb|nksbeknows|t,andsbespendsa|otoít|æewotk|ngonbet ¯ !48 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ba|:andbe:bodyandsucb ltb|n|sbeseestbatasbe:on|ypowe: |ntbewo:|d,|ftbatæa|esanysense ¨ Hannab|oo|edatæequest|on|ng|y, andlnoddedtbatlunde:- stoodwbatsbeæeant. °Andtog|veb|æb|sdue,Dad's:ea||ygoodtobe:abouttbat.He sendsbe:í|owe:swbenbesgone,andbea|wayste||sbe:bowbeau- t|fu|s!e|sltb|n|tbat||ndoftb|ngæust:ea||yæeana|ottobe:.¨ °Hesendsbe:ûowenwbenbe'sgone?¨las|ed''Wbe:edoesbego?¨ Wben l as|ed tbatquest|on~°Wbe:e does be go?¨~Hannabs coæposu:e |ost a ||tt|e g:ound. Sbe sb|fted |n be: cba|: and sa|d notb|ng fo: aæoæent !|na||y sbe :ep||ed, °l don't:ea||ykow. l |notbat æust sound so:t of|aæe, but l don't. Soæet|æes be'd coæe|n:ea||y|ateatn|gbt, o:bedevenbegonefo:awbo|ewee|- end. momwou|dgetí|owe:s~læean,:ea||y, |twasbetweentbetwo oftbeæ. ltwasJusttoowe|:d,so lt:|edto|gno:e|t¨ °H|sabsenceswe:ewe|:d?¨ °Yes, we||. . . 1bat'stbewaylfe|t.ldon't|nowbowmoæfee|s °Anyguessesaboutwbe:ebewent?¨lp:essedbe:,p:obab|ya||t- . t|etooba:d,but|tseeæedan|æpottantpo|nt. °No.la|wayst:|edto|gno:e|t,¨sbe:epeated.1bensbebeganto studyæyboo|sbe|vesaga|n. 1be nex wee|, l as|ed Hannab tbe consp|cuous quest|on of _¸ wbetbe:be:f�tbe:badeve:beenpbys|ca||yv|o|entw|tbbe:o:be: æotbe:. Hadbeeve:b|ttbeæ? Sþb:|gbtened�ndanswe:edeage:|y. °Obno. Hesneve:done �anytb|ng|||etbat.lcan'teven�g|ne|t.lnfact,|fanyonee|seeve: bu:tæeo:moæ, ltb|n|bed||||tbeæ. ¨ Iwa|tedan|nstantfo:tbe|æpactofbe:wo:dstost:||ebe:,but sbe appea:ed unaffected. Sbe sb|fted be: pos|t|on aga|n and :e|n- fo:cedbe:answe:, say|ng, °No. He neve:b|t us. Notb|ng|||etbat - )49 ~ M AR T HA S T OUT She was unaccounfably pleased fo answer me lnfhls way, and somehow I was lncllned fo belleve her, fhaf her fafher had never beenphyslcallyvlolenflnfheconfexfofhlsfamlly. ßufafferfwenfy- nve years of freaflng frauma sutvlvors, I have learnedfhaf geftlng hlf u acfually one offhe more bearableways a person can be as- saulfed. Ifrledadlfferenffack. I sald,¨Iknowyouloveyourfafher, and youneedfoholdonflghffofhafloverlghfnow. ßufallrelaflonshlps havefhelrdlfnculfles.There'snofhlngaboufhlmfhafyou'dchange lfyoucould?¨ ¨Yes, fhaf's absolufely rlghf. I do needfo hold onfo hlm.And he reallydeservesfo havehugesympafhyfrom everyone, especlally now . . . . . Shepaused, andcranedherneckfolookbehlndheraffhedou- bledoorsfo myofnce.Thenshefurnedbackand lookedafmefor a longmomenf, as lfappralslngmymoflves, and nnallysald, ¨ßuf slnceyou wanf fo knowwhaf I'dchange, fhere ls somefhlng, acfu- ally. ¨ ' Ì She made a llffle humorless laugh and blushed scarlef fo fhe roofsofhershlmmerlngblackhalr. ¨Whatsfhaf?¨I asked, asmaffer-of-facflyasIcould. ¨If'saslllyfhlng,really. If's,well. . Someflmesheillrfswlfhmy frlends,sorfof, andlfreallybofhers me.Acfually, nowfhafI saylf oufloud,lfsoundsevenmorerldlculous.I guessifshouldn'fbofher meso much. ßuflfreallydoes. ¨ ¨HeÐlrfswlfhyourfrlends? Howdoyoumean?¨ ¨Slnce]unlorhlghschool, mote orless. . . Some ofmyfrlends arereallyg orgeous,youknow?There'sfhlsonelnparflcular, named Georgla. . . . Wellanyway, heillrfswlfhfhem.Hewlnksaffhemand klndofgrabsfhemandflcklesfhem.Andsomeflmeshemakeswhaf Ifhlnkarereallysuggesflveremarks-llkehe'llsay,'Golngbralessfo- day, Georgla?' or somefhlng-buf I guess I'm mlslnferpreflng. Oh !50 ¯¨¯ ¯ · . t T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R . I ' : ¦ man, nowfhaf I'm fa|klng abouffhls ouf |oud, lf's |lke ü|et-dumb, don'fyoufhlnk?Ifptobablyshouldn'fbofhetmeafall.¨ Isald,¨IfIwete lnyoutplace,Ifhlnklfwouldbofhetme,a|of.¨ ¹ ¨You do?¨ She looked encoutaged fot a momenf, and fhen sagged. ¨Youknow, affhehlghschoolDadtuns-fhehlghschoolI wenffo patenfshaveacfuallyclalmedfhaf hewas 'lnapptoptlafe' wlfhfheltklds.Thetewetefhteeflmes, Ifhlnk, otafleasffhoseate fheonesfhaf Iheatdabouf. Itemembetoneflmefhepatenfswete ' teally sfeamed. They acfually fook fhelt kld ouf of fhe school. Evetybodycamefo hls tescueaffetfhaf.Theyfhoughflfwasteally sadfhesedaysfhafsuchagood,klndmancouldbeaccusedofsome petvetsefhlng]usf because he gave one ofhls sfudenfs a hug, ot whafevet.¨ ¨Andwhafdoyoufhlnk?¨ ¨I don'fknow. I' l|ptobablybutnlnhellotsomefhlngfotadmlf- flng fhls, buffhe ftufh ls fhaf I don'f know-I guess because I've seenhlmdo somuch sfufffhaf people couldmlstead teal|yeaslly. You know? I mean, lfyou'te fhe ptlnclpalandyou walkup behlnd somehof-looklngslxfeen-year-o|dlnfhehallandyougtabhetbyfhe wa�, you've goffo expecfhetpatenfsfo gef allffleflcked lffhey heatabouf lf. I don'fknowwhyhe doesn'fundetsfandfhaf. ¨ Thlsflme, Hannahdldnofaskmefoconntmhetoplnlon. She sfatedaffhebookshelvessomemote,andwassllenf. Flnally, lnallffleÐoodoftushedwords,shesald, ¨Andyouknow whafelse? I've nevetfold fhls fo anyone, and I hope you'te nofgo- lngfofhlnk |ess ofmebecauseI' mfelllngyou, bufoneflmefhls gltl ² I know-I dldn'f know het vety well, buf she wenf fo fhe hlgh school-she came up and saf!eslde me lnfhe llbtag and sfatfed wtlflng nofes. She was smlllng and she wtofe, 'Do youknowwhaf youtfafhetfoldmeaboufCenftal Hlgh?'andshepassedlffome. I wtote, 'Iglveup.Whaf?'andshewtofe, 'HefoldmeCenftalwasIlke asexualcafefetla. ' Shepufsexualcafefetlalnblgquofes. Iwassofu- ¯ !5! ¯ MART H A S T OUT rlous Ialmosfcouldn'fkeepfromcglng,bufIgofoufoffhere,and fhenIdldn'fknowwhaffodowlfhfhepleceofpaper,soIcru�pled lfupandIpuflflnmypockef,andwhenIgofhome, Igofmafches andIburnedlflnfheslnk.¨ The rush ofwords over, she looked down affhe rusf-colored carpef. I' msosorg, Hannah.Youfrulydldn'fdeservefohavefhafhap- penfoyou.Youmusf've beensoembarrassed, and sohearfbroken. ßufwhydldyou�maglneI'dfhlnklessofyouforfelllngme?'' In a volce muchyounger fhan her fwenp-fwo years, she an- swered, ¨Ishould'vekepflfasecref. If'sdlsloyal. ¨ HannahandIconflnuedoursesslonsfogefher.Affhebeglnnlng ofmanyofherappolnfmenfs,shewouldfellmeaboufsfrangephone messageshermofherwasrecelvlngbackhome. ¨Afferfhenlghf offheburglag,weprefpmuchsfopped belng ablefoanswerfhephone.Thereweresomanyso-calledreporfers, andsomanycranks.Affhlspolnf,Momalways]usflefsfhemachlne answer,andlflfssomebodyshewanfsfofalkfo,shecanplckup. If's okay, I guess. She]usf erasesfhe cranks. ßuflaf � ly she's beengef- ting fhese welrd druggle messages. They really upsef her. They're frea|-Imean,evenfreaklerfhanfhe usualfreaks. ¨ ¨Hasshefoldyouwhaffheysay?¨Iasked. ¨Sortof.Shegefssoupsef,lf'sallfflehardfomakesenseofwhaf she'ssaylngfomeonfhephone,bufIfhlnkfhebaslcldealsfhey're accuslngDad ofdeallngdrugs orsomefhlng.Rldlculous sfuff-buf lf really gets fo Mom. She sald fheywere demandlngfo gef some klndof'lnformaflonfromfhehouse,orfheyweregolngfohurthlm. I guessfheykepfsaylngsomefhlngabouf lnformatlon, ' andfhlngs abouf hurtlng hlm. ßuffhere's nofhlng ln fhe house, and, I mean, Dad'snoffhere.He'slnprlson. ¨ ¨Hasyourmofhernoflnedfhepollceabouffhemessages?¨ ¨No. She'safraldfhafshe'llgefDadlnfrouble. ¨ Foramomenf, Icouldnoffhlnkofanapproprlafereplyfofhls !52 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R lasf remark, and when I was sl|enf, Hannah nlled ln She sald, ¨I know, Iknow. If'sllloglcal ¨ ßyfheendofHannah'snrsfyearlnmedlcalschool,hermofher hadrecelvedadozenorsooffhese lncomprehenslbleandfrlghfen- lng messages, and sflllnelfhermofher nor daughfer had reporfed fhemfofhepollce. InMay, HannahdecldedshewanfedfoÐyoufandvislfherlm- prlsoned fafher Wefalked abouf how emoflonally palnfu| such a vlsltwouldbeforher,bufshewasdefermlnedfogoWe hadseveral / conversaflonsaboufherupcomlngfrlp,fglngfoprepareherforfhe varlousslfuaflonsshemlghfneedfohandle,andforfhefeellngsshe mlghfhave when she saw her fafh�r ln prlson. ßuf noìhlng could havepreparedelfher Hannah orme forwhafdld¿appen. Inrefro- specf, Ibelleve hemusfhavereachedfhepolnfofwanflnganaudl- enceforhlsgamesmanshlp, aframe ofmlndslmllarfo Sklp'swhen he � f� � e�hls|lffleslsferfofhelakeslde Icannoffhlnkofanyofher llkely reason fhaf Hannah's fafher would suddenly have been so forfhcomlngwlfhhlsdaughferAforHannah,shehadnoffoldme ¸ she lnfendedfo be blunfwlfhherfafher. Perhapsshe dldnofeven . knowfhls herselfbeforehand. To mymlnd, herbehavlorwhen she vlslfedfheprlsonlsoneoffh � �esf]usfglo�Ihave everencoun- feredofhowmuchapersoncanknowaboufanofherpersonwlfhouf o�.�louslyknowlngfh� shekno�� lf. - w��she ,:baH±��ion, thls �whaf she fold me abouf f�lrconversaflon.Ilmaglnefhafmorewassald,buffhefollowlngls allfhafHannahsharedwlfh me.Shebegansomewhaffearfully, de- scrlblng fhe harrowlng and undlgnlned process of gefflng lnfo a µrlsonfovlslfa nlnmafe.Thenherfearsclearedcomplefelyandshe foldmefheresfcalmly, wlfhacenalnlnfellecfualdefachmenf She sald, ¨I wasferrlned he'dlookpafheflcand beafen, bufhe dldn't look:hafwayaf all He looked nne He looked. . . I don'f know-a|ìvelswhafIwanffosay Hlseyesweresparkllng I'veseen hlmllkefhafbefore,bufIreallydldn'fexpecffoseehlmfhafwayln !5j . MAR T HA S TOUT prlson.Heseemedgladfoseeme-heaskedmeaboufmygrades.I fhoughfhe'd askme abouf Mom, bufhe dldn'f.And so Ï fhoughf, WhypuflfoúSoIaskedhlm. ¨ ShemadefhlssfafemenfaslfIknewwhafshemeanf,andIdld nof. Isald,¨Youaskedhlmwhaf?¨ ¨Iaskedhlm,'Whafwasfhafmanlooklngforlnfhehouse, Dad?' Hesald,'Whafman?'BufI'msureheknewwhafIwasfalklngabouf. Hedldn'flookashamedorembarrassedoranyoffhaf. I sald, 'The manyoushof. 'Hedldn'fevenbllnk.He]usfsald,'Oh,fhafman. He waslooklngforsome names. Bufhe dldn'fnndfhem. Icanassure youoffhaf.' ¨ Hannah had been speaklngwlfhouf looklng af me. Now she madeeyeconfacf,andsald, ¨Dr.Sfouf,hlsexpresslon. . . Helooked llke we were falklng abouf somefhlng fhaf was reallyfn fo falk abouf. Iwanfedforunoufoffhere, bufIdldn'f. ¨ ¨Idldn'fknowyouweregolngfodofhls.You'reamazlng. ¨ ¨Ifwasawful,¨sheconflnuedwlfhoufseemlngfohearfhafÌwas marvellngafheracflons.¨Isald, 'Soyouknewhlm?'Andhesald,'Of courseIknewhlm.WhywouldIklllaperfecfsfranger?'Andfhenhe laughed.Helaughed, Dr.Sfouf. ¨ Sflllspeaklngdlrecflyfome,fhoughwlfhconslderableemoflonal dlsfancefromfhesub]ecfmaffer,shewenfon.¨AndfhenIsald,'Are youlnvolvedwlfhheroln?'He dldn'freallyanswerfhafone. He]usf fold mefhaf Iwas smarf. Canyou belleve fhaf? He fold mefhaf I wassmarf.¨ Sheshookherheadlndlsbellefandwassllenfforawhlle. Flnally, I prom ¹ fed her. I sald, ¨Dld you ask ofher quesflons, Hannah?¨ - / ·´ , ) , ' • ¨Yes. Yes, Ì dldaskhlm.Isald,' Haveyoueverkllledanyoneelse?' Anddoyouknowwhafhesald?¨ Thenshewassllenfagaln. Afferamomenf, Ì replled, ¨No,Idon'f.Whafdldhesay?¨ !54 ¬ W T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR ¨Hesald, IpleadfheFlffh. ' ¨ OnlyfhendldHannahcgagaln,fhlsflmewlfhoufresfralnf. Her sudden, wrenchlnggrlef, forfhe fafhershehadfhoughfwasfhere, remlndedmeofaquofaflonfromEmerson,who · sald�hafofallfhe waysfoloseaperson,deafhlsfheklndesf. Shew�,ff � r�gflme,bufIwa�relle�edfonndfhafwhenher fearswerennallyspenf,shewasablefofurnherfhoughfsfoherown safep. Wlplng her facewlfh a handful offlssues fromfhe box, she lookedafmeandsaldlnasfeadyvolce,¨Thelawyersaregolngfogef hlmouf,youknow.WhafamIgolngfo do?¨ AndIheardmyselfanswerlng,wlfhdecldedlymoredlrecflvema- femal feroclpfhan I am accusfomed fo uslng lnfherapysesslons, ¨You'regolngfoprofecfyourself, Hannah.' What Can the Conscience-Bound Do Aout the Guiltless? Soclopafhsarenoffewandfa�befween.Onfheconfrag,fheymake upaslgnlncanfporflonofourpopulaflon.ThoughHannah'sexperl- encewasespeclallyupcloseandpersonalfor anylndlvldualllvlngln fheWesfernworldfogefallfhewayfhroughllfewlfhoufknowlngaf leasfonesuch person, lnsomecapaclporofher, ls vlrfuallylmpos- slble. People wlfhouf con�lence experlence emoflons veg dlffer- enfly from you and me, and fheydo nof experlence love af all, or anyofher klnd ofposlflve affachmenffofhelrfellowhumanbelngs. Thlsdenclf,whlchlshardevenfoponder,reducesllfefoanendless game ofauempfed domlnaflonover ofherpe ople. S� � tlmes so� clopafhsarephyslcallyvlolenf, as Ha�nah's i�fher �as. Offenfhey arenof, preferrlngfo''wln¨overofhersbyraldlngfhebuslnessworld, orfheprofesslons,orgovemmenf-orslmplybyexplolflngoneper- !55 ¨ . ~~ / \ · ¹ _¸ , ¸ · . - ·:'¯`´ MART HA S T OUT son af a flme ln paraslflc relaflohlps, as Sydney's nonhusband, ¯ ¯dlu. · * * v n~ Afpresenf, soclopafhyls¨lncurable¨ , furfhermore,soclopafhsal- mosfneverwls|� ! ·: ¬�fls - [¡¿� ly:|f, ¿ ulldln,n !neuroblologlcalconnguraflonofsoclopafhy, cerfalnculfures, no- fablyourWesfem one, acflvelyencourageanflsoclalbehavlors, ln- cludlngvlolence,murder, andwarmongerlng. Thesefacfs aredlfnculfformosfpeoplefo accepf. Theyare of- fenslve, nonegallfatlan, and frlghfenlng ßufundersfandlngand ac- cepflngfhemasarealaspecfofourworldlsru|enumberoneoffhe ¨ThlrfeenRulesforDeallngwlfhSoclopafhslnEvegdayLlfe¨fhafI fellfopaflenfsllkeHannah,andfoofherpeoplewhoarelnferesfed lnprofecflngfhemselvesandfhepeoplefheylove Herearefhefhlrfeenrules. 1mÏb¯ÏÏP VLLÏbÏLVLÏ^LÏPLYϯm bLLÏLÏTmb ÏP ÏNÏVÀL1À LÏÏÏ· I. T e f rst r l e invo l ve t h e b itter pi ll o f accepting at some peo- p l e l itera ll y h ave no ccmscience, ' ThesepeopledonofoffenlookllkeCharles Mansonor a Ferenglbarfender.Theylookllke us. 2. In a contest b etween your instincts an d w h at is imp l ie d b y t h e r l e a person h as ta k en' on-e d ucator d octor, l ea d er anima l l � er h umanist, parent€ wit h your _� Whefheryouwanffo be ornof,you are aconsfanfob- serverofhumanbehavlor,andyourunnlferedlmpresslons, fhoughalarmlngandseemlnglyouflandlsh,maywellhelp you ouf lfyouwlll lef fhem. Your besf selfundersf � nds, + . · · é � ~º ^ *":¹"¹''�"� "` ®º wlfhoufbelngfold,fhaflmpresslveandmoral-soundlngla- - )55 " Il T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R belsdonofbesfowconsclenceonanyonewhodldnofhave lffobeglnwlfh. Õ. W h en consi d ering a new re l ations h ip o f any k in d , practice t h e �o f T rees _ar d i � g t h e c l aims an d promises a peron ma k es, an d t h e responsi b i l ities h e or s h e h as. Ma k e t h e R u l e o f T h rees your persona l po l icy. One lle, one broken promlse, ora slngle neglecfed re- sponslblllfymaybeamlsundersfandlnglnsfead.Two may lnvolveaserlousmlsfake. ßuft h ree lles saysyou'redeallng wlfhallar, anddecelflsfhellnchplnofconsclencelessbe- havlor. Cufyour losses and gef ouf as soon asyou can. Leavlng,fhoughlfmaybe hard, wlll be easler nowfhan lafer,and|esscosfly. Do nof glve your money, your work, your secrefs, or youraffecflonfo afhree-flmer. Yourvaluable glffs wlllbe wasfed. � Once agaln-frusf your own lnsflncfs and anxlefles, especlallyfhose�concernlngpeop!ewTo Hfhafdo�l- . (ûng ofters, vlolence, war, or some ofIervoIaflon o your consclence ls fhe grand soluflon fo some problem. Do fhls evenwhen, or especlallywhen, evegone around you±comp1efeysp,�¡ufhclfe� uyour¯wTaf3fanley Mllgræ�faughfus abo � f obe- dlence. Af !¸easf slx ouf offen people wlll bllndly obey fo fhe [ lffer eg � olaJ-JooJng auf£orlp ln fheIr ¸ f. Te¿oodnewslsfhafhavlngsoclalsupporfmakespeo- plesomewhafmorellkelyfo challenge aufhorlp. Encour- agefhosearoundyoufoquesflon,foo. - )57 ¯ MA RT HA S T OUT D. Suspect f l attery. Compllmenfs are lovely, especlally when fhey are sln- cere. In confrasf, f l atter ls exfreme and appeals fo our egos ln unreallsflc ways. If ls fhe maferlal ofcounferfelf charm, andnearlyalwayslnvolvesanln�enffomanlpulafe. Manlpulaflon fhrough ilaffeg ls someflmes lnnocuous andsomeflmesslnlsfer. Peekoveryourmassagedegoand rememberfosuspecfÐaffeg. Thls ¨ilaffety rule¨ applles on an lndlvldual basls, and a|so af fhe |evel of groups and even whole naflons. Throughouf all ofhuman hlsfogand fo fhe presenf, fhe callfowarhaslncludedfhei|afferlngclalmfhafone'sown forces are abouffo accompllshavlcfogfhafwlll change fheworldforfhebeffer,afrlumphfhaflsmorallylaudable, ]usflned by lfs humane oufcome, unlque ln human endeavor, rlghfeous, and worthy of enormous graflfude. Slncewe�eganfo recordfhehumansfog, allofourma- ]orwarshave beenframed lnfhlsway, ona|lsldesoffhe conÐlcf, and lnalllanguagesfhe ad]ecflvemosfoffen ap- plledfo fhewordwar ls h o l y. P argumenf can easl|ybe madefhafhumanlpwll|havepeacewhennaflonsofpeo- pleareaflasfablefoseefhroughfhlsmasferfulilaffeg. ]usfasanlndlvldualpumpeduponthei|affegofama- nlpulafor ls llkelyfo behave ln foollshways, exaggerafed pafrloflsmfhaflsÐaffeg-fueledlsadangerousfhlng. Ö. I f necessar, re d e f ne your concept o f respect. ' Too offen, we mlsfake fear for respecf, and fhe more fearfulweareofsomeone,fhemorewevlewhlmorheras deservlngofourrespecf. I have a spoffed ßengal caf who was named Musc|e Man by my daughfer when she was a foddler, because ~ !58 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R even as a klffen he looked llke a professlonal wresfler. Grownnow, he ls much largerfhan mosfofher domesflc cafs. Hls formldable claws resemble fhose of hls Aslan leopard-caf ancesfors, buf by femperamenf, he ls genfle andpeace-lovlng. Mynelghborhasallffle callcowhovls- lfs. Evldenuy, fhecallco'spredaforycharlsma ls huge, and she ls brllllanf af dlrecflng fhe evll eye af ofher cafs. Whenevershe lswlfhlnnfµfeef, Muscle Man, allnffeen pounds ofhlmfo herseven, crlngesandcroucheslnfear andfellnedeference. MuscleManls a splendldcaf Helswarm andlovlng, and he lsclosefomyhearf. Nonefheless, l wouldllkefo bellevefhafsomeofhlsreacflonsaremoreprlmlflvefhan mlne. Ihopeldonofmlsfakefearforrespecf, becausefo = +^'"¯"¹^"¯` dosowouldbefoensuremyownvlcflmlzaflon.Lefususe ourbi g h�nbrai� � ��nlmalfendencyfo bowfopredafors,sowe candlsenfanglefhereilexlvecon- i�uio1anxleµ � d - aw e. l na perfecfworld, humanre- specfwould be anaufomaflcreacflononlyfo fhosewho aresfrong, klnd, andmorallycourageous.Thepersonwho pronfsfromfrlghfenlngyoulsnofllkelyfo · b��nyoffhese. . ¨e`resohe ¡okeeprespe�f s�p��afe fromfe _ r · l � _¸� n -· morecruclalforgroups and naflons. The pollflclan, small orloffy, whomenacesfhepeoplewlfhfrequenfremlnders offheposslblllµofcrlme,vlolence,orferrorlsm,andwho fhen uses fhelrmagnlnedfearfo galn alleglance, lsmore llkelyfobeasuccessfulconarflsffhanaleglflmafeleader. Thlsfoohasbeenfruefhroughoufhumanhlsfog 7. Do not join the game. Infrlgue ls a soclopafh's fool. - Reslsffhe feq fo compefewlfhaseducflvesoclopafh,fooufsmarfhlm,psy- ...- - !59 ¬ , ! MAR T HA S TOUT ¸ · ¸ ( · ;¯ choanalyze,orevenbanferwlfhhlm.Inaddlflonforeduc- lngyourselffohlslevel, y�uwouldbedlsfracflngyourself fromwhaflsreallylmporfanf,whlchlsfoprofecfyotirself. Û. T e b est way to protect yourse l f f rom a sociopat h is�to � Vi� - � ) to re f use any k in d o f contact or communication. -- --- , ¯ !sych�|��|�ts do nof�uall� ||k� t � :�c��end avold- ance, buflnfhls case, Imakeaverydellberafeexcepflon. Theonlyfru[effecflvemefhodfordeallngwlfhasoclopafh youhaveldenflnedl � | � �d��ah� , �l� o�l¡e� lr�myrllfe alfogefher. Soclopafhsllve complefelyoufsldeoffhesoclal o t �ndfhereforefolncludefhemlnrelaflonshlpsot ofhersoclalarrangemenfs lsperllous �eglnfhls excluslon offhemlnfheconfexfofy�tro� relaflonshlpsandsoclal llfe.Youwlllnofhurlanyone'sfeellngs.Sfrangeaslfseems, andfhouµ fheymayfgfoprefendof|�seyclopaths d�nofha\� �psuchfeellngs1ohurt. - Y -ayneverb« �blef� �keyourfamllyandfrlends undersfand whyyou are avoldlnga parflcular lndlvldual. Soclopafhylssurprlslng|ydlfnculffosee,andevenharder foexplaln.Avoldhlmanyway. Iffofalavoldance ls lmposslble, ¿ akeplans focome a� closeasyoucanfofh�goaloffofalavoldance.[ Û. Question your ten d ency to pity too easi l y. Respecfshouldbereservedforfheklndandfhemorally courageous.Pity lsanofhersoclallyvaluableresponse, �nd lfshouldbe reservedforlnnocenlpeoplewho �r� lngen- ulnepalnorwhoh�� fallenonmlsforfune.If,lnsfead, you Jndyourse|foffenplpl ng������e �h��o�slsfenflyhurfs ¸youorofherpeople, andwhoacflvelycampalgnsforyour sympafhy, fhe chances are close fo I00 percenf fhafyou aredeallngwlfhasoclopafh. ) 50 T H E S O C I O P ATH N E XT D O O R Relafed fo fhls�I recommend fhaf you severely ch�l- lengeyourneedfobepo l ite lnabsolufel ¸ a|l s ¡ f��� � o� ¯ normal adulfs ln our culfure, belng whaf we fhlnk ofas ¨clvlllzed¨ ls|lke arellex, andoffenwe nndourselvesbe- lng aufomaflcally decorous even when someone has en- rag�,repeafedlylledfous,o�nguraflvelysfabbe _� fh back. Soclopafhs fake huge advanfage of fhls aufo- maflccourfesylnexplolflve slfuaflons. Do nof be afrald fo be unsmlllng and calmly fo fhe polnf. I0. Do not tr to re d eem t h e unre d eema b l e. Second¦fhlrd,fourfh,andnffh)chancesareforpeople whopossess consclence. Ifyouare deallngwlfh a person whohasnoconsclence,knowhowfos�allowhardandcuf yourlosses. Afsomepolnf,mosfofusneedfo leamfhe lmportanf, lfdlsappolnflng, llfe |essonfhaf, nomafferhowgoodour lnfenflons,we cannofconfrolfhe behavlor-let·ln¯efhe chara ¿ fet:fmcfures-ofofhe� peop!en fhls facf of humanllfe,andavoldfhron_¯ungcaughfuplnfhe sameamblflonhe has-foco�;� . _ 1you¯nof _ lre � o:ntro , uf lnsfead wanf fo h e l p people,fhenhel g lyose ¸� nf�be elped. Iftl¯youwl¯hndfhls doesnoflncludefheperso _ · �h� has noconsclence. The soclopafh's behavlor ls nofyour faulf, nof ln any waywIa so ev«r.Ifís aÌsO nofyourmlsslon.Your �ls�lon¯ you�ownllfe� II. Never agree, out o f pity or f or any ot h er, reason, to h e l p a so- cTO P at h �;The;� e ' c h ar � c t; ;--' - ¨Pleasedon'ffell, ¨ offenspokenfearfulIyandwlfhgreaf ª " )5) ' · + ' | _ ~~� MARTHA S TOUT gnashlng offeefh, ls fhe frademarkpleaoffhleves, chlld abusers-andsoclopafhs. Donof|lsfenfofhlsslrensong. Ofherpeopledesenefo bewamedmorefhansoclopafhs deservefohaveyoukeepul�se cr�ts. . Ifsomeone w fho�f ��±�l�� · c-í�slsfs fhafyou ¨owe¨ hlm orher, recal|whafyou are abouffo read here ¨You oweme¨��b-e�fhesfa�da�d llne�ís�clopafhs.�rf|�u- · sands ofyears, qtilfe llferally, and ls sflll so. If ls whaf Raspuflnfoldfhe empressofRussla. If lswhaf Hannahs fafher lmplled fo her affer her eye-openlng conversaflon wlfhhlmaffheprlson. \ We fendfo experlence ¨You owe me'' as a compelllng¸ ¸ c|alm, buflflsslmply �otfru�.Donofllsfen�Als�,lgnore + ~�v?· ¹ ¬ fhe+n�fhafgoes, ¨Youare]usfllkeme. ¨You arenof. I2. De f en d your psyc h e, Do nof allow someone wlfhouf consclence, or even a sfrlngofsuchpeople, foconvlnceyoufhafh�manlµls a fallure. Mosfhum�nþelngs d poss�ss consclence. Mosf - . - º� -,w humanbelngsare ablefolove. ´ ì3. Living we ll u t h e b est revenge. `` Epioge IsflllmeefwlfhHannahoccaslonally. Herfafherwasparoledfromprlson,bufshehasnofseeuhlm,or evenspokenwlfhhlm,lnfhelasfslxyears.;ls|oss,andfhereasons forlf,remalnasourceoffremendoussadnessforher. · · ·` ´´ Hermofher·ndfathe: · �reno«dlvorc�a, d����f · fo hls�lenf crlmlnal acflvlfles, whlch Hannah's mofher andfhe resf ofsoclep ·· · �� ' ¯ ) 52 ¯ T HE S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R stlllrefusetoacknowledge,buttothefactthatshefoundhlmlnbed wlthanlneteen-year-oldformerstudent. În testlmonyto her lntelllgence and her strength, Hannah nn- ishedmedlcalschoolwlthhonors. ßutshesoondlscoveredtheobvl- t . ous�thatbelngadoctorhadbeenherfather'sambltlonforher,not her own. He hadconslderedthlstobethehelghtofprestlge. Agalnsttheodds, Hannahhasheldontoherablllptofeelclose t 9 peoplewhoarelovlngandtrustworlhy, andalsoontoadrysense ofhumor.Whenshelehmedlclne,forexample,shetoldmeshehad /realizedthatthemedlcaloath,¨Flrst,donoharm, ¨ slmplydldnotnt hetfatheral all. Sh · e applled1o and was accepted by several law schools. She cho � etoaltendonethatoffers aspecla|lzatlonlnadvocacyandhu- manrlghts. )5j h | h L the ongms of conS C lence Why should any animal, of on its own, specifed and labeled by all sorts of signals as its individual self choose to give up its life in aid of someone else? -Lewis Thomas b lncewehavelfonexcellenfaufhorlfyfhafnafurelsredlnfoofh andclaw,whyare al|humanbelngsnofkll|ers |lke Hannah'sfa- fher?Whydomosfofus, mosfoffheflme, operafe accordlngfo a sevenfhsensefhafdlrecfs usnoffo kl|l, evenwhenwe mlghfpronf lnsomewayfromdolng so?Andlesserfransgresslons, foo.Whydo weusuallyfee|gul|pwhenwesfea|,or|le,orhurtofherpeople? Yc have a|readydlscussedwhaf causes soclopafhy, and so lf ls only falr fo address fhe fwln quesfion. Whaf causes consclence? Fromacertalnpolnfofvlew, fhlslnqulglsnofnere|yparal|e|, lfls acfual|yfhebefferandmorebaßllngquesflon. Slnce Darwln pub- llshedTe Origin of Species, lnI8ó9, muchofsclenflncfheorlzlnghas consldered fhaf all llvlng fhlngs, lncludlng human belngs, have evolved accordlngfofhe lawofnafural selecflon.Accordlngfofhls |aw,knownmorepopularlyas¨fhelawoffhe]ungle, ¨anycharacfer- lsflcfhafenhancessunlva|andreproducflon¦andfhereforefhecon- flnuance oflfsowngeneflccomponenfs)wlllfendfo remalnlnfhe ¯ ) 54 ¯ T H E S OC, l O PAT H N E XT' D O O.R populaflon. Ifaphyslcalfralf orabehavloralfendencybesfowsfhls fellclfoussunlvaladvanfageonlndlvldualsforcounflessgeneraflons, lnmanyslfuaflonsandacrosshabltafs, lfmay, lncremenfallyand ln fhecourseoftlmelmmemorlal, becomepartoffhesfandardgeneflc blueprlnfforfhespecles. Accordlng fo fhe law of nafural selecflon, flgers have claws, chameleons change colors, rafs avold open spaces, possums play dead, and apes have blgbralns because flgerswlfhclaws, camou- ilagedllzards,secreflverodenfs, playacflngpossums, andvegsmart prlmafes fend fo sutvlve longer and so make more bables fhan fhelr peers do. ln furn, fhese bables sutvlve beffer and reproduce more offen fhan fhelr less fortunafe playmafes who are nof ge- neflcally endowed wlfh nafural weapons, camouilage fechnlques, survlval-promoflnganxlefy,fheafrlcalablllp, orsuperlorlnfelllgence. ßuf accordlngfo fhls ufferly amorallawoffhe]ungle, ofwhaf posslble use fo fhe lndlvldualmembers ofa predafogspecles-for humanbelngs are fechnlcallypredafors-arefhe llmlfaflons and ln- ferrupflonsofapowerfulmoralsense?lmaglne,forexample,agreaf whlfesharkwlfhademandlngconsclence.Howlongwouldshellve? Whaf, fhen, canconcelvably befhe evoluflonaryorlglns ofhuman consclence? Lefuspuffhlsexraordlnagquesflonanofherway. Plcfurepeo- plesfrandedonasmall,remofelslandwlfhllmlfedresources.lnfhe longrun,�hafklndoflndlvlduallsmorellkelyfo sutvlve�anhon- esf, moral person, or someone rufhless llke Sklp? The klnd and empafhlc]ackle Rubensfeln, or Doreen Llffleneld? Sydney, orfhe unremlfflngly seh-lnvolved Luke? Hannah, or Hannah's fafher? If fherewereafew ofhers onfhelslandforfhesurvlvorsfomakeba- bleswlfh-and glvenfhafsoclopafhyls afleasfparflallygeneflcally defermlned-over a greaf manygeneraflons, mlghfwe nof end up wlfhan lslandpopulafedmalnlybypeoplewhopossessed no con - sclence?Thenwouldnoffhlspopulaflonofsoclopafhsproceedwlfh- ouf a second fhoughf fo deplefe fhe lsland's resources complefely, - )55 ~ . +· MAR T HA S T OUT andalldle?Andlf,fofheconfrag,peoplewlfhconsclenceweresflll fo be found on fhe lsland, wh�r � llfe was fraglle and rufhlessness paldoff, whaf lnfhenafuralworldcouldposslblyhave beenfosfer- lngfhelrmoralsense? Preclsely on accounf offhls seemlng| lmposslble challenge fo evoluflonag fheog, nafurallsfs, socloblologlsfs, comparaflve psy- chologlsfs,andphllosophershavelongbeenlnferesfedlnfheorlglns ofunselnshnesslnhumansandlnofheranlmals.Wheneverwecare- fullyobservefhe acflons offhe so-called hlgheranlmals,we see an apparenflylrreconcllabledlchofomybefweenselnshsurvlvallsmand lnfense soclal lnferesf. And of course, nowhere ls fhls dlchofomy more exfremefhan lnfhe human specles.We compefe feroclously, andwefeachourchlldrenfocompefe.We nnancewarsandweapons ofmass desfrucflon And we alsofund foundaflons, soclal welfare programs, and homeless shelfers, and fg fo feach our chlldren~ fhosevegsamechlldren-fobe klnd. Our specles has produced bofh a Napoléon and a Mofher Teresa.ßufaccordlngfofundamenfallsfevoluflonagfheog,Mofher Teresa shouldneverhave been bom, because nelfhercharlpnora senseofgoodandevllwouldseemfohaveanythlngafallfodowlfh fhelawoffhe]ungle. Sowhafls golngonhere?As Davld Paplneau askedlnhlsNew Yor k Tmes revlewofMaffRldley'sbook T e Origins o f Vrtue, ¨Ifnlce guys always nnlshedlasf when our ancesforswere scrabbllngaroundforfoodonfheArlcansavanna,whydoesmoral- lpcomesonafurallyfousnow?¨ And humans are hardlyfheonlyanlmalswho canbe unselnsh. Thomson's gazelles¨sfof¨ ¦ leapupanddownconsplcuously) when fhey see a predafor, decreaslngfhelrchances of lndlvldual survlval buflncreaslngfhechancesfhaffheherdwlllgefaway. Chlmpanzees share fhelr meaf, and someflmes even fhelr mosf valued frulf. AccordlngfopsychoblologlsfFransdeWaal,aravenwlllcommunl- cafefhepreclousdlscovegofacarcasswlfhloudcallsfofheßock, maklnglfselfasfandouffowolves. ) 55 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R Whenltcomesto survlvlng, clearlythere ls acertalnconi|lctof lnterestbetweenthe lndlvldual andthe herd/communlpnlock, and argumentsconcemlngtheorlglnofwhaievolutlonappsychologlsts call ¨altrulstlcbehavlors¨ have generallycentered aroundthe unit o f se l ection lnevolutlon. Doesnaturalselectlon ¨choose¨ onlylndlvldu- als for survlval, or can selectlon perhaps operate at tIe level of groups,thusfavorlngthesurvlvalofwholepopulatlonsoverothers? If¨survlvalofthenttest¨appllesonlytothelndlvldualastheunlt ofselectlon, the evolutlon ofunselnshness ls almost lmposslble to explaln,forthe same reasonthatcutthroatSklp,Doreen,Luke,and Hannah'sfather, as lndlvlduals,wouldlndeedbemorellkelytoout- lasttherestofusonadesertlsland.ßutlftheunltofselectlonlsthe group as a whole, then a cenaln am � smcaT ex- µlned.Qµ, _ ��uçc � ¡se � ��s¬o·� ¯ _ kecareofoneanotherlsmuchmorellkelytosurvlve as a group thanacollectlve oflndlvldualswho canonlycompetewlthor lgnoreoneanother. Intermsofsurvlval,thesuccessfulgroupwlllbe theonethatlsoperatlngtosomeextenta�anentlp, ratherthanthe grouplnwhlcheveryslnglelndlvlduallslooklngoutfornumberone, totheexcluslonofeveponee|se. Group selectlon, andalllt lmplles about ourtrue nature, has beenanextremelycontroverslalldeaamongevolutlonlsts,reÐectlng thefactthatthetheopofevolutlonltselflsstlllevolvlng. Earlythe- orles of group selectlon assumed the posslblllp that, ln the be- glnnlng, there had been coheslve group� of altrulstlc lndlvlduals ¦ mammals thatemlttedwarnlngbehavlors, blrdsthatwould slgnal food to the ilock, prlmates who were generous, and so fonh) for group selectlontofavor lnthe nrstplace. Thls poorly explalnedas- sumptlon-aggregatlonsofaltrulstsfromtheclearblues|-was lr- rltatlngtomanyscholars,whobestowedonltthe damnlng labelof weaksclence. In I966, GeorgeC.WllllamsottheUnlversltyofChlcagopub- llshedanow-classlctexentltledA d aptation an d Natura l Se l ection, ln )57 MAR T HA S T OUT whlchheatguedlhalallhoughgtoupselecllonwaslheotellcallypos- slble, llwasunllkelylooccutlnnalute.Wllllamswtolelhalnellhet lhegtoupnor lhelndlvldualwaslhefundamenlalunllofnalutalse- lecllon, malnlalnlnglhallheltue unll ofselecllonwaslhe gene ll- self. Fotctealuteslhalteptoducesexually, asopposedlootganlsms lhalgenetaleclones,lhe genelslheonlyunlllhalself-tepllcalesex- aclly¦ mote otl�ss)lhtough llme. Chlldten ate nolexaclcoples of lheltpatenls,bulgenesare faltlypteclsetepllcasoflhemselves.And so, Wllllamslnslsled,lhegenemuslbelheonlyunlllhatnalutalse� lecllon can efnclenlly use. ln olhet wotds, ¨sutvlval oflhe nllesl¨ meanlsutvlvaloflhenlleslgenes¦ ottalhet,lhelnfotmalloncoded lnlhem) , nolnecessatllylhesutvlvaloflhenllesllndlvldualanlmals otgtoups. FotWllllams, lndlvlduals andgtoupswetelheteonlylo setveaslempotagenvltonmenlsfotgenellclnfotmallon. \ And lenyeats lalet, ln I976, ln a sllll-populat book called T e Se l f s h Gene, Rlchatd Dawklns extended Wl|llams's gene-cenleted lheogandblologlslY D. Hamlllon'snollonof k in se l ection, whlch patadoxlcally teexplalns lhe evolullon ofunselnshbehavlotsal lhe leveloflhelndlvldua|bylnvoklnglheldeaof¨selnshness¨allhelevel oflhe gene. Thls lsa talhetsltange nollon, and desetves some ex- planallon. Klnselectlonmeanslhalpleces oflhelndlvldual'sgenellcblue- ptlnl ¦lhe only blologlcal aspecl of lhe lndlvldual lhal slands a chance ofbelng¨lmmotlal, ¨solo speak) wlllfate betletlflhe lndl- vldualguatds nolonlyhls own sutvlval and teptoducllon odds bul also lhose of olhet lndlvlduals who shate some of hls genellc makeup Ifhebehavesgenetous|yandptolecllvelylowatdhlsblood tclallves, lheltenhancedsutvlvalandteptoducllontalewllllnctease lhe numbets ofhlsowngenes lnfulute genetallons, slnce hlstela- llvesandhehavemanygeneslncommon. Ofcoutse,lheexptesslon¨selnshgene¨lsnollnlendedlolmply lhalDNAlsalhlnklng,feellnglhlngwllhllsown desltes. Dawklns uses ¨selnshgene¨ asamelaphot. He meanslhal lhechatacletlsllcs - !58 T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D OOR ofaspeclesaredefermlnedbygenesfhafcauselndlvldualsfofhlnk, feel,andbehavelnwaysfhafmaxlmlzefheexlsfenceoffhosesame genes ln fhe gene pool, regardlessoffhe eûecfs offhosefhoughfs, feellngs, andbehavlorsonfhe lndlvldualsfhemselves. Forexamp|e, lf mybralnallows mefo formemoflonalaffachmenfs, and Ifeelso warmlyfoardmycouslnsfhafIsharemyfrulfwlfhalloffhem,my lndlvldua|llfe may be shorfened, buf on average,fhe oddsfhafmy geneswlllconflnue lnfhe populaflonhaveacfuallybeenmulflplled, becausemygenesaresharedlnparfbyeachofmycouslns.Andfhe genes fhatIhave donafedfofhegene poo| bylengfhenlngfhe|lves ofmycou�lnsmaywelllncludefhegenesfhafcause mefofeelemo- flonal affachmenfs. Inofherwords,fhegenesforemoflonalaffachmenfare ¨selnsh¨ lnfhe sensefhaffheyexlsffo enhancefhelrownprollferaflon,and fheydofhlswlfhoufregardfofhewe|l-belngorevenfheconflnued exlsfenceoffhe lndlvldualcreafure.A lnfhefamousquofaflonby Samuelßufler, ¨Achlckenls an egg'swayofmaklnganofheregg. ¨ Accordlngfo manyevoluflonlsfs, becausewe sharefhe greafesf percenfage ofour geneflc complemenf»lfh our parenfs, our slb- llngs, andourchlldren, klnselecflonaccounfs forfhe facffhafwe fend fo be more seliIess toward ourparenfs, slbllngs, andchlldren fhanfowa ' d moredlsfanfrelaflves andsfrangers. Furfhermore, kln selecflonexplalnswhywe nurfure and profecfourchlldrendesplfe fhefacffhafdolngso lessens ourownenergles and our lndlvldua| survlvalresources. Fromfhlsvanfagepolnf, conscience lsfhegenefl- callyprogrammedmechanlsmfhafmakessurewedonoflgnorefhe exfrallffle packages ofour geneflc maferlalfhaf]usf happen fo be walklngaroundonfeefofherfhanours. A forourgeneflcallydeslgned sense ofconsclencefoward fhe aforemenfloned dlsfanf relaflvesa�dsfrangers-gene-cenferedevo- luflonlsfsproposefhaffhelrverslon ofnafural se|ecflonwouldhave favoredgenesfhafresulfedlnºreclprocalalfrulsm, ¨ornon-zero-sum ¦wln-wln)behavlorssuchasfhedlvlslonof|abor,frlendseeklng, co- - !59 MAR T HA S T OUT operaflon, andfhe avoldanceofconÐlcf. Thesebehavlorswouldbe medlafed by emoflons such as graflfude, compasslon, and con- sclence,andsoemoflonssuchasfhesewouldhavehadanadvanfage wherefhenafuralselecflonofgeneswasconcerned. ßuflnarevlvaloffheldeaofgroupselecflon,ofherevoluflonary fheorlsfs, amongfhemDavldSloanWllsonandSfephen]ayGould, have lmplored bofhfhe blologlcal and fhe behavloral sclences fo conslderfhafevoluflonmaylnfacfhavefakenplaceonmorelevels fhan]usffhe gene-cenfered one. Nafurallsf Gould reexamlnes fhe evldencefrompaleonfologandmalnfalnsfhafnafuralselecflonop- erafes onuulflple |evels, from fhe gene fo fhe lndlvldual fo fhe group, andeven-orespeclally-fhe specles. In addlflon, hemakes fhe case fhaf forces operaflng ln a much less lncremenfal fashlon fhannafuralselecflon,andfarmorerapldlyfhanflmelmmemorlal~ evenfsfhaflncludeglobalornear-globalcafasfrophes÷-have slgnln- canflyaûecfedfhecourseofevoluflonandmaydosoagaln. Thevarlouslevels ofnafuralselecflonarellkelyafoddswlfhone anofher, parflcularly wlfh respecffo alfrulsflc behavlors and emo- flonssuchasconsclence.Affheleveloffhegeneandalsoaffhelevel offhegroup, consclencelsadapflve,andnafuralselecflonwouldfa- vorlf. ßufaffheleveloffhelndlvldualcreafure,fheabsence ofcon- sclencemaysomeflmes beevenmore adapflve for survlval. Infhls way, nafurewouldconsfanflybefosferlngconsclencelnmosfofus, whlle, afa dlfferenflevel,conflnuallysupporflngasmallerpercenf- ageoflndlvldualswhofhrlvewlfhouffheneuroblologlcalunderpln- nlngsofemoflonalaffachmenfandconsclence. A evoluflonlsf Davld Sloan Wllson has sald, ¨There are com- pelllnglnfellecfualandpracflcalreasonsfo dlsflngulshbefweenbe- havlorsfhafsucceedbyconfrlbuflngfogroup-levelorganlzaflonand behavlorsfhafsucceedbydlsrupflnggroup-levelorganlzaflon.Thaf lswhaffhewords 'se|nsh' and 'unselnsh, ' 'moral' and ' lmmoral' are allabouflnevegdaylanguage. ¨ WhafWllsondescrlbeslnthlswayls fhe same bewllderlngand all-foo-famlllardlchofomy. fhe ma]orlp, - ! 70 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R who fhlnk and feel ln ferms ofmlnlmlzlng conÐlcf, sharlngwhen necessag,andllvlngouffhelrllveswlfhfhepeoplefheylove,andfhe mlnorlp, who prosperfrom conÐlcf, andforwhomllfe ls nomore andnolessfhanaconsfanfcompeflflonfordomlnance. Sowenndfhafevenonfhemosfreducflonlsflcblologlcallevel, fhesfrugglebefweengoodandevlllsmoreanclenffhanhumanklnd. However,fheconfesflsllkelyforeachlfsconcluslonwlfhus,andlfs ulflmafe resoluflonwlll depend onfhewayswe meeffhe fowerlng challengeshumanklndhasbroughflnfofheworld, amongfhemfhe problemofsoclopafhy. Inwaysweare]usfbeglnnlngfoundersfand, nafuralselecflonhasfavoredacertalnamounfofalfrulsmlnfhehu- manpopulaflonandhashelpedfoshapeahumanspeclesendowed wlfhfhecapaclfyfoloveandbondfogefherlnposlflve lnfenflonby fhesflllsmallvolceofconsclence.Afleasf96percenfofusarefun- damenfallyfhus.Whafwewlllendupdolngwlfhfhespeclessurvlval problemscreafedbyfheofher4percenfls, afpresenf,unknowable. Hein's Dilemma Turnlng now from evoluflonag psycholog fo developmenfal psy- cholog,we comefofhelnferesflngquestlonofhowconsclencede- velops ln human chlldren. Does consclence flower nafurally ln chlldren's mlnds asfhelrofhermenfal ablllfles lncrease,ordo chll- dren acqulre and ad]usf fhelr moral sense asfhey experlence llfe, from lessonsfaughfbyfamlly, soclep, andculfure? Consclenceasanemoflonhasnofbeensfudledlnfhlsway, buf wecanlearnmuchfromwhaflsknownabouflfslnfellecfualparfner, mora l reasoning. Moralreasonlnglsfhefhoughfprocessfhafaffends consclenceandhelpslfdecldewhaffodo.Ifwefry,wecanexpress ourmoralreasonlnglnwords, concepfs ,andprlnclples. ]oe was engaged ln moral reasoning as he drove along ln hls Audl, alongwlfhhls formenfed consclence, andfrledfo ngure ouf !7! MART HA S TOUT whefher he should go fo an lmporfanf meeflng af workor refum homefofeedhlsdog, Reebok. C onscience, asweknow,was]oe's ln- fervenlng sense ofobllgaflon based lnhls emoflonalaffachmenffo hls dog.Mora l reasoning wasfheprocessbywhlchhedefermlned]usf whaffhafobllgaflonconslsfedof,andhowfoaccompllshlf.¦ Exacfly how hunggwlllfhe dog be?Could he dle offhlrsf?Whlch lsmore lmporfanf,fhemeeflngorReebok?Whaflsfherlghffhlngfodo?) Where does lf come from, fhls nearly unlversal ablllfy fo ask moral and efhlca|quesflons of ourselves, abouf everyfhlng from whefherornof fofeedfhedogfowhefherornofLolaunchanuc|ear mlsslle? Thesysfemaflcsfudyofmoralreasonlngbeganlnfhe I930s wlfh Swlsspsychologlsf]eanPlagef. In one ofhls mosflniluenflalworks, T e Mora l Ju d gment o f t h e C h i l d , Plagefanalyedchlldren'sperspec- flvesonaufhorlfy, |ylng,sfeallng,andfheconcepfof]usflce. Hebe- ganbyrecordlngdefalledobservaflons ofhowchlldrenafdlfferenf ages concelved ofru|es and p|ayed games, and ofhow fhey lnfer- prefedmoraldllemmas. Plagef'sapproachwas ¨sfrucfura|, ¨meanlng fhafhebellevedhumanbelngsdevelopedpsychologlcallyandphl|o- sophlcally ln a progresslve fashlon, each cognlflve-developmenfal sfepbulldlngonfheprevlousone,andfhaffhecourseoffhlsdevel- opmenfproceeded lnfhesameorderforallchlldren. Pla gefdescrlbedfwogeneralsfagesofmoraldevelopmenf. The nrsfsfagelsfhe¨morallpofconsfralnf, ¨ or¨moralreallsm, ¨lnwhlch chlldrenobeyrulesbecauserulesareregardedaslnalferable.Affhls b|ack-and-whlfe sfage of reasonlng, young chlldren belleve fhaf a parflculardeedlselfherabso|ufelyrlghforabsolufelywrongandfhaf peoplewl|llnevlfab|ybepunlshedforwrongbehavlorfhaflsdlscov- ered, an expecfaflon Plagef ca||ed ¨lmmlnenf]usfice. ¨The second Plag�flansfagelsfhe¨morallfyofcooperaflon, ¨or¨reclproclp. ¨Af fhlssfage,chlldrenvlewrulesasrelaflveandsub]ecffoalferaflonun- dercerfalnclrcumsfances,andfhelrconcepfof]usflceglvesconsld- ¬ !72 ¯ T H E S OC I OP AT H N E XT D O O R etaflon fo people's lnfenflons. Oldet chlldten can ¨decenfet¨ fhelt ' l , polnfofvlew ¦make lf l�ss egocenftlc) , and motal tules ate undet- � sfoodaslmpotfanffofhefuncflonlngofsoclep, tafhetfhanonlyas waysfoavoldlndlvldualbadoufcomes. ConflnulnglnfhePlageflanftadlflon,andlnfluencedalsobyfhe wotkoffheAmetlcanphllosophet]ohnDewey,psychologlsfanded- \ ucafotLawtenceKohlbetgbeganhlswotkonmotal]udgmenflnfhe |afe I960s, af Hatvatd Unlvetslp's Cenfet fot Motal Educaflon. Kohlbetg'samblflonwasfodlscovetwhefhetotnoffheteftulywete unlvetsalsfages ofmotaldevelopmenf. Kohlbetgs fheoty ls based on lnfetvlewswlfhboys, ages slxfo slxfeen, ln fhe Unlfed Sfafes, Talwan, Mexlco, Tutkey, and fhe Yucafin. Dutlngfhese lnfetvlews, fhe chlldten llsfen�dfo fensfo- tles,eachlnvolvlngamotaldllemmaofsomeklnd.Thebesfknown offhesesfotles,allffle vlgneffe composedneatlyfotpyeats ago, ls sftlklnglyevocaflve offhecuttenfconftovetsysuttoundlngphatma- ceuflcalcotpotaflonsandfhe cosfofptesctlpflonmedlcaflons. Ifls Helnz'sdllemma,whlch, lnpataphtase,lsfhls. Helnz'swlfe ls dylng ftom atate fotm ofcancet.Accotdlngfo fhe doctots,fhetels one dtugfhafcouldsavehet,atadlumcom- poundfhafadtugglsf ln Helnz'sfownhas tecenflydlscoveted. 1helngtedlenfsfotfhedtugateexpenslvefobeglnwlfh,andfhe dtugglsf ls chatglng fen flmes whaf lf cosfs hlm fo make fhe medlclne.1bedtugglsfpaysfwo hundteddollats fotfhetadlum andchatgeshlscusfometsfwofhousanddo|latsfotasmalldose. Helnz goes fo evegone he can fhlnk of and asks fo bottow money. Sflll, he ends upwlfh on|yabouf one fhousand do||ats. Helnzexp|alnsfofhedtugglsffhafhlswlfewl||dlewlfhouffhe dtug, and asks hlmfo se||fhe medlclneafacheapetptlceotfo fake paymenf |afet. ßuffhe dtugglsf tep|les, ¨No, l dlscoveted fhedtug,andI'mgolngfomakemoneyftomlf. ¨Helnzbecomes ) 73 MAR T HA S T OUT desperafe.Hebreaksinfofhedrugglsf'ssforeandsfealsfhedrug forhlswlfe. ShouldHelnzhavedonefhaf? Kohlbergwasprlmarllylnferesfednoflnfhechlldren'syesorno answersfo ¨Shou|dHelnzhave donefhaf?¨buflnfhereasonlngbe- hlndfhelrresponses,whlch he recorded. ßased on hlsmanylnfer- vlews, he proposed fhaf chlldren foI¡ow a unlversal course from self-lnferesffoprlnclpledbehavlorfhafcanbedescrlbedbyafhree- levelschemeof moraldevelopmenf.Thefhreelevelsofmoraldevel- opmenfrequlrelncreaslnglycomplexandabsfracffhoughfpafferns, each level dlsplaclngfhe prevlous one as fhe chlld mafures cognl- flvely. Accordlngfo Kohlberg'sfheopof moraldevelopmenf, seven- fo fen-year-oldchlldrenreasononfhe ¨preconvenflonal level,¨afwhlch fheydeferfo adulfaufhorlpand obeyrules based onlyonexpecfa- flons ofpunlshmenfandreward. Kohlbergconslderedfhaffhe pre- convenflonalreasonlngofyoungchl|drenwasessenflally¨premoral. ¨ Themosfpplcal¨premoral¨responsefoHelnz'sdllemmawouldbe, ¨No, Helnzshouldn'fhavedonefhaf,becausenowhe'llbepunlshed. ¨ ßeglnnlngafaboufagefen, chlldrenmovefofhe ¨convenflonal level¨ofmoralreasonlng¦convenflonallnfhesoclefalsense) , when fhelrbehavlorlsguldedbyfheoplnlonsofofherpeopleandadeslre foconform.Affhlslevel,obeylngaufhorlpbecomesavaluelnlfself, wlfhoufreferenceelfherfolmmedlaferewardsandpunlshmenfsor fo hlgherprlnclp|es.Kohlbergbellevedfhafbyfheflmeachl|dwas fhlrteen, mosfmora|quesflonswereansweredonfheconvenflonal level. The convenflona| reasonlng abouf Helnz's fheff wou|d be, ¨No, he shouldn'fhavesfo|enfhe drug. Sfeallngls agalnsffhe law. Everyone knows fhaf. ¨ Someflmedurlngadolescence,accordlngfoKohlberg,afewpeo- pledevelop beyondfheconvenflonallevelfofhefhlrd andhlghesf level,whlchhecalled¨posfconvenflonalmorallp. ¨Thlsfhlrdlevelre- ÷ ) 74 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R qulres fhe lndlvldualfo formulafe absfracf moralprlnclples andfo acfonfhemfosafls[hlsownconsclence ,rafherfhanfogalnfheap- provalofofhers.Affheposfconvenfional level,moralreasonlngfran- scends fhe concrefe rules ofsoclep, rules fhaf fhe lndlvldual now undersfandsare ohenlnconiIlcfwlfhoneanofheranyway. Hls rea- sonlngls lnformedlnsfeadbyiluld, absfracfconcepfs such as free- dom,dlgnlp,]usflce,andrespecfforllfe.WhereHelnzlsconcerned, a person reasonlngaffhe posfconvenflonal level mlghf well lnslsf fhafhumanllfewasmorevaluablefhanmoney, andfhaffhesancflp ofllfewasamorallawfhafsupersededsoclepsrulesaboufsfeallng. ¦ ¨Yes, lf's a dlfnculf problem, buf lf's undersfandable fhaf Helnz wouldsfealfhellfesavlngdrugfhaffhedrugglsfwaswlfhholdlngfor reasonsofmoney¨) Kohlberg belleved fhaf mosf people never complefelyachleved posfconvenflonalmoralreasonlng,evenlnadulfhood, becausewhen he lnfervlewed olderboysandyoungmen lnhls sfudles, he found fhaf fewer fhan I0 percenf offhem offered clear level-fhree re� sponses. A a foofnofe here, Ì would menflon fhaf fhls vlew of Kohlbergs, lfrlghf, mlghf help fo explaln fhe passlngsfrange facf fhaf moral oufrage from fhe publlc ls relaflvely llmlfed when lf comes fo fhe aforemenfloned wealfhy pharmaceuflcal companles. Perhapsmosfofus,Amerlcansespeclally, arelncllnedfoaccepffhe drugglsf'sproprlefagclalm,¨I dlscoveredfhedrug, andI' mgolngfo make moneyfrom lf.¨Honorlngownershlpabove allofherfeafures ofa slfuaflon lsa parf ofconvenflonal moral reasonlng~or lf lsaf leasfamongmen ralsed lnNorfh/merlca. Enter Gender and Culture WhaffacfordoesKohlberg'ssysfemofmoraldevelopmenfleaveouf, even af lfs hlghesf level? Answer Helnz's relaflonshlp wlfh hls spouse,whlchlsappreclablymorepersonal,andperhapsmorecom- ! 75 MART HA S T OUT pelllng, fhan even fhe mosf evolved undersfandlng offhe general sancflpof|lfe. And whaf, mosf llkely, l sfhe ma]or ilaw ln Kohlberg's overall research deslgn? If lsfhafwhenhe orlglnallyaskedhlsmoralques- flons,heaskedfhemonlyofboys. Koh|berg, abrllllanfsoclalsclen- flsf,somehowmanagedfooverlookhalffhehumanrace. Thlsoverslghfwasaddressedln I982, lnagroundbreaklngbook byCarolGllllgan, enflfled In a Di f erent Voice: Psyc h o l ogica l T h eory an d Womens Deve l opment. Asfudenf ofKohlberg's,Gllllgantoo»as lnferesfed ln advanclnga unlversal sfage fheopofmoraldevelop- menf, buf she sfrong|y dlsagreed wlfh fhe llmlfed confenf offhe moral levels Kohlberg had proposed. Kohlberg, she sald, had pro- ducedamodelofmoralreasonlngfhafwasbasedonan¨efhlcof]us- flce, ¨8 preoccupaflonwlfh¨fherules, ¨befheyconcrefeorabsfracf. GllllganbellevedfhafKoh|berghadderlvedonlyan¨efhlcof]usflce¨ becausehehadlnfervlewedon|ymales, andfhaflfwomenwereln- fervlewed, averydlùerenfsysfemofldealswouldemerge.Shelnfer- vlewedwomenwhowereuaklngmomenfousdeclslonslnfhelrllves and dlscovered fhaf fhese women were fhlnklng abouf fhe caring fhlng fo do, rafher fhan ponderlng ¨fhe rules. ¨ Women, declded Gllllgan, reasoned morally �ccordlng fo an ¨efhlc ofcare, ¨ rafher fhanamale¨efhlcof]usflce. ¨Shefheorlzedfhaffhlswassobecause glrlsldenfl[wlfhfhelrmofhersandfendfohaveexperlenceswlfhln fhefamllyfhafemphaslzelnferpersonalresponslveness. Gl|llganarguede|oquenf|yfhafnelfhervanfagepolnfwassupe- rlorfofheofher,buffhaffhefwo efhlcsslmp|ylnformedfwodlffer- enfvolces. Men spoke ofaffachmenffosoclefa|andpersonalrules, andwomenspoke ofaffachmenffo people. Women's mora|devel- opmenf,Gllllgansald,wasbasednofsolelyonchangeslncognlflve capablllpbuf also onmafuraflonalchanges lnfhewayfhe selfand fhesoclalenvlronmenfwerepercelved A woman's posfconvenflona| ]udgmenf regardlng Helnz's dllemmawould referfofhe lmporfance ofhlsrelaflonshlpwlfhhls ) 75 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R wlfe, andmlghfasserfaswe|lfhaffhedrugglsf'sclalmwas lmmoral because he was allowlngsomeone fo dle when he cou|d do some- fhlng fo prevenf lf. Gll|lgan was persuaded fhaf posfconvenflona| reasonlnglnwomenfocusedonfhevalueofdolngnoharmfose|for ofhers,whlchlsmorespeclncandrelaflonal,andlnmanywaysmore demandlng,fhanaprlnclp|esuchasfhe generalsancflpofllfe. ThanksfoCarolGllllgan, psychologlsfs and educafors now un- dersfand fhaf moral reasonlng has more fhan one dlmenslon and fhaf people develop mora|ly ln much more complexways fhan we nrsf belleved. Infhelasffwenfyyears, newersfudleshave shownus thafbofhwomenandmenmayusebofhanºefhlcofcare¨ andan ¨efhlcof]usflce¨lnfhelrmoralreasonlng.Thesefwovolcesspeakln complexchoruses,andgenderdlfferencesarefarmorelnfrlcafefhan aslngleunamblguousllnebefweenal|womenandal|men. We nowknowalsofhaffhereareprobablynounlversalsfagesof moral developmenf fhrough whlch a|| human belngs evephere pass, even when we dlvlde fhe human race ln half by gender. Culfural relaflvlsm exlsfs even lnfhe moral domaln. And lfmora| reasonlnghasfwodlmenslons, oneof]usflceandoneofcare, fhen whynoffhreedlmenslons, orhundreds, ormore?Whynofasmany perspecflvesasfherearehumanslfuaflons,values,andwaysforalse chlldren? One lllusfraflon of fhe slgnlncance of confexf and culfure ln mora|]udgmenflsfheworkof]oanMlllerandDavldBersoffofYale Unlverslfy. Mlllerand Bersoffhave sfudled Amerlcanchlldren and adulfs from New Haven, Connecflcuf, as compared wlfh Hlndu chlldrenandadulfsfromMysoreClp, lnsoufhemIndla , Theypolnf ouffhafAmerlcanculfureencourageshlghlylndlvlduallsflcvlewsof fhe self-aufonomy and personal achlevemenf for bofh boys an d glrls-versus Hlndu Indlan culfure, whlch feaches an lnferdepen- denfconcepfoffheselffobo�hsexes-fhevalueofpermanenffles fo ofher people, and of subordlnaflng one's personal amblflons fo fhegoalsoffhegroup. ¯ ) 77 ¯ MARTHA S T OUT l nfhelrsfudlesofmoraldevelopmenf, Mlllerandßersoûfound fhaf Hlndu lndlans fend fo regard lnferpersonal responslbl|lfles as soclallyenforceablemoraldufles, as opposedfofheAmerlcanvlew ofsuchfasks asoccaslonsforpersonaldeclslonmaklng. Forexam- .--` 7 p|e,whefherornoffofakecareofone'sslsferwhohasDowssyn- dromeafferone'sparenfscannolongerdosowouldbevlewedbyan Amerlcanasacholce,adeclslonfhafhadmorallmpllcaflons,bufa cholce nonefheless. The same slfuaflonwould be seen bya Hlndu Indlanasanonnegoflab|emorallmperaflve ¦dharma) , alongwlfhan expecfaflonfhaffhefamllywouldcompelfhefulnllmenfoffhlsdup lfnecessary. Furfhermore,lndlansbellevefhaflnferpersonaldupls anafuralparfofwhafmosflndlvldua|sarelncllnedtodoanyway, as opposedfoAmerlcans,whobellevefhafsoclalexpecfaflonsandper- sonalwlshes are a|mosfalways opposedfo eachofherandfhafone musfsomehowsfrlkea¨ba|ance¨befweenfhem. Such dlfferences ln bellefand early lnsfrucflon are large, and fheyfendfocreafesubsfanflalcross-culfuraldlverslplnmoralrea- sonlng.MlllerandßersoûreporffhafHlnduIndlans,bofhmenand women, developaccordlngfo a ¨dup-based perspecflve, ¨a dlmen- slon ofmora| ]udgmenf fhaf ls dlfferenf from bofh fhe ¨efhlc of ]usflce¨andfhe¨efhlcofcare. ¨Theyconclude, ¨Welnferprefourre- sulfs as lmplylng fhaf qua|lfaflvely dlsflncf ppes of lnferpersonal moral codes develop ln Amerlcan and Hlndu l ndlan culfures, re- ilecflngfheconfrasflngculfuralvlewsoffheselfemphaslzedlneach sefflng.¨ Andyef, desplfefhemanyanddlverseprocessesofmoral]udg- menfspun offbyourvarlous humanculfures, lnfhennalanalysls fhere ls somefhlng more fo fhe heart of fhe mafter, somefhlng deeper and much lessvarlable. Thls nxedpsychologlcal elemenfL our sense of an lrreconcllable confesf befween moral forces. An overallpercepflonofgoodandevllasaduallfylnhuman llfewould seem fo be comp|efe|y and asfonlshlngly unlversal ¦asfonlshlngfo soclalsclenflsfsafleasf) . Goodversusevlllsfheageless,culfure-free " ) 78 " T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R human p|ot, and thc undcrtoncs oI a sccming|y univcrsa| mora| strugg|c arc rcadi|y rccognizcd by both gcndcrs in a|| cu|turcs. I wou|dcxpcctawomanIromthc south oIIndiato posscss this Iun- damcnta|scnsc oIadividcd mora| rca|m, and shc wou|d cxpcct thc samc oI mc. For cxamp|c, whcrc poor, dcspcratc Hcinz is con- ccmcd, indcpcndcntoIajudgmcnt rcgardinghowhc shou|drcso|vc his di|cmma÷whathc shou|dorshou|dnotJo÷thcrcwi|| bcagcn- cra|, iI unspokcn, agrccmcnt across cu|turcs that Hcinz, with his commitmcnt to somconc hc |ovcs, has thc highcrmora| ground as thcstorybcgins, andthatthc sc|hshdruggistisbchavingbad|y. 1hcrc is no g|oba|consistcncyin thcintc||cctua|proccssoImora| rcasoning itsc|I, in howwc thinkthrough mora| di|cmmas and dc- cidcwhatspccihca||yto do. Butisthcrcauniqinourcmotiona|rc- actiontothc mora|strugg|c bctwccngoodandcvi|, ancar-univcrsa| scvcnth scnsc that can bc rc|icd on to ignorc a|| oIour diIIcrcnccs andbordcrsî Ad iIso, howdocs itIcc|î Te Universal Bond As I bcgintowritcthc hna|scctionoIthischaptcronthcoriginsoI conscicncc, it isthc morning oI Scptcmbcr I I , 2003. I usua||y|ikc quictwhi|c Iwork, butthismorningIhavctumcdonatc|cvisionin thc othcr room so that I can hcarthc voiccs oIthc chi|drcn at thc sitc oIthc IormcrWor|d1radc1owcrs asthcy rcad thc namcs, onc byonc,oIthcpcop|cwhopcrishcdthcrc. Ear|icrthismorning,Iscnt mydaughtcroûtoschoo|,justasIdidonthcmomingoIScptcmbcr I I ¬oycarsago. 1hc diIIcrcncc isthattwoycars ago, bctwccnthc timc I scnt hcrto schoo| and thc timc shc camc homc, thc who|c wor|d hadchangcd. I noticc howcasi|ythc I|oodoIcmotion sti||comcs, thoughtwo ycars havc gonc bysinccthcn. - ! 79 " MAR T HA S T OUT CIa||thc uncxpcctcd rcactions a pcrson can havc during a ca- tastrophc, onc oIthc morc surprisingoncs Iormc was Icc|ingsud- dcn|yandvcqconscious|y|inkcdtoa||thcpcop|cI hadcvcrknown in my |iIc, Irom chi|dhood on, cvcqonc who had cvcr bccn impor- tanttomc cvcnIora|itt|cwhi|c,anyoncIorwhomIhadcvcrIc|taI- Icction. Inthcdays aItcrScptcmbcr I I , 200I, Ircmcmbcrcdpcop|c I had not sccn or cvcnthought about Iorycars or, in somc cascs, dccadcs. I sawthcirIaccsinmymindwith a|mostunncrvingc|arity. I hadno idcawhcrc manyoIthcscpcop|cwcrc, so|onghadit bccn sinccthcy wcrc in my|iIc, but I wantcd, hc|p|css|y, to pick up thc phonc and ca|| a|| oIthcm. I wantcd to askthcm howthcywcrc÷ myhigh-schoo|writingtcachcr|ongagoin Morth Caro|ina, aroom- matcIrom co||cgc, thc sohhcartcd proprictor oIa groccq whcrc I uscd to shop in Fhi|adc|phia, who wou|d givc away Iood to thosc who cou|d not aIIord it andthcn cnjoin his othcr customcrs to sc- crccy. Wcrc thcyokayî 1hosc whom I cou|d ca||, I ca||cd. Mo onc cvcnIoundthisstrangc.Wcsimp|ychcckcd inwithonc anothcr. Mora| rcasoning÷thc way wc think about mora| di|cmmas÷is anything but consistcnt and univcrsa|. It varics with agc and with gcndcr. ItdiIIcrsIromonccu|turctothc ncxt, andmost|ikc|yIrom onc rcgionorcvcn onc houscho|dto thc ncxt. Forcxamp|c, what I thinkabouttcrrorismandwhatwc shou|d doaboutitwi||probab|y bc s|ight|ydiûcrcntIromwhatmyncighborthinks, andwi|| a|most ccrtain|y bc diûcrcnt Irom thc bc|icIs oIpcop|c who arc rcmovcd Irommc byoccansandcontincnts. ButinakindoIhumanmirac|c, onc thing rcmains constantIorncar|ya|| oIus÷withsomc notab|c cxccptions÷andthatisourproIoundattachmcnttoothcrhumanbc- ings. Emotiona|attachmcnt ispartoImostoIus, downtothcvcry mo|ccu|csthatdcsign our bodics and our brains, and somctimcswc arc powcrIu||y rcmindcd oI it. Bcginning in our gcncs and spira|ing outward to a|| oIour cu|turcs, bc|icIs, and manyrc|igions, it is thc shado � oIthcwhispcroIthcbcginni ¿ goIanundcrstandingthatwc arc a||onc.Andwhatcvcritsorigins,thisis thc csscnccoIconscicncc. !80 berni e's choi ce: why cons ci ence i s better Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. -Mahatma Gandhi Ì Iyou couldbccomplctclyIrcc oIconscicncc~no moral scruplcs andnoguiltatall÷whatdoyouthinkyouwoulddowithyourliIcî Whcn I askpcoplcthisqucstion, as I oItcnhavc, thc [picalrc- sponsc is, ¨Ch wow, ¨ or ¨Ch my goodncss, ¨ Iollowcd by a silcncc duringwhichthcywrinklcthcirIaccsinmcntalcIIort, asiIsomconc hadaskcdthcmaqucstionin alanguagcthcyonlyhalI-undcrstood. 1hcnmostpcoplc grinorlaugh, sccmingly cmbarrasscd bythc au- thorityoIconscicnccinthcirlivcs,andrcplywithsomcvcrsionoI,¨I don`trcallyknowwhat I 'd do, but I'msurc itwouldn`tbcwhat I` m doingnow. ¨ Acr ¨Ch wow¨ and a bricI pausc, onc cspccially imaginativc pcrson chucklcd and said, ¨Maybc I` d bc thc dictator oI a small countq or somcthing. ¨ Hc said this as iI such an ambitionwould havc bccn smartcr and morc im,rcssivc than thc socially valuablc proIcssionalcarccrhchad in Iact pursucd. Woulditbcsmartcrnottohavc aconscicnccîWouldwc bchap- ¬ )8) MAR T HA S T OUT know that groups oI pcop|c wou|d cnd up in troub|c~ "wc|e nations oI sociopaths, cvcqonc out Ior himsc|I or hcrsc|I ¿¸¸¸qt�c . But rca|istica||y, ona pcrsona| |cvc|, wou|d you or I , as indi- bc happicrandbcttcroIIiIwc cou|dshcdthc |imitations oI Itwou|d ccrtain|y sccm so at timcs. Oishoncst pcop|c positionsoIpowcr,andcorporatcthicvcspurchascGu|Istrcams ,whi|cwcworkrcsponsib|yandmakc ¨scnsib|c¨ carpay- . But what is thc truth oIthc mattcrî From a psycho|ogica| oIvicw,dosociopathsrca||yhavcbcttcr|ivcsthanwc do, oris aconscicnccsomchowthc happicrIatcî anironica||yuti|itarianway, Irom thc bcginning, wcwcrc sc- bynaturctobcsocia|,sharingcrcaturcs,ourvcqbrainswircd cmotiona| conncctcdncss with onc anothcr, and Ior a scnsc oI nsctcncc. Cr rathcr, a|| but a Icw oIus took this path. Frohting a diIIcrcnt but cqua||y busincss|ikc sc|ccion proccss, a Icw as rogucs, apathctic to thcir brothcr and sistcr human bc- with cmotiona||ydisconncctcdbrainsthathatchcdthorough|y agcndas.|udgingIromthcvantagcoIthctwcnq-hrstccntury, |ooking through thc cycs olpsycho|og, whichoIthcsctwo an- Iactions, thc socia||yconscicntious orthc sociopathic, can wc saygothumannaturc`s bcttcrdca|î Te Losing Side of Wnning ^ ltwou|d bc diIhcu|t to rcIutc thc obscrvationthat pcop|c who arc comp|ctc|y unhampcrcd by conscicncc somctimcs achicvc powcr andwca|th, at|castIorawhi|c. 1oomanychaptcrsinthchumanhis- ¹'. ' æ¡book, Iromitshrst |incsto itsmostcontcmporaq cntrics, arc 'or�anized around thc stupcndous succcsscs oI mi|itaq invadcrs, conqucrors, robbcr barons, and cmpirc bui|dcrs. Such individua|s arc cithcrtoo|ongdcadortooprivi|cgcdto5cIorma||ycva|uatcdin thc tashion a c|inica| psycho|ogist wou|d |ikc. But givcn ccrtain oI )82 ¬ ¬ W T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R thcir wc||-known and high|y documcntcd bchaviors, wc assumc, cvcnwithoutknowingthcirscorcs onthc Fdsca|c, thata Iairnum- bcroIthcmwou|dnotbcIoundto posscss anyintcrvcningscnsc oI ob|igationbascdincmotiona|attachmcnttoothcrs. lnothcrwords, somcoIthcmwcrc,andarc,sociopaths. 1o makc mattcrs worsc, bruta|conqucrors a _ d cmpirc bui|dcrs arcusua||yhc|dinawcbythcircontcmporarics,andduringthcir|iIc- timcs thcyarc oItcnsccnas ro|c modc|s Iorthc cntirc human racc. Þodoubtcount|cssthirtccnth-ccntuqMongo|boyswcrcputtobcd withta|csoIthcindomitab|cGcnghisKhan,andoncwondcrswhich oIthc modcn hcrocswctoutto ourownchi|drcnwi||u|timatc|ybc rcmcmbcrcdbyhistoryasmotivatcdbyruth|csssc|I-intcrcst. Scxua|conqucsta|soisscrvcdrathcrwc||bythc abscnccoIcon- scicncc. 1o i||ustratc this point usingthc oIIspring oIthc samc Ia- mous [rant, Gcnghis Khan`s c|dcstson,1ushi Khan, is saidto havc sircd Iorty sons via his birthright to pick Irom thc most bcautiIu| womcn oIthc conqucrcd. 1hc rcmaindcr oIthc vanquishcd, a|ong withthcir sons, wcrcroutinc|ys|aughtcrcd. Cnc oIGcnghis`s many grandsons, Kub|ai Khan, Ioundcr oIthc Yuan dynasq, had twcnq- two|cgitimatcsons, and addcdthirqvirginstohis harcmcvcryycar. And as oIthctimc lwritc thcsc words, virtua||yidcntica|Ychromo- somcsarccarricdbya|most8pcrccntoIthcmcn|ivinginthcrcgion oIthc Iormcr Mongo| Empirc, I6 mi||ion oIthcm. Gcncticists bc- |icvcthismcansthatsomc I6mi||ionpcop|c|ivinginthctwcnq-hrst ccntuqarc stampcdwith Gcnghis Khan's thirtccnth-ccntury|cgacy oIgcnocidcandrapc. GcnghisKhanwascxccptiona|amongsociopathic[rantsinthat hc didnotdicavio|cntoranignominiousdcath. lnstcad, hcIc||oII ahorscduringahunt, in I227.ByIarmostpcrpctrators oIgcnocidc andmass rapc cvcntua||ytakc thcirown|ivcsor arc ki||cd, oItcnby cnragcd Io||owcrs who havc had cnough. Ca|igu|a was assassinatcd byonc oIhis own guards. Hit|cr is bc|icvcd tohavc put a pisto| in his mouth, and his bodyis said to havc bccn crcmatcdwithdicsc| - )8j ¬ MAR T HA S T OUT Iuc|. Musso|iniwas shot and his bodyhungby its hcc|s in a pub|ic squarc. Romania's Micolac Ccau�cscu and his wiIc, Elcna, wcrc ki||cd byahring squad in I989,on Christmas Oay. Cambodia'sFo| Fotdicd in atwo-roomhut, hc|dprisoncrbyIormcrassociatcs, his bodyburncdundcrapi|c oIgarbagcandrubbcrtircs. G|oba|sociopaths most¡ica||ycomctonogoodcnd, andthis sharply downward tcndcncy is disp|aycd by thc morc |ocal oncs as wc||. Inthchna|ana|ysis,sociopathyappcarstobca|osinggamc,rc- gard|css oIits sca|c. `Hannah`s Iathcr, Ior cxamp|c, |ost cvcqthing that shouldhavc bccn prcciousto him. Bythc timc hcwas hIq, hc had IorIcitcd his job, his position in thc community, his bcautiIu| wiIc, and his |oving daughtcr, a||Iorthc cxhi|aration oIbcinga mi- norplaycrinthchcroingamc,andinthccnd,hcis|ikc|ytodic Irom ß bul|ct to his own hcad, Irom thc gun oI somc othcr smal|-timc crimina|. Lukc,mypaticntSydncysdcadbcatcx,also|ostcvcqthing that was va|uablc÷his wiIc, his son, and cvcn his swimming poo|. SupcrSkip,thoughhc b|ithc|ydccmshimsclItobctoounassai|ab|c andtoosmanto bcbroughtdownbythc |ikcsoIthcSccuriticsand Exchangc Commission, probab|ywi|| provc to bc ncithcrwhcnthc SEChna||yscts uponhimincarncst. ¨Or.¨ Oorccn Litt|chc|d, cvcn with a mindIu|lysharp cnoughto pursuc a rca| Fh O. , wi|| instcad migratc as a Iakc to morc and morc obscurc locations, p|ayingthc samctcdiousgamcswiththcdcccntpcop|cshccnvics,unti|shcruns ' . out oI p|accs to hidc. By thc timc shc is hIq, hcr travcls and hcr unchcckcd covctousncss wi|| havc cmpticd hcr bank account and pin � hcdhcrIacc intothatoIaborcdscvcnq-ycar-o|d. A list oIsuch drcaq cndings cou|d go on and on. Contraqto whatsccmsto bcarathcrpopu|arbc|ict ¸ actingruth|csslydocs not, inthccnd,bringyoumorcthanyourIairsharcoIthcgoodthingsin |iIc. Quitc thc oppositc, oncmightcvcn saythat, Ior thc cxtraordi- nari|ypaticntobscrvcr, onctcchniqucto dctcrmincwhcthcrornot a qucstionab|cpcrsonisagcnuincsociopathistowaitunti|thccndoI T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R hcr |iIc andwitncsswhcthcrornot shc has ruincd hcrsc|I, partia||y ormaybc cvcn comp|ctc|y. Oocs shc rca||yposscsswhatyouwou|d |ovctohavcinyour|iIc, or, instcad, is shc iso|atcd, burncd-out, and borcdî IsitpcrhapsstunningthcwaythcmightyhavcIa||cnî Sincc wc bcgan to rccord wars, occupations, and projccts oI gcnocidc,historianshavcohcnrcmarkcd thata ccrtainqpcoIcat- astrophic, amora| vi||ain sccms to bc bom ovcr and ovcr into thc human racc. Mo sooncr arc wc rid oI onc than anothcr appcars somcwhcrc c|sconthcp|anct. Fromthc pointoIvicwoIpopu|ation gcnctics,thcrc is probab|ysomctruthto this |cgcnd. And sinccwc donotundcrstandthcsc pcop|c, sinccthcirpsycho|ogis soa|icnto most oIus,wc oItcn do not rccognizc orstop thcm unti| aItcrthcy havc damagcd humaniq in unIathomab|c ways. But, as Gandhi pointcd outwith suchwondcr and rc|icI, ¨inthc cnd, thcya|ways Ia||÷thinkoIit, a|ways' ¨ Jhc samc phcnomcnon occurs onsma||cr sca|cs too. Crdinaq pcop|cwithoutconscicnccvisitpainonthcirIami|icsandcommuni- tics, butinthccnd,thcytcndtosc|I-dcstruct. Sma||-timcsociopaths wou|d survivc |ong cnoughto dominatc somc oIthc othcrs on our imaginaqdcscrt is|and, maybcpromu|gatc somc gcncs, but at thc cndoIthc day, thcywou|d probab|ybchungupbythcirhcc|s. FartoIthcrcasonIorthiscvcntua| Iai|urc is obvious, cspccia||y incascswhcrc inIamous dcspots such as Musso|ini or Fo| Fothavc bccnki||cdand muti|atcd byangqcx-Io||owcrs. lIyouopprcss,rob, murdcr, andrapccnoughpcop|c, cvcntua||ysomcoIthcmwi||gang uponyou andtakc thcir rcvcngc.Wccan scc this inthc much |css cpicstoryoIOorccnLitt|chc|daswc||.1hcoddswcrca|waysagainst hcr, and hna||y shcjust happcncd to makc thc wrong pcrson mad. Butthcrcarcadditiona|rcasons,|cssobvious, Iorthc|ong-tcrmIai|- urc oI|ivingwithout a conscicncc, rcasonsthat arc cndcmictothc psycho|ogoIsociopathyrathcrthanthc ragc oIothcrpcop|c. AndthchrstoIthcsc isborcdom,p|ainandsimp|c. - )85 ¯ 1 J MAR T HA S T OUT I s That^Thcrc Is? 1houghwca||knowwhatborcd º mis,mostnorma|adu|tsdonotcx- pcricncc shccr borcdom vcq oItcn. Wc arc strcsscd, rushcd, and worricd, butwc arcsc|dompurc|yborcd÷in par| bccauscwc arc so strcsscd, rushcd, and worricd. 1imc without anything wc must at- tcndto usua||yIcc|s|ikc a brcathcr, not|ikc monotony. 1o gctaIcc| Iorwhatshccrborcdomis|ikc,wcmusthcarkcnbacktochi|dhood. Chi|drcn and ado|csccnts arc Ircqucnt|y borcd, so borcd thcy can hard|ycvcnstandit. 1hcirpcrIcct|ynorma|dcvc|opmcnta|nccd Ior constant stimu|ation, Ior cxp|oring and ongoing |carning, is oItcn thwartcd in awor|d oI|ongtrips, rainyaItcmoons, and studyha||s. Inchi|dhood, borcdom can bc cxcruciating, |ikc a chronicspiritua| hcadachc, or a powcrIu| thirst with no bcvcragc to bc had. It can hurtsobadthatthcpoorkidIcc|s|ikcyc||ingout |oud, orthrowing somcthing noisy at a wa||. Extrcmc borcdom is arguab|y a Iorm oI pain. Luc[ Ior us, adu|ts do not havc thc samc nccd Ior constant stimu|ation. Ocspitc ourstrcsscs,wc tcndto|ivcwithinaIair|yman- agcab|c window oIarousa|, ncithcr unbcarab|y ovcrstimu|atcd nor undcrstimu|atcd÷cxccptIo¡ sociopaths. Fc � p|cwhoarcsociopaths rcportthatthcycravccxtrastimu|ationa|mostcontinua||y. Somcusc thcworda dd icte d , as ina dd icte d tothri||s, a dd icte d torisk. Suchad- dictionsoccurbccauscthcbcst¦maybcthcon|y)consistcntcurcIor undcrstimu|ationis our cmotiona||iIc, so muchso that inmanypsy- cho|ogtcxts, thc tcrms arusa l and emotiona l response arc uscd a|- most intcrchangcab|y.Wc arc stimu|atcd byourmcaningIu| tics to, ncgotiationswith,andhappyandunhappymomcntsa|ongsidcothcr pcop|c, and sociopaths donothavc this cmotiona||iIcto|ivc. 1hcy do not cxpcricncc thc somctimcs harrowing, somctimcs thri||ing, cvcr-prcscnt arousa|thatunavoidab|yattcnds gcnuinc attachmcnts to othcrpcop|c. ¯ )85 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Laboratory cxpcrimcnts using clcctric shocks and loud noiscs havc Iound thatcvcnthc physiological rcactions ¦swcating, racing hcart, and so Iorth) normally associatcd with anxious anticipation andlcarncdIcararcIarlcsspronounccdinsociopaths. Foradcquatc stimulation, sociopaths havc only thcir gamcs oI domination, and thcsc gamcs gct old and stalc vcq quickly. Likc drugs, thc gamcs havcto bcdonc ovcrandovcr, largcrandbcttcr, and dcpcndingon thcrcsourccsandtalcntsoIthcparticularsociopath,thismaynotbc possiblc.Andso in sociopathy, thc pain oIborcdom can bc ncarly constant. 1hc inclinationto dilutc borcdom chcmicallyIorawhilc is part oI thc rcason sociopaths tcnd to bc alcohol and drug abuscrs. A major comor _ idity study publishcd in I990 in thc Joural o f t h e American Me d ical Association cstimatcsthatasmanyas75pcrccntoI sociopaths arc dcpcndcnt on alcohol, and 50 pcrccnt abusc othcr drugs.AndsosociopathsarcoItcnaddicts inthc usualscnsc,inad- ditionto bcing hgurativcly addictcd to risk. With its ¨pcak cxpcri- cnccs¨ and its dangcrs, thc drugculturcholds morc than onc Iorm oIappcalIorthc conscicncclcss, and thc drugculturc is whcrc many sociopathsIcclmost at homc. Anothcr study, publishcd in I993 in thc American Joural o f Psyc h iatr, Ioundthat I8 pcrccntoIintravcno � s-drugabuscrs diag- noscdwithantisocial pcrsonality disordcr wcrc HIV-positivc, whilc only8 pcrccnt oI intravcnous-drug abuscrs without antisocial pcr- sonali]disordcr tcstcd positivc Ior HIV 1hc highcr odds ratio oI HIV inIcctionamongsociopaths is prcsumablyduc tothcir grcatcr risk-takingbchaviors. 1hcsc statistics bring qs backto a qucstion I poscd in thc hrst chaptcr. Isthc abscncc oIconscicncc anadaptivccondition, oris it a mcntal disordcrî Cnc opcrational dchnition oImcntal disordcr is anypsychologicalconditionthatcauscs substantial ¨liIc disruption, ¨ which istosay, scrious and unusual limitations ina pcrson's abilip toIunctionaswcllas might bccxpcctcdgivcnthatpcrson`s ovcrall )87 MAR T HA S T OUT hcalthandlcvcloIintclligcncc. Commonscnsctcllsusthatthcpres­ ence oIany oIthc rccognizcd mcntal disordcrs÷major dcprcssion, chronic anxicq, paranoia, and so Iorth-would Iikcly causc wocIul ¨liIcdisruption.¨Butwhataboutthca b sence oIsomcthingwc usually rcgard as a strictly moral traitî What about thc abscncc oI con- scicnccîWcknowthatsociopaths almostncvcrsccktrcatmcnt, but dothcysuIIcr ¨liIc disruption¨ noncthclcssî AwayoIapproachingthisissucisto considcrwhat is mcaning- Iul in liIc to thc sociopath÷winning and domination~and thcn to pondcrthcIollowingoddqucstion.Whyarcallsociopathsnot inpo- sitions oIgrcatpowcrîGivcnthcirIocuscdmotivation, andgrantcd thc IrccdomoIactionthatrcsults Iromhavingno conscicnccwhat- socvcr, thcy should all bc Iormidablc national lcadcrs or intcma- tiona| CECs, or at lcast high-ranking proIcssionals or dictators oI smallcountrics.Whydothcynot winallthctimcî Forthcydonot. Instcad, mostoIthcmarcobscurc pcoplc, and limitcd to dominatingthciryoungchildrcn, or a dcprcsscd spousc, orpcrhapsaIcwcmployccsorcoworkcrs. Motaninsignihcantnum- bcroIthcmarcinjail,likc Hannah'sIathcr, orindangcrIorthcirca- rccrs orthcir livcs. VcqIcw arc Iabulouslywcalthy likc Skip. Evcn IcwcrarcIamous. Havingncvcrmadc muchoIamarkonthcworld, thcmajoriqarc ona downwardliIccoursc, andbylatc middlc agc will bc burncd out complctcly. 1hcycan rob and tormcnt us tcm- porarily, ycs, butthcyarc, incIIcct, Iailcdlivcs. Fromapsychologist's pointoIvicw, cvcnthc oncsinprcstigious positions, cvcn thc oncs with Iamous namcs arc Iailcd livcs. For most oIus, happincss comcsthroughthc abiliqto lovc, to conduct orlivcs accordingto our highcrvalucs ¦most oIthc timc) , and to Icclrcasonablycontcntcd within ottrsclvcs. Soci ¿ paths cannot lovc, bydchnitionthcydonot h ave highcrvalucs, andthcyalmostncvcr Iccl comIortablc in thcirown skins. 1hcyarc lovclcss, amoral, and chronicallyborcd, cvcnthcIcwwho bccomc rich and powcrIul. AndthcyarcuncomIortablc inthcirskinsIormorc rcasonsthan )88 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R borcdom.1hcabsolutc sclI-involvcmcntoIsociopathycrcatcsan in- dividualconsciousncssthatisawarcoIcvcqlittlcachcandtwitchin thc body, cvcq passing scnsation in thc hcad and chcst, and cars that oricnt with acutc pcrsonalizcd conccm to cvcq radio and tclcvision rcport about cvcrything Irom bcdbugs to ricin. Bccausc his conccrns and awarcncss arc gcarcd cxclusivcly toward himsclI, thc pcrson without conscicncc somctimcs livcs in a tormcnt oI hypochondriacal rcactions that would makc cvcn thc most IrctIul anxic[ ncurotic appcar rational. Gctting a papcr cut is a major cvcnt, andacoldsorc isthc bcginningoIthc cnd. Fcrhaps thcmost Iamous historical cxamplc oIthc sociopath's obscssion with his body is AdolI Hitlcr, who was a liIclong hy- pochondriac with an ovcrpowcring Icar oI dcvclopingcanccr. In an attcmpttokccpcanccrat bay, andtocurc alonglistoIothcrimag- inaqhcalthproblcms, hcswallowcd¨rcmcdics¨Iormulatcdspccially by _ is Iavoritc pcrsonal physician, Or. 1hcodorc Morcll. Many oI thcsc tablcts containcd ha|lucinogcnic toxins. In this way, Hitlcr graduallypoisoncdhimsclIintoactualillncss. Mostlikclyonaccount oIthis, atrcmor ¦a rcal onc) inhisrighthandbccamcconspicuous, andbymid- I944, hcwasdisallowingphotographs. Sociopaths somctimcs uscthcirhypochondriasisasastratcgto gctoutoIdoingwork. Cnc momcntthcyarchnc,butthcnitistimc topaythcbillsorlookIorajob orhclpaIricndmovctoancwapart- mcnt, and suddcnlythcyhavc chcst pains oralimp.And imaginaq mcdical conccrns and inhrmitics oItcn sccurc spccial trcatmcnt, suchasthc onc lastchairinanovcrcrowdcdroom. ! lngcncral,thcrcis anavcrsiontosustaincdcIIortandorganizcd projcctsoIwork, and, oIcoursc, thisprcIcrcnccIorcasc iscxtrcmcly \ sclI-limitingwhcrcsucccssinthcrcalworldisconccmcd.Gcttingup cv¢singlc morningand workingIora long succcssion oIhours is \ almostncvcrconsidcrcd. Sociopaths Icclthatthc casyschcmc, thc onc-shot dcal, or thc clcvcr ambush is much to bc prcIcrrcd ovcr day-to-daycommitmcntto ajob, a long-tcrm goal, or a plan. Evcn - !89 ¯ IART HA S T OUT whcn sociopaths arc Iound in high-statusjobs, thcsc posit�onstcnd to bcthosc inwhichthc amountoIactua|hardworkdonc ¦ornot) canbccasi|yobscurcd, orwhcrcothcrscanbcmanipu|atcdintobc- ingthc rca|workcrs. Insuch scttings, a smartsociopath can somc- timcskccpthings goingwithanoccasiona|sp|ashypcrIormancc, or by schmoozing and bcingcharming, or bybcing intimidating. Shc poscshcrsc|Ias thcabscntcc supcrvisor, orthc ¨rainmakcr,¨ orthc inva|uab|c ¨high-strung gcnius. ¨ ShcrcquircsIrcqucntvacations, or sabbatica|s inwhichhcr actua| activitics arc somcwhat mystcrious. Sustaincdwork,thctruckcyto|astingsucccss÷kccpingonc`snosc tothc grindstonc, to|cratingtcdium, sccingtothcdctai|s÷is a|itt|c too c|osc to rcsponsibi|iq. Sad|y, this samc sc|I-|imiting Iactor tcnds to app|y cvcn to so- ciopathswhoarcbornwith spccia|giIts andta|cnts.1hckindoIin- tcnsc commitmcntanddai|yworkrcquircdto dcvc|opandpromotc onc`s art, onc's music, or any othcr crcativc projcct istypica||y im- possib|cIorasociopath. IIsucccsscanbcacquircdIortuitous|y, with on|ycpisodicinput,thcnpcrhaps. ButiIthcartrcquircsapro|ongcd pcrsona| invcstmcnt, it is |ost. In thc cnd, a pcrson without con- scicncc has thc samc rc|ationship to hcr own giIts as shc docs to othcrpcop|c. Shc docsnottakc carc oIthcm. And sociopathyisa|mosta|ways aso|oroutinc, anothcrstratcg thatmaysomctimcsworktcmporari|ybutnotoItcn inthc |ongrun. Forthc obvious rcason oIunrcmitting sc|I-intcrcst, pcop|c without conscicncc makc |ousytcam p|aycrs.1hc sociopath is out Ior him- sc|Ia|onc. Whcn hc dca|swithanothcr pcrson, orwitha group oI pcop|c,hcattcmptstodosoby|ics, I|attcq, andthccrcationoIIcar. 1hcsc approachcs to succcss arc Iar »cakcr and morc short-|ivcd thanarcgcnuincrc|ating, |cadcrship, andpcrsona|invo|vcmcnt,and goa|s that might havc bccn rcachcd in a partncrship, or in a sus- taincd groupcûort, arc usua||yscutt|cdbythc socicpath's cxc|usivc conccrnwith himsc|I. 1his pathto u|timatc Iai|urc is typica||ytakcn - ) ÿ " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R by inIamous}rants, as wc|| as by count|css |css pub|icizcd socio- pathiccmp|oycrs,coworkcrs, andspouscs. Whcn thc thri|| oI manipu|ating othcrpcop|c takcs ovcr, as it docs in sociopathy, a||othcr objcctivcs arc cc|ipscd, and thc rcsu|t- ing¨|iIc disruption,¨thoughoIadiIIcrcnt sort, canbcjustasscvcrc as thc |imitations imposcd by major dcprcssion, chronic anxic[, paranoia, andothcrmcnta|i||ncsscs.Andthc cmotiona|bankruptcy oIsociopathymcans thatthc sociopathisIorcvcrdcprivcd oIanau- thcntic cmotiona| intc||igcncc, a capaci[ Ior undcrstanding how pcop|c work that is an irrcp|accab|c guidc Ior |iving in thc human wor|d. Likc Oorccn, who actua||ybc|icvcs shccan incrcasc hcrpcr- sona|powcrby diminishing othcrs, |ikc Skip, who imagincs himsc|I pcrmancnt|yimmunc to socictyandits ru|cs, |ikc thc dcIcatcd dic- tatorwho is bcwi|dcrcd bccausc thc hatc-h||cd mob composcd oI ¨his pcoplc¨ wi|| not a||owhimto ncgotiatc, a pcrsonwithout con- scicncc,cvcnasmartonc,tcndstobcashortsightcdandsurprising|y naIvcindividua|whocvcntua||ycxpircsoIborcdom,hnancia|ruin, or abu||ct. Exreme Conscience Sti||, thc most compc||ing rcason Ior dcsiring to havc conscicncc, rathcrthanwishingtobcIrcc oIit,isnotthc |ist oIruinous disad- vantagcsthataccructosociopathy. Mo,thcbcstpartoIposscssinga mora| scnsc is thc dccp and bcautiIu| gih that comcs to us insidc, andon l y insidc,thcwrappingsoIconscicncc. T e a b i l ity to l ove comcs bund|cd up in conscicncc,just as ourspirits arc bund|cd up in our bodics. ConscicnccisthccmbodimcntoI|ovc, imbucdintoourvcry bio1og. It |ivcs in thc part oIthc brainthat rcacts cmotiona||y, and inthcirIavor,whcnthconcswc|ovcnccdourattcntion,ourhc|p, or cvcnoursacrihcc.Wchavca|rcadysccnthatwhcnsomconc`s mind " ]9! " MART HA S T OUT ! is not cquippcdto lovc, hc canhavc no gcnuinc conscicncc cithcr, sincc conscicncc is an intcrvcning scnsc olrcsponsibili¡ bascd in ourcmotional attachmcntsto othcrs. Mowwc turnthis psychologi- calcquationaround.1hcothcrtruthisthatshouldapcrsonhavcno conscicncc, hccould ncvcrtruly lovc. Whcn an impcrativc scnsc ol rcsponsibility issubtractcdlromlovc, allthat islcltisathin,tcrtiaq thing-awillto posscss,whichisnotlovcat all. |ustahcrScptcmbcr I I ,200I , cvcnasa º cspcciallydarkandag- grcssivc chaptcr . in our histoq bcgan, mypsychologistlricnd Bcmic toldmcwithouthcsitationthathcwouldchooscconscicnccovcrthc apparcntcxpcdicncyolbcingwithoutconscicncc,butthathccould notarticulatcwhy. I bclicvc Bcrnic's intuitivcprclcrcnccwas ducto thc incxtricablc link bctwccn conscicncc and thc abili¡to lovc, and that ilgivcn thc choicc bctwccn allthc powcr, lamc, and moncy in thcworldandthc privilcgc ollovinghisownchildrcn, Bcmicwould choosc thc lattcrin a hcartbcat. Inpart, this is bccausc Bcmic is a goodpcrson. Also, thisisbccauscBcrnicisagoodpsychologist,and hc knows somcthingaboutwhatactuallymakcspcoplc happy. 1hcrc is thc will to posscss and to dominatc, and thcn thcrc is lovc. Whcthcr ornot hc could cxprcss his rcasons atthat momcnt, in choosing conscicncc, Bcrnic thc psychologist cûcctivcly chosc lovc, and this docs not surprisc mc. Oominating c constitutc a tcmporaqthrill, butit docsnot makc pcoplchappy. Lovingdocs. Butisitnotpossiblctohavctoo much conscicnccîA¡cthcrcnot psychologistswho havc said tbat, larlromhappincss,pcoplc can bc ¡rannizcd anddrivcnintoscrious dcprcssionbythcirconscicnccsî Ycs and no. Frcud obscrvcdthat an ovcractivc supcrcgo COtild bullyits owncrinto dcprcssionandpossiblycvcnsuicidc. Butsupcr- cgo, thatyammcring disciplinaryvoicc intcrnalizcd lrom our carly cxpcricnccs, is not conscicncc. Mcithcr is somcthingthatpsycholo- gLts call ¨unhcalthyshamc, ¨which is notrcallyshamc, inthc scnsc olarcactiontohavingcommittcdbaddccds,somuchasitisthcir- rationalbclicl, instillcdbyncgativcmcssagcsinchildhood,thatonc's ¯ ! 92 ¯ T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D OOR who|c sc|I is somchow bad, rcpc||cnt, worth|css. Evcn a |itt|c un- hca|thy shamc is too much, but unhca|thy shamc is hard|ynorma| conscicncc, which is an intcrvcning scnsc oIrcsponsibi|ity and not anintrusivc Icc|ingoIworth|cssncss andca|ami¡. Whcncontcmpo- raq psycho|ogists saythat too much conscicncc is toxic, thcir vo- cabu|aq is carc|css. 1hcyarc rcIcrringinstcad to unhca|thyshamc, orto astridcntsupcrcgoworkingovcrtimc. Conscicncc, ourscvcnthscnsc, is a diIIcrcnt phcnomcnona|to- gcthcr. It is a Icc|ing oI ob|igation bascd in |ovc. So thc qucstion |ingcrs. Is cxtrcmcconscicncc dcbi|itatingorc|cvatingî _ 1o undcrstand what a grcat dca| oIconscicncc docs to thc psy- chc,wc can obscrvc thc |ivcs andthc happincss |cvc|oIpcop|cwho ¸ havc dcvc|opcd thcir innatc scnsc oIconscicncc into an cspccia||y powcrIu|cmotiona|musc|c. Eachonc oIus mightnamcdiûcrcntin- dividua|s as our mora| hcrocs, Irom historica| or pub|ic hgurcs to pcop|cwc havc knownpcrsona||ywho havc imprcsscd uswith thcir mora| commitmcnt. In a systcmatic study oI such pcop|c, Annc Co|by oI Radc|iIIc`s Hcnry Murray Rcscarch Ccntcr and Wi|liam Oamon oI Brown \nivcrsity's Ocpartmcnt oI Education madc choiccs oIthcir own. Conccrncd aboutwhatthcypcrccivcd as our currcnt scarcity oI mora| |cadcrship, Co|by and Oamon sc|cctcd twcn¡-thrccindividua|swhomthcyconsidcrcdto bc ¨mora|cxcm- p|ars, 'c|cvcnmcnandtwc|vcwomcnwhoscmora|commitmcnthas rcsu|tcd in signa|conuibutions inmanyarcas, inc|udingcivi|rights and civi| |ibcrtics, thc rcduction oI povcr¡ and hungcr, rc|igious Irccdom, cnvironmcnta| protcction, and pcacc. 1hcsc twcn¡-thrcc pcop|c arc divcrsc in tcrms oI racc, rc|igion, sociocconomic status, andspccihcgoa|s, buta||havc oncthingin common¸. ancxtraordi- nari|ypowcrIu| scnsc oIconscicncc, an ¨ovcrdcvc|opcd¨ scnsc that thcý arc rcsponsib|c Ior thc wc|Iarc oIthcir Ic||ow human bcings. 1hcy rcprcscnt, Irom a psycho|ogist's vantagc point, thc diamctric cmotiona| andmcnta| oppositc oIthc sociopathswc havc bccn dis- cussing. !9j Co|by and Oamon`s ¨mora| cxcmp|ars¨ inc|udc Virginia Fostcr Ourr,thcSouthcrnbc||cturncdcivi|rights activistwhowasthc hrst pcrson to hug Rosa Farks whcn shc stcppcd out ol jai|, Suzic Va|adcz,whohasspcntmanyycars Iccding, c|othing, andproviding mcdica|carcto thousands olpoor Mcxicans inCiudad|uárcz,|ack Co|cman, a lormcr prcsidcnt ol Havcrlord Co||cgc, notcd lor his ¨b|uc-co||arsabbatica|s¨asaditchdiggcr,¸agarbagcman,ahomc|css pcrson, busincssmanCabc||Brand,whodcvotcd himsc|ltothccrc- ation ol 1ota| Action Against Fovcr¡ in Roanokc, Virginia, and Char|cszcttaWadd|cs, loundcrolthc Fcrpctua| Mission,whodcdi- catcdhcr|ilc to hc|pingthcc|dcr|y andthcpoor,thc unwcd moth- crs,thc prostitutcs, andthc abuscd chi|drcn olOctroit, Michigan. 1hc rcscarchcrs studicd autobiographics and ora| historics and conductcd in-dcpth intcrvicwswithcach olthc twcnty-thrcc cxcm- p|ars andthcircoworkcrs. Ina bookthatdocumcntsthcirhndings, cntit|cd S ome Do C are: C ontemporar Lives o f Mora l C ommitment, thcy rcport thrcc striking commona|itics among individua|s ol cx- trcmc conscicncc. 1hc authors |abc| thcsc sharcd charactcristics as ¦ I ) ¨ccrtain¡, ' ¦ 2) ¨positivity, ' and ¦ 3) ¨uni¡ ol sc|l and mora| goa|s. ' ¨Ccrtain¡' rclcrs to ancxccptiona|c|ari¡conccmingwhat thc cxcmp|ars bc|icvc to bc right, and a|so thcir scnsc ol an un- cquivoca| pcrsona| rcsponsibi|i¡to act onthosc bc|icls. ¨Fositivity' cxprcsscs thc c�cmp|ars` alhrmativc approach to |ilc, thcir cxtraor- dinaq cnjoymcnt olthcir work, and thcir markcd optimism, oltcn dcspitc hardshiporcvcndangcr.And ¨uni¡ol&c|landmora|goa|s' dcscribcsthcintcgrationolthcsubjccts`mora|stanccwiththcir con- ccption olthcir own idcnti¡, and thc pcrccivcd samcncss olthcir mora|andpcrsona|goa|s. ` \ni¡' mcans that, lor such pcop|c, conscicncc is not just a guiding |ight. It isw h o t h ey are. Inanattcmptto dcscribc his scnsc olpcrsona|idcntity, onc olthc cxcmp|ars, Cabc|| Brand, cxp|aincd in anintcrvicw, ¨Who I amiswhatI` mab|c to doand how I lcc|a|| ) 94 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR thc timc÷cach day cach momcnt. . . . It's hard lor mc to scparatc who I amlromwhatIwantto do andwhat I amdoing.¨ Co|byandOamonconsidcrthisthirdcharactcristic,thc¨unityol sc|land mora| goa|s, ' to bc thcir most important hnding, and cru- cia||y important to thc undcrstanding olconscicncc and its cllccts. Whcnconscicncc grows sulhcicnt|ystrong, apparcnt|y it unihcsthc humanpsychc inauniqucandbcnchcia|way, and rathcrthancaus- ing ¨|ilc disruption, ' cxrcmc conscicncc signihcant|y cnhanccs |ilc satislaction. Co|byand Oamonwritc, ¨Curcxcmp|ars havc bccnin- vu|ncrab|c to thc dcbi|itating cllccts ol privation bccausc a|| thcy havc nccdcd lor pcrsona| succcss is thc productivc pursuit olthcir mora| mission. ' In unsc|l-conscious dchancc ol our cu|tura| tcn- dcncytosctconscicnccandsc|l-intcrcstinoppositiontocachothcr, Co|byand Oamon's cxcmp|ars ¨dchncd thcir own wc|larc and sc|l- intcrcst in mora| tcrms and wcrc, with vcq lcw cxccptions, cx- trcmc|y happy and lu|h||cd. ¨ Far lrom causing thcm sullcring, or making thcm into dupcs, thcir cxccptiona| scnsc ol ob|igation to othcrpcop|cmadcthcmhappy. Conscicncc, our scnsc ol rcsponsi�i|i¡toward onc anothcr, a|- |ows usto |ivctogcthcr, in ourhomcs and onourp|anct. Ithc|psto crcatcmcaninginour|ivcs, andstandsbctwccnusandancmp¡cx- istcncc ol mcaning|css compctitions. A vcq |argc scnsc ol con- scicncc C intcgratc mora| intcntion, pcrsona| dcsirc, and idcnti¡ in thc mind÷rightaction bccomcs wbo wc orc÷andlorthia rcason, cxtrcmcconscicnccappcarsto bc ararc cxact-htkcyto humanh 4P - pincss. Sohcrc ismybcstpsycho|ogica|advicc.Ayou|ookaroundour worldandtrytohgurcoutwhat isgoingonandwhois ¨winning,'do notwishtohavc |cssconscicncc.Wishlor morc. Cc|cbratcyourlatc. Havingaconscicncc,youmayncvcrbcab|ctodocxact|yasyou p|casc, orjustwhatyouwou|d nccd to doin ordcr to succccdcasi|y ! 95 � MA RT HA S T OUT or u|timatc|y in thc matcria| wor|d. And so pcrhaps you wi|| ncvcr wic|dgrcathnancia|orpo|itica|powcrovcrothcrpcop|c.Maybcyou wi||ncvcrcommandthcrcspcctolthc masscs, orthcirlcar. Cnthc contraq, you maysuûcrpainlu| bouts olconscicnccthat causc you to act quitc againstyour own sc|l-scrving ambitions. And you may havctoworkhard a||yourl ilc, givingupthctcmptationsolchi|d|ikc dcpcndcncy, bccauscyouwantyourownchi|drcntothrivc.Youmay yoursc|lbc caughtup inthc snarcsolsociopathslromtimcto timc, andonaccountoIyourscrup|cs,youmayncvcrbc ab|cto takc sat- islactoq rcvcngc on thc pcop|c who havc hurt you. And, ycs, you mayncvcrbccomcthc dictatorola sma||countq. Butyouwi||bc ab|cto |ookatyourchi|drcn as|ccp in thcir bcds and lcc|thatunbcarab|csurgcolawcandthanksgiving.Youwi||bc ab|cto kccpothcrsa|ivc inyourhcart|ongaltcrthcyarc gonc. You wi||havc gcnuinc lricnds. \n|ikc thc ho||ow, risk-pursuing lcwwho arc dcprivcd ola scvcnth scnsc, you wi|| go throughyour |ilc lu||y awarc ol thc warm and comlorting, inluriating, conlusing, com- pc||ing, and somctimcsjoylu|prcscncc olothcrhuman bcings, and a|ongwithyourconscicnccyouwi||bcgivcnthc chanccto takcthc |argcstriskola||, which, aswc a||know, isto |ovc. Conscicncc tru|y is Mothcr Maturc`s bcttcrbargain. Itsva|uc is cvidcntonagrandhistoricsca|c, andaswcwi|| scc inthcncxtchap- tcr, it isprcciousto us cvcnin ourordinaqday-to-daydca|ingswith lricnds and ncighbors. A|ong with an cntirc ncighborhood, |ct us nowtqto spcnd adaywith anunlortunatc and sociopathicwoman namcd1i||ic. From1i||ic,wc can|carn÷thoughshcncvcrwi||÷that conscicnccmakcscvcqdaycxpcricnccworthhaving. " ) 95 " c L c V c d groundhog day W h at is not goo d f aT t h e swan is not goo d f aT t h e b ee. -Marcus Aurel i us J i||icissomconc pcrsona|i¡thcorist1hcodorc Mi||onwou|dca|| an¨abrasivc psychopath. ¨Shcissociopathicbut, rcgrcttab|ylor 1i||ic, shc |acks thc sociopath's customary charm and hncssc. Instcad, to usc Mi||on's words, shc ¨acts in an ovcrt|y and dircct|y contcntious and quarrc|somcway, ¨ and ¨cvcrything and cvcryonc is anobjcctavai|ab|clornaggingandassau|ting.¨1i||ic`sspccihcta|cnt istotakcthcsma||cst,subt|cstwhispcrolcontÍictandamp|i|itinto a shouting match. Shc cxcc|s at thc crcation olhosti|i¡and bittcr- ncsswhcrcthcrcwasnonc bclorc,andspccia|izcsin provokingpco- l p|cwho ordinari|yarcgcnt|cand pcacc-|oving. In 1i||ic`s univcrsc, 1i|Ìic is a|ways right, and shc takcs sc|l- rightcous p|casurc in opposing and lrustrating hcr opponcnts, who · . arc sccming|ycvcrywhcrc and somchowa|wayswrong. Hcrmission ' in |ilc istocorrcctthcwor|d, a ca||ingshc hccds withouthcsitation or conscicncc. Inthis mission, shc pcrccivcsthatshc is unapprcci- atcdbyothcrs,which lurthcrjustihcshcrbchaviortowardthcm. 1 � 7 MAR T HA S T OUT 1hismorning,1i||ichasdiscovcrcdagroundhoginhcrbac|ard. Ashcwatchcslromhcrsunroom,itsitsbackonitsroundhaunchcs inthc grassandturnsitsa|crt|itt|c lacc incvcqdircction, as ilsur- vcying1i||ic's propcr¡. Whcn1i||ic opcns thc s|iding doorto gct a bcttcr|ook, thc anima| lrcczcsinp|acc Ioramomcnt, thcnwadd|cs awayandvanishcsintothcgroundatthccdgcolthc|awn, atapoint whcrc1i|lic`syardmcctsthatolhcr ncighbors Cathcrinc and Frcd. 1i||icmakcsa mcnta|notcolwhcrcit�ho|c mustbc, thcngocs outtostandonhcrdcck,awhitc-haircdwomanolscvcn¡inab|uc- chcckcrcd houscdrcss, appcaring lor a||thcwor|dto bc thc archc- ¡pa|kindandwisco|dwoman.Ashcgazcswithintcrcstacrossthc |awn, anyonc |ooking on might rcmark that hcr dcmcanor and bottom-hcavy shapc arc not a|togcthcr dillcrcnt lrom thc ground- hog`s. 1i||ic`s ncighbors onthcothcrsidc olhcrhousc and up thc hi||, Crctaand|crq, a|sohappcntobchavingbrcaklastinthcirsunroom and�an scc1i||icthcrconhcr dcck. 1hcyarctoolarawaytonoticc thc groundhog. A|| thcy can makc out is· scvcn¡-ycar-o|d 1i||ic, standingvcqsti|| inhcrb|uc-and-whitc drcss. 1hir¡-hvc-ycar-o|d Crcta, thc managcr ol a |oca| dcpartmcnt storc, says to hcr husband, |crq, a bui|ding contractor, ¨Oamn, I wish that awlu| woman wou|d just movc away. How |ong has shc bccnhcrcnowî' ¨Filtccnmonths, 'rcp|ics|crq. Crcta smi|cs minh|css|y. ¨But who`s counting, rightî I know I shou|dn'twish pcop|c gonc, but shc`sjust so incrcdib|ymean . ¸ And contro||ing. I don`tknowhowshccancvcnstand hcrownsc|l. ' ¸crrysighs and says, ¨Maybc wc cou|d buyhcrout. ' Crcta is about to |augh, and thcn shc rca|izcs that|crq is not joking. A|| ol a suddcn, shc undcrstands that hcr norma||y cvcn- tcmpcrcdhusband dcspiscs1i||iccvcqbitasmuchasshc docs. Shc lcc|s chi||y, anda |itt|c gui|¡, andgocsback intothckitchcntogct somc morc hotcollcc. - 1 98 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Whcn shc comcsback, |crry is sti|| staringatthc o|dwoman on hcrdcck. Hcsays, ¨Mo,wcrca||ycan`tallordtobuyhcrout. Maybc shc'||just movc. Sccms |ikc you`d movc ilcvcqbody in thc ncigh- borhood hatcdyou asmuch ascvcqbodyhatcs hcr. ¨ Crctapointsout, ¨Wc||, thcthing is, I bct shc gctsthis rcaction whcrcvcrshcgocs. ¨ ¨Ycah, probab|y. Whcrcwasshc|ivingbclorcî¨ ¨Oon'tknow, ¨ answcrs Crcta. 1hcn, bcginningtolcc|somcwhat gratihcd that |crq sharcs hcrscntimcnts, shc says, ¨Oo you bc|icvc thisî It was |astwcck, I think, shc ca||cd mc and saidwc shou|dn`t havc anymorc hrcs in our hrcp|acc. Shc's 'a||crgicto wood smokc, ' don`tyou knowî¨ "W h at? You ncvcr to|d mc shc did that| 1hat`s craç| ¨ |crry cÌcnchcs his hsts, and thcn changcs his asscssmcnt. ¨Mo, that's not craç. 1hat'sjusthorsc crap. Wc`|| havc a hrc inthc damn hrcp|acc tonight. In lact, I`|| bring in somc morc wood bclorc I |cavc lor work. ¨ ¨Butit's supposcdtogct rca||ywarmtoday. ¨ ¨Whocarcsî¨ 1histimc, Crcta docs|augh. ¨Ooyouknowhowwcsoundî¨ |crq|ooks at his wilc shccpish|y, and thccomcrs ol his mouth bcginto tum up. Hc unc|cnchcs his hsts and cracks hisknuck|cs a coup|c oltimcs to gctrid olthc tcnsion. Crcta and |crry`s ncighbor across thc strcct and down thrcc houscs is an c|dcrÌy widow namcd Sunny. At this vcry momcnt, thoughshccannotactua||yscc1i||iconhcrbackdcck|ixcCrctaand |crqcan, Sunnytoo isthinkingabouthowmcan1i||ic is. Ycstcrday, 1i||ic ca||cd thc po|icc bccausc Sunny had parkcd hcr car on thc strcctinlrontolhcrownhousc. Sunnyhasa|ways parkcdhcrcarin ¸ +_thatbigspaccbctwccnthc strcctandhcr housc, sincc hcrhusband passcd awaytcnycars ago, bccausc shc is alraid to backout olhcr drivcway into thc tralhc. 1hcyoungpo|iccmancamc and madc hcr putitinthcdrivcway. Hc apo|ogizcd scvcra|timcs, butsti|| hc said - )99 " MAR T HA S T OUT 1i||icwas right. Itwas avio|ation. Sunnyhasnotcvcnhadbrcaklast yct, and a|rcady shc is drcading hcr trip to thc groccq storc today, bccauscshcwi||havctobackhcrcarout a|onc. Shclcc|s|ikccqing. And thatcarwasnowhcrcncar1i||ic`s housc| A Sunny|amcnts acrossthc strcct,1i||ic, onhcrbac|arddcck, dccidcsthatthcgroundhogisnotgoingtorcappcarrightnow. Shc gocs backintohcr housc, whcrc shc can no |ongcr bc sccnbythc brcaklastingCrctaand|crryupthc hi||. Whi|cCrctaand|crqdrink thcrcstolthcircollccandtqtota|kaboutsomcthingc|sc,1i||ic, in hcr kitchcn, picks up thc phonc and ca||s Cathcrinc, thc ncxt-door ncighborwithwhomshcnowsharcs a groundhog. Cathcrinc tcachcs thc sbh gradc. Shc has taught schoo| sincc shc was twcn¡-two, and now hcr sbticth birthday is coming. Shc thinks shc oughtto rctirc, butthc notion on|y makcs hcr sad. Hcr tcaching, hcr kids, mcan thc wor|d to hcr, and shc rca||ydocs not wantto stopworking. Hcrhusband, Frcd, who is scvcnycarso|dcr anda|rcadyrctircd, undcrstandsthisand ispaticntwith hcr. ¨Whcncvcryou`rcrcady, ¨ hca|ways says. ¨I |ikctoputtcraround thc housc and m things anyway. ¨ And thcn thcy both |augh. Frcd can barc|y rcp|acc burncd-out |ightbu|bs. \nti| hc rc|uctant|y gavc up thc mant|c aycar ago, hc was thc cditor olthcirrcgiona| ncws- papcr.Hcisagood, quict, bookishmanwho|ovcdhiswork,too, and sti||contributcsan¨cmcritus¨human-intcrcstco|umnca||cd¨Fcop|c YouShou|dKnow. ¨ Whcnthc phonc rings, Frcd is rcading in thc |iving room, and Cathcrincisinthckitchcn,gcttingrcadytogotoworkcar|y. 1hctri|| olthc phonc atsuchanhourmakcs Cathcrincjump. Shcanswcrs it quick|y. ¨Hc||oî¨ ¨Cathcrinc, ¨ says1i||icabrupt|y, snippingthcwordasilshcwcrc angq. ¨Ycs, this is Cathcrinc.1i||icî1i||ic,mygoodncss,it`sscvcninthc morning.Arcyou a||rightî¨ ¬ 200 ª T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D O O R ¨Ycs. I' mhnc. Ijustsawa groundhog inthcyard, and Ithought you`dlikcto know. ¨ ¨AwhatîAgroundhogî¨ ¨Ycs, inthcback, bctwccn ourpropcrtics. ¨ ¨Wcll,that`s . . . intcrcsting.Musthavcbccncutc,Igucss.Wasitî¨ ¨I supposc. Anyway, I know you`rc busy. I just thought you should know about thc animal. Wc can talk about it latcr. Cood- byc. ¨ ¨\h, right. 1alklatcr. Wcll, good-byc thcn,1illic. ¨ Cathcrinc hangs up thc phonc, bahÍcd, and Frcd calls to hcr, ¨Whatwas thatî¨ Shcwalks intothc livingroom, whcrc hc sitswithhis book, and answcrs, ¨1hatwas 1illic. ¨ ¨Ch, ¨ says Frcd, rollinghis cycs. ¨Whatdidshcwautî¨ ¨Shcwantcdtotcllmcshcsawagroundhoginthcbac|ard. ¨ ¨Whydidshcwanttotcllyouthatî¨ Cathcrinc shakcs hcr hcad slowly and says, ¨I don`thavc thc slightcst idca. ¨ ¨/1illic| ¨ pronounccsFrcd, raisinghisrightarmabovchishcad inmocksalutc. A shc hnishcs hcr moming routinc, Cathcrinc lccls conluscd and slightly m at casc, knowing that with 1illic thcrc is always a thickcningplot, andthatthc dcnoucmcnt islikclyto bc controlling and upsctting. Butlorthc lilc olhcr, shc cannot imaginc whatthis thing with thc groundhog is about. Oocs 1illic want to havc it rcmovcdî Is 1illic asking hcr pcrmission in somc roundabout wayî Also, Cathcrinc and Frcd havc livcd in this samc housc lor thirtyycars, and thcy havc ncvcronccsccnagroundhoginthc yard. Howodd. A shc is about to lcavc lor school, thc phonc rings a sccond timc. Shc thinks it must bc 1illic again, but instcad it is anothcr nc|ghbor, swcct, soh-spokcn Sunny, and shc is in tcars. Sunnytclls Cathcrincthat1illic has madchcrparkhcrcarinthc drivcway, and ¯ 201 ¯ MARTHA S T OUT now shc is trappcd. Can somconc hc|pî Can Cathcrinc and Frcd takc hcr to thc storc todayî Lcamingaboutthis ncwcst cxp|oit ol 1i||ic's, Cathcrinc lcc|sthcb|oodrushingangri|yto hcrlacc,butin hcrca|mcstvoicc, shc rcassurcsSunnythatolcoursc Frcdwi||drivc hcr to thc storc. How about |unchtimcîAlso, Frcd knows thc chicl olpo|icc vcq wc||, and maybc somcthing can bc donc aboutthc prob|cmwith Sunny'sparkingspacc. 1caching hcr c|ass ol sbth gradcrs a|| day, Cathcrinc lorgcts ahout 1i||ic, but �hcn shc gcts homc at about 4.30, shc rcmcmbcrs thccar|y-morningphoncca||andbcginstolcc|uncasya||ovcragain. Shc was p|anningto takc a nap bclorc dinncr, butas shc sits down onthc bcd,hcruncasincssgcts suddcn|ystrongcr, and shc is drawn tothcwindow. 1hc bcdroom is onth� sccond tloor, and lrom hcrc, Cathcrinchasac|carvicwolthcwho|cbac|ard,and1i||ic`saswc||. 1hc dayhas bccnunscasonab|ywarm, and a|| thosc nicc lorsythias Frcdp|antcdatthc backcdgc olthciryard arc bcginningto b|oom. 1hcrc isthcwidc back|awn, and bcyondthatthc |ongrowol|itt|c yc||ow lorsythia b|ossoms, and thcn thc gray�brown shadow olthc sti||-|cahcssconscrvationlorcstthatbordcrsa||thcbac|ardsonthis sidc olthc strcct. And a|so, rathcr strangc|y, thcrc is 1i||ic, standing right in thc midd|colhcr|awn. Shcissti||wcaringhcrchcckcrcdb|uc-and-whitc drcssandhasaddcdawidc-brimmcdstrawhat, as ilshcwcrc about to do somc |ady|ikc gardcning. But1i||icncvcrgardcns. A Cathcrinc watchcs lrom hcr bcdroom window, 1i||ic |ooks aroundthc yard, sccms to spysomcthingshc wants, and marchcs ov�rtoit. Shcbcndsand,withobviouscûort,|iltsanobjcctlromthc groundthat|ookstoCathcrinc|ikca|argcwhitcrock,aboutthcsizc andshapc ola sma||watcrmc|on. Studyingthcsccncmorcintcnt|y, Cathcrinc rca|izcsthatthc objcct is indccd a rock, a sma||bou|dcr rca||y, andncar|ytoomuchlor1i||ictoho|d. But1i||iccmbraccs¸thc rockwithbotharms, stoopinginawaythatis painlu|towatch, and ¯ 202 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R bcgins to wadd|c unstcadi|y in thc dircction ol Frcd`s lorsythia p|ants. A phrasc lrom thc morning`s phonc convcrsation cchocs in Cathcrinc's hcad÷¨in thc back, bctwccn our propcrtics¨÷and in thissamcmomcnt,Cathcrincknowscxact|ywhat1i||icisdoing.1hc groundhog`sburrow| 1i||ic is going to usc that rock to p|ug up thc dcnolthc groundhogshcto|d hcr about. Cathcrinc is appa||cd. Shclcc|s |ight-hcadcdandsick, a|mostas ilshcwcrcwitncssingamurdcr. Shcnccdsto dosomcthing,butgo- ing out and conlronting1i||ic dircct|ywou|d bc |ikc arguingwith a rabid wo|vcrinc. Intruth, though Cathcrinc docs not |ikc to admit thisto hcrsc|l, 1i||ic lrightcns hcrin gcncra|, lor rcasons shccannot cvcnputintowords.Vhyshou|darathcrinsignihcantscvcn¡-ycar- o|dwomanlrightcnhcrî Andhowdid1i||icknowshcwou|dbc watchinglromthc housc rightnowîDid shcknowî Cathcrinc bcginsto pacc across thc bcdroom, lrom thc window to thc o|d oak drcsscrand backto thc window. Shc sccs JiUic drop thcrockc|umsi|yonto aspotjust bcyondthc lorsythias, midwaybc- twccntwo sma||wi||owsatthccdgcolthcwoods,andshcmarksthc |ocation carclu||y in hcr mind. 1hcn shc paccs back to thc drcsscr and starcs at hcrsc|l in thc antiquc mirror. Whi|c 1i||ic swipcs at |ooscdirtonthclrontolhcrdrcssandparadcsbackacrossthc |awn to hcr dcck, Cathcrinc continucs to starc into hcr own cycs inthc mirror. 1hat poor ¡itt|c anima|, shc kccps thinking. What il hc`s trappcdî Fina||y, Cathcrincknowswhatshcwantstodo.Andshcmusttc|| Frcd. Mc canhc|p. Frcd has bccn atthc ncwspapcr, visiting with somc ol his o|d lricnds. Whcnhc comcs homc, Cathcrinc tc||s him what 1i||ic has donc. Mc says, ¨Wc||, I gucss in this casc 1i||ic got two with onc stonc, |itcra||y. `' ¨Whatdoyoumcanî" 203 MAR T HA S T OUT ¨You andthc littlc woodchuck, both. ' ¨Ch, right. 1hat's rcallytruc, isn'titî' says Cathcrinc glumly. ¨Itwouldappcarso.Surcyoudon`twantmcto go ovcrthcrcand havc it outwithhcrî' ¨Mo.Shc'djustdoitagain. Iwant to hclpthc groundhog,sohc'll bc okay. Cowithmcî' ¨OoI havc a choiccî¨ Cathcrincsmilcsand hugs him. ¨Motrcally, ' shcsays. 1hcymakcdinncrtogcthcr,asisthcirhabit,andwaituntilabout ninco'clock,whcnitis complctclydarkoutsidc. FrcdsuggcstsIlash- lights, butCathcrincthinks1illicwouldsccthcm. ¨Shc`llknowwc libcratcdhim, andshc'lljustcovcrhimagainto- morrow. ' ¨Wc'llhavctotakc at lcast onc, to hnd thc burrowoncc wc gct thcrc. ' ¨Ycs. Right. Ckay, maybc apcnlightî Forwhcnwc gctthcrc. ' 1hcy sctoutacrossthcyardatasnail`spacc, soas nottotrip in thc darkncss. Frcdtakcsthc lcad, and Cathcrinclollows, arms hcld out in lront olhcr likc a slccpwalkcr's, to kccp hcr balancc. Whcn thcygcttothc larcndolthc lawn,thcylollowalongthcrowollor- sythia bushcs until thcrc arc no morc lorsythias. 1hcn, in wondcr, likc a child, Cathcrinc takcs a stcp into thc cvcn morc complctc darkncss bcyond, hopingthat hcrhands, and not hcrlacc, will hnd onc olthcwillows. Shc lc�ls a branch, takcs a dccp brcath, and whispcrs, ¨Ckay, Frcd. Fcnlight. ' Frcd takcs thc light out ol his pockct, holds it closc to thc ground, andtums it on. Altcralcwmomcnts, thcyhndthc mclon- sizc rock, somcwhat morc casilythan thcy could havc hopcd, bc- causc thc rock is smooth and whitc and thc surrounding carth is dark. Cathcrinccxhalcsandpushcsalooscstrandolhairbchindhcr lclt car. Shc and Frcd bcnddownand liltthc rocktogcthcr, rcvcal- ¬ 204 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R inga surprising|ysma||ho|c inthc ground, considcringit is uscdby a lat |itt|c groundhog. Cathcrinc has an impu|sc to shincthc pcn|ightinto thc ho|cto chcck on its occupant. But thcn shc rca|izcs that shc wi|| not scc much, andthatshcmayscarcthc anima|. Arm in arm, whispcring and containing thcir |aughtcr, shc and Frcdstumb|chomc. 1i||ic docs notscc thcm. A thcyrcturnlromthcir mission, shc hasa|rca!ybccndrinkingandsu|kinglorscvcra|ho�rs, as usua|. Shc sits on a sola in hcr |iving room and pours hcrsc|l g|asscs ol C|cn|ivct, tqingto drown outthc monotonyolhcr |ilc and thc id- iots shccontinual|yhasto dca|with.1hcon|ythingthatmakcsthis cvcning dillcrcnt lrom any othcr is thc accumu|ation ol packing boxcsnowstackcd aroundhcr. Insidc hcrdrunkcnlog, shccongratu|atcshcrscllonhcrbri||iant idca not to put up a íLK SALE sign this timc. Shc thinks, I' || takc thcsc crctins bysurprisc. 1hcirstupid mouthswi||gapc. 1hc good-lor-nothingrca|cstatc agcntkccpstc||inghcrthatnot usingasignis shootinghcrsc|linthc loot, andthathc rca||ythinks shc shou|d wait lor a highcr oûcr. 1his buycr camc in undcr hcr pricc. But 1i||ic cannot wait. Shc has ncvcr|ikcd waiting. Shc wi|l havc hcrmomcnt, and hcrmomcntwi||bctomorrowmorning. And thcn cvcryonc in this who|c horrib|c ncigborhood wi|| bc in com- p|ctcshockabouthcrmovc. Shc is surcoI it.1hcagcntdocsnotun- dcrstandwhysccrccymattcrs, buthc isa loo|, sowhy|istcntohimî Shc hastakcn|osscs bclorcwhcnshcwantcd to gctoutola housc last. It's a||inthc gamc, shcthinksto hcrsc|l.A!| in thc gamc. You can't stay in a p|acc whcrc thc pcop|cwon't |istcnto you. And giv- ing thcmapartingshot is cxtrcmc|yimportant. I 1i||ic has a trust lund lrom hcr dcccascd1athcr that has sup� portcd hcrlormostolhcr|ilc. 1hcscda,s, shcsaysshc is ¨rctircd, ¨ I but shc ncvcr rca||y workcd. Shc uscd to paint watcrco|ors somc- 205 MAR T HA S T OUT timcs whcn shc was youngcr, but shc ncvcr so|d anyoIthcm. Shc wou|d |ikc to purchasc grandcr houscs, but hcr wrctchcd mothcr kccpshangingon, andsoshccannotgcthcrhandsonthcrcstoIthc moncy. Hcr mothcr is ncar|ya hundrcdycars o|d, and sti||shc has not dicd. 1i||ic is stuck in thcsc drcadIu| midd|c-c|ass ncighbor- hoods,knowingthat,byrights, shc shou|dhavcawca|thicr|iIcs¡|c. Shc visitshcr mothcr pcriodica||y, bccausc shc ccrtain|y docs not wantto bcwrittcn outoIthcwi||, andthc bcdriddcn o|dwoman a|- ways rcminds hcr oI a ha|I-p|uckcd parakcct squawking in a cagc. What shc hastosayisjustaboutthat intcrcsting. Mothing is vcq intcrcsting, rca||y. Suûocating thc rodcnt was okay Ior a Icw minutcs, and shc hopcs Cathcrinc was watching. Cathcrincwou|dhavc a strokc. Butthcnthatprojcctwas ovcr, and thcrcwas nothingc|scto do. Shccannotimagincwhatthcscabsurd pcop|c on a|| sidcs oI hcr do that sccms to occupy thcm so com- p|ctc|yasthcyscurqabout thcir|itt|c |ivcs. 1hcymusthavcbrains thc sizc oIpcas. Shcpourshcrsc|Ianothcrdrinkandconsumcsit:noncgu|p.Mot yctpackcdintoabox,apaintingthatshcmadcwhcnshcwassti||in hcrtwcntics hangsovcrthc unuscd hrcp|acc, so Iadcdthatthc im- agc can hard|ybc madc out in thc shadows oIthc i||-|ightcd·|iving room. Hunchcdonthc soIa, shc |ooks up at it anddim|y rcca||s thc bcachsccnc shc stoodina||thosc dccadcsago.1hcna||shcsccsarc thc pinpoints oIstars bcIorc hcr cycsthat shc waits Iormostnights oIhcr |iIc,justbcIorc shc b|acksout. 1hc ncxt morning is Saturday, a bitcoo|crthanycstcrday, and nota c|oud inthcs| . Acrossthc strcct and down aIcwhouscs, Sunnyopcnsthc |acc curtains in hcr Iront window, and as thc sun strcams in, shc takcs inthc happyvicwoIhcrcarparkcdwhcrc it is supposcdto bc÷on thc strcct. And thcrc it wi|| stay parkcd. Frcd ta|kcd to thc po|icc chicIycstcrdayaItcr |unch, andgotcvcqthing a|| squarcd away Ior hcr. "Freedom, " shc brcathcs to hcrsc|I. Shc trics to think what shc 205 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R can do lor Frcd and Cathcrinc. Maybc shc can bakc thcm somc- thing. Imagininghowmuchthcywi|||ikcthat, shc lcc|scvcnmorc chccrlu|. Inthc houscupthc hi||, Crctahasthcwcckcndoll, andshc and |crqs|ccp |atc.Whcnthcys|ow|yrouscthcmsc|vcsandgoouttothc sunroom to drink thcir coûcc, thcy noticc a big moving truck in 1i||ic'sdrivcway. ¨Oocsthatmcanwhat Ithinkitmcansî¨|crqasks,staringatthc truck. ¨Cr arcwc sti||inbcd, drcamingî¨ ¨Cot to bc drcaming, ¨ says Crcta, a|so staring. ¨I ncvcr saw a sign. Oidyou cvcrscca signovcrthcrcî¨ ¨Mopc. ¨ |ust now, two mcnwcaringcanvas covcra||s comc out ol1i||ic`s housc, cachcarqingonccndolasola. Crctaand|crq|ookatcach othcrand bcginto |augh. |crq|aughssohard, hc spi||ssomc olhis collcc. Crcta asks him, ¨Whydoyou supposc shc kcptitasccrctî¨ ``Whydocsshcdoanythingî Butitdocsn`tmattcranymorc, docs itî \nbc|icvab|c. ¨ Crcta i sthoughtlu| lor a momcnt, and thcn says, ¨Mow o|d do ¸ you supposc shc isî¨ ¨Idon'tknow. Motyoung. ¨ ¨Iwondcrwhcthcrshccvcrhadanychi|drcn. Chwow. Canyou . imaginc bcingonc olhcr children? " ¨Worscyct, canyou imaginc bcingher?" ¨So, doyouthinkwcshou|dlcc|sorrylor hcrî¨ Crcta asks. |crq gins and wavcs his hand dismissivc|y at thc lumiturc- movingsccncinthc distancc. ``c||, I`m not surc, swccthcart. Butil wc'rc going to lcc| sorq lor hcr, |ct`s do it ovcr brcaklast, okayî Rcmcmbcrthatstrudc|î¨ ¨Ycs| ¨ says Crcta, smacking hcr |ips. Shc picks up both collcc mugs, and thcy abandonthc vicw lromthc sunroom in lavor olthc pastq inthc kitchcn. - 207 ¯ MART H A S T OUT Sincc thcyarc in thc housc ncxt doorto 1i||ic`s, Cathcrinc and Frcd a|sonoticcthcactiviticsolthcmcnlromthcmovingtruck, and wondcrwhythcyncvcrsawa íLk 5PLL signorhcard lrom1i||icthat shcwas moving. Frcd ro||s hiscycs again, and Cathcrinc shakcs hcr hcad. But thcn thcy arc distractcd by anothcr phonc ca||, this onc lrom thcir daughtcr and son-in-|aw, who saythat intwowccksthcy and lour-ycar-o|d Katic arc IÍying out lor anothcr visit. Cathcrinc is bcsidc hcrsc|lwith cxcitcmcnt, and 1i||ic`s moving day, sti|| in progrcss outsidc, islorgottcn. 1wohours|atcr,whcn1hctruckpu||sawaylrom1i||ic'shousc, no onc iswatching.A||is quictagain. InCathcrincandFrcd`sbac|ard,bythclorsythiasatthclarop- positccndolthcrow, thcgroundhogc|ambcrsoutolhissccondho|c andstandsupasta||ashccanonhisshorthind|cgs. Hisb|ackcycs g|intinginthc brightsun|ight,hcpccrsovcratabigwhitcrock|ying ncar his hrst ho|c, at thc othcr cnd olthc yc||ow bushcs. 1hcn hc gazcsuptoward1i||ic'scmp¡housc. Fina||y, hisattcntionsctt|cson a patch oldandc|ions growing inthc soltcarthjustin lront olhim. Anothcrgroundhog,s|ight|ysma||cr,wigg|csoutolthcho|c.1hcysit down groundhog-lashion, sharc a |cisurc|y|unchcon olncw stcms, and amb|collintothcwoods. 208 ! W | | Y | consc i ence in its purest form: S C ience votes for morali ty He is not a perect Muslim who eats his fll and lets his neighbor go hungr. -Muhammad For what shall i t profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, . and lose his own soul? ' -Jesus Te man who knows how to split the atom but has no love in his heart becomes a monster. -Kri shnamurti nc way or anothcr, a lilc ithout conscicncc is a lailcd |ilc. ¸ 1hoscoluswholovcandhavcconscicnccarcrcallyvcryluc|, ìi cvcn as wc go about our cvcqday livcs olwork, rctIcxivc givc-and- �akc, andordinaqplcasurcs. And usually conscicncc is just that. rctIcxivc and ordinaq. Wthout lanlarc and mostly without bcing noticcd, conscicncc gantslittlc bits olmcaningto ournormal andspontancous day-to- dayintcractionswithcvcqonc andcvcqthingaround us. Cathcrinc znd Frcdwcrcnotthinkingabouthigh-mindcdprinciplcswhcnthcy - 209 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT sct out to |ibcratc thc groundhog, which, as it tums out, was not trappcd inthc hrstp|acc.1hcywcrc not bcingpiousorcouragcous, not particu|ar|y cûcctivc, and ccrtain|y not rationa|. It was simp|y that tqing to hc|p thc anima| sccmcd right and somchow madc thcmfeel good. Movingthat rockwas, to usc an o|d and univcrsa||y undcrstoodcxprcssion, ¨good Iorthcir sou|s. ¨ Whcrc conscicncc i sconccrncd, ovcrthc ccnturicsWcstcm cu|- turchasprogrcsscdIromIaithinanimmutab|cCod-scntknow|cdgc oIrightandwrongtoabc|icIin Frcud`s conccptoIapunitivc supcr- cgotoanundcrstandingthatconscicncc is bascd in ournorma|and positivc rc|atcdncss to onc anothcr. A an intcrvcning scnsc oIrc- sponsibi|i¡ scatcd in our cmotiona| attachmcnts, conscicncc has cvo|vcdintoapurc|ypsycho|ogica|construct. But, inakindoIphi|o- sophica|Iu||circ|c backto its bcginnings in thc church, conscicncc is a|sothcp|accwhcrcpsycho|ogandspiritua|i¡mcct, anissucon whichthc rccommcndations oIpsycho|ogandthc tcachings oIthc majorrc|igious and spiritua|traditions oIthcwor|d comp|ctc|y con- cur. In a rcmarkab|c conIÍucncc~cvcn thc radica| matcria|ists and thcmysticsinatacitmcctingoIthcminds-bchavioraÌscicncc, cvo- |utionaqpsycho|og, anda||traditiona|thco|ogics agrcc thathaving a strong conscicncc is cxtrcmc|yadvantagcous, andthat not having onc at a|| most common|y |cads to disastcr, Ior goups and a|so Ior individua|s. Apsycho|ogistwou|dsaythatwhcnwctakcsomc rcsponsibi|i¡ Iorthcwc|Iarc oIothcrs, ouractionsIcc|natura|[or ¨cgo-syntonic¨ ) and ourOv |iIc satisIaction is cnhanccd. 1hc Bib|c says simp|y, ¨It ismorc b|csscdtogivcthantorcccivc. ¨ A apsycho|ogist, Icantc|| youthatthc abscncc oIanintcrvcningscnsc oIrcsponsibi|i¡bascd incmotiona|attachmcnt is associatcdwithancnd|css, usua||y Iuti|c prcoccupation with domination, and rcsu|ts in substantia| |iIc dis- ruptionandcvcntua|dctcrioration. Buddhaputitthisway. ¨A||that wc arcisthcrcsu|toIwhatwchavcthought. IIamanspcaks oracts with ancvi|thought, pain Io||ows him. IIa man spcaks oracts with 210 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR a purc thought, happincss lollows him, likc a shadow that ncvcr lcavcs him.¨ Inthcir psychological studyolindividualswith cxccptional con- scicncc,AnncColbyandWilliamOamonwritc, ¨Apositivi¡thatin- cludcsoptimism, lovc, andjoyis . . . closclylinkcdwithmorali¡, as wcsccinthclivcsolourcxcmplars. ¨Buddha again agrccs. Hcsays, ¨1owalksalclythroughthc mazc olhumanlilc, onc nccdsthc light olwisdomandthc guidancc olvirtuc.¨ And, olcoursc, thcrc isthc Coldcn Rulc, whichishumankind's mostancicntcthicolrcciproci¡, andpcrhapsthcmostsuccinctand clcarly opcrationalizcd moral philosophycvcrconccivcd. Conlucius was mcrcly rccording an cvcn oldcr Chincsc sayingwhcn hc wrotc, ¨Oo not do to othcrswhatyouwould not want donc to you, ¨ and whcn |csus said, ¨Oountoothcrs as you would hacthcm do unto you, ¨ hc was rclcrring to an alrcady timc-honorcd |cwish provcrb that instructcd, ¨What is hatclul toyou, do nottoyourlcllo�man. 1his is thc law. all thc rcst is commcntaq. ¨ 1hc Mahabharata tclls lollowcrs olHinduism, ¨1hisis thc sum olthc Oharma. Oonaught untoothcrswhichwould causcyou painildonctoyou. ¨And in in- digcnous traditions aswcll÷thc Yoruba olMigcriasay, ¨Cnc going totakcapointcdsticktopinchababybirdshould hrsttqitonhim- scllto lcclhowit hurts. ¨Andthc Lakota rcligious lcadcrBlackElk taught, ¨Allthingsarcourrclativcs,whatwcdotocvcqthing,wcdo to oursclvcs.AllisrcallyCnc.¨ 1hc smattcring olrcligions that do not adhcrc to moral rcci- . proci¡arccontcmporaq,andtcndtomakcthcmoralwarmtholthc ancicntColdcn Rulc sccm cvcnmorc attractivc bythcirownblood- chilling naturc. A an illustration, onc can citc thc Crcativi¡ Movcmcnt, a militantly anti-Scmitic and anti-Christian group lor- mcrly callcd thc World Church ol thc Crcator, which is a rcligion loundcd onthclovcolthc¨WhitcRacc¨ andthc prcscribcd hatrcd olcvcqoncclsc.Withinthis doctrinc, cvcqoncwho is not ¨Whitc¨ is by dchnition a mcmbcr ol onc olthc ¨mud raccs. ¨ 1hc ccntral ¯ 211 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT moral prcccpt olthc Crcativi¡ Movcmcnt is cxprcsscd as lollows. ¨Whatis goodlorthcWhitc Racc is thc highcstvirtuc,whatis bad lorthcWhitcRaccisthcultimatcsin.¨\nsurprisingly, thclong-tcrm goalolthc Crcativity!ovcmcnt isto organizcthc ¨Whitc Racc¨ to achicvc world domination. Inwclcomc contrast, most rcligions and spiritualtraditionssub- scribctothcColdcnRulc, andalsotosomclorm olBlackElk`sbc- liclthat¨AllisrcallyCnc. ¨Cncncssisamorclundamcntaltcnctlor somc rcligions thanothcrs. Forcxamplc, whilc thc |udco-Christian traditioninstructs itslollowcrstolovcthcir ncighbors, Eastcrnmys- ticismtcachcs1hatindividuali¡, thccgo, isanillusiontobcginwith, thatwc arc not distinctlrom Cod orlrom onc anothcr, andthcrc- lorc, inaspiritualscnsc,wcare ourncighbors. InPeace Is Ever Step, Victnamcsc Buddhist mastcr 1hich Mhat Hanh trics to cxplain this aspcct ol Eastcm thought lorWcstcmcrs by tclling us that wc ¨intcr-arc. 'Wc arc incluctablyand incxtricablyboundupwithcvcq- onc andcvcqthinginthcunivcrsc, andthisstatc olintcrbcingisthc rcason wc should not sclhshly [andvainly) chasc our goals olindi- vidualacquisitionandpowcr. 1hough lcss conspicuously, a bclicl in oncncss is pan ol thc |udco-Christian tradition as wcll. In I939,asyct anothcr shattcring attcmpt atworlddominationrumblcdin Europc, |cwishthcologian and philosophcr Martin Bubcr addrcsscd thc Mational Conlcrcncc olFalcstinian1cachcrsinJclAviv. Hcconcludcdhisaddrcssbysay- ing,¨Mothingrcmainsbutwhatriscsabovcthcabyssoltoday'smon- strousproblcms, asabovccvcqabyssolcvcrytimc.thcwing-bcatol thcspiritandthccrcativcword.Buthcwhocansccandhcaroutol uni¡willalsobcholdanddisccrnagainwhatcanbc bchcldanddis- ccrncdctcmal|. 1hccducatorwhohclpsto bringmanbackto his owuni¡willhclptoputhimagainlacc to laccwith Cod.' Inwhatcvcr tradition thcy occur, spiritual practiccs locuscd on anawarcncssolintcrbcingtcndtohavcthc intriguingpsychological 212 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR sidccllcctolbringingsignihcantcarth|yhappincsstothcirmostdc- votcdpractitioncrs,a|mostrcgard|cssolcxtcma|circumstanccs. Ina bookthat is a co||aboration bctwccn psycho|ogist Oanic| Co|cman and His Ho|incss thc Oa|ai Lama, cntit|cdDestrctive Emotions: A Scientifc Dialogue with the Dalai Lama, Co|cman writcs, ¨1hc vcq actoIconccrn1orothcrs'wc||-bcing, itsccms, crcatcsagrcatcrstatc olwc||-bcingwithinoncsc|l. '' Inrcccntycars, incrcasingnumbcrs ol scicntists havc cchocd this imprcssion. At a 2002 conlcrcncc on scicncc and thc mind, attcndcd by thc Oa|ai Lama, distinguishcd Austra|ian ncurobio|ogist |ack Fcttigrcw rcmarkcd, ¨Ilyou go to Oharamsa|a ¸ Indian homc olthc 1ibctan communi¡ in cxi|cj , you go up through thc log in midwintcrandyou comc outinthc bright sunshinc, it's |ikc going to hcavcn. What strikcs you immcdiatc|y is thchappy, smi|inglaccsoIthc1ibctans, whodon'thavc much,havc bccn tcrrib|y dcprivcd, and yct thcy arc happy. Wc||, why arc thcy happyî¨ 1hc Oa|ai Lamahimsc|lis intcrcstcd inanswcringthis qucstion scicntihca||y, and inhndinga sccu|arwaytocrcatcthc compassion- atc scnsc oIintcrbcingthat is achicvcd bydcvout practitioncrs ol 1ibctan Buddhistmcditation. 1o this cnd, hc has|aunchcd anintcr- nationa| scrics oIdia|ogucs bctwccnscicntists and Buddhist scho|- ars,thcmostrcccntoIwhich, in2003,wascosponsorcdbythcMind and LiIc Institutc in C o |orado and thc McCovcm Institutc oIthc Massachusctts Institutc ol1cchno|og. Hc intcnds thcsc dia|ogucs toyic|dpractica|so|utionstothcdcstructivcstatcsoImindthatboth thc Buddhists and thc scicntistsvicwasthc root oIhuman cont|ict and sullcring. . A a psycho|ogist, I amparticu|ar|ytakcnwiththc Oa|ai Lama`s dcscriptionolthoscwhomI mightrcIcrto associopaths, oraspco- p|cdcvoidoIanintcrvcningscnscolob|igationbascdinconncctcd- ncss to othcrs. Hc rclcrs to such individua|s as ¨pcop|c who don't havcwc||-dcvc|opcdhuman|ivcs. ¨Morcspccihca||y,thc Oa|ai Lama ¯ 213 ¯ MART HA S T OUT saidoIthcWor|d1radcCcntcrattacks, ¨1cchno|ogisagoodthing, but thc usc oItcchno|og in thc hands oIpcop|c who don`t havc wc||-dcvcÌopcdhuman|ivcs can bc disastrous. ' 1o thc cxcnt that a pcrson's capaci] to havc a wc||-dcvc|opcd human|iIc isIaci|itatcdor|imitcdbyhisorhcrparticu|argraymat- tcr,this BuddhistconccptionoIsociopathyhigh|ightswhatisoncoI thc most intcrcsting cont|ucnccs oI a||, that bctwccn rc|igìon and ncuropsycho|og. Fcrhaps sociopathy is a |iIc |csson that is taught not bysomc physica|Iaci|i]or|imitation, but by ancmotiona| dc- bi|ity. Inothcrwords,somcpcop|cmust|camwhatitis |ikc to |ivc with cxtrcmc bcau], or no |cgs, or as a bcggar, and ot�crs, thosc with no conscicncc, must |camwhatitmcans to |ivc without bcing ab|cto carc aboutothcrs. 1hcrcis anironyhcrc, inthatthiskarmic statc, iIyouwi||, mayindccdbcarcasonto hndsociopathspitiab|c, aswcmightpi]b|indorphans,whcthcrornotwc bc|icvc inthc dc- viccsoIkarma. 1hough psycho|og rccognizcs thc va|uc oIcompassion and oI scnsing oncncss, psycho|ogistshavc so Iar not rcscarchcd anydircct mcthods to achicvcthcsc, thus |cavingsociopaths and cspccia||your hca|thicr discip|cs somcwhat in thc |urch whcrc thc hcightcning oI conscicnccisconccmcd.Awaystoincrcasc|iIc�atisIaction,psycho|- ogists incrcasing|y rccommcnd mora| cducation Ior noma| chi|drcn and giving andvo|untccrismIoradu|ts, but psycho|ogists havc tradi- tiona||ybccnmuchmorc intcrcstcdincndcavorssuchas¨strcngthcn- ing intcrpcrsona| boundarics' and ¨asscrtivcncss training. ' In this rcgard, psycho|og rc|ativc to spiritua|i]rcminds mc oIthc hungq travc|cr in an ancicnt parab|c Irom India ca||cd ¨1hcWìsc Woman's Stonc.'AvcrsionoIthisparab|c,thcauthoroIwhichis|ong|osttoan- tiguiq can bc Iound in a co||cction oI storics compi|cd by Arthur Lcnchan,pub|ishcdin I994by, ironica||y, 1hc EconomicsFrcss. Awiscwomanwhowastravc|inginthcmountainsIound aprc- ciousstonc in astrcam. 1hc ncxt day shc mct anothcr travc|cr 2!4 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR whowashungg, andfhewlsewomanopenedherbagfo share heríood. Thehunggfravelersawfhepreclous sfoneand asked fhewomanfoglvelffo hlm. Shedldsowlfhoufheslfaflon. Thefravelerleû, re]olclnglnhlsgoodíorfune. Heknewfhe sfonewasworfhenoughfoglvehlmsecurlµíorallíeflme.ßuf aíew days lafer he came backfo refum fhe sfone fo fhe wlse woman. ¨l've beenfhlnklng,¨he sald,°lknowhowvaluablefhesfone ls,buf¡glvelfbacklnfhehopefhafyoucanglvemesomefhlng evenmorepreclous.Glvemewhafyouhavewlfhlnyoufhafen- abledyoufoglve mefhesfone. ¨ Thewlse and happyTlbefanßuddhlsfs, andcerfalnlyfheDalal Lamahlmselí, are remlnlscenfofColbyandDamon'sexemplarsoí exfremeconsclence, suchas Suzle Valadez, whofeedsfhe poorln Mexlco, and íormercollegepresldenf]ack Coleman, whofrled fo fosferhlsownsense oflnferbelngand compasslonbybelngadlfch dlgger, a garbage collecfor, a homeless person. ßofh fhe ßuddhlsf monksandfhepsychologlcalexemplarslllusfrafefhaffheawareness provldedbyexfreme consclence lmprovespeople'sllves andmakes fhemhappy.Thlshapplnesslsnoffheproducfofanycognlflvesfraf- eg orreaftrlbuflon oífemporag íallures fofhe cosmos and long- ferm successes fo oneself. In facf, Colby and Damon reporf fhaf mosfoffhelrmoralexemplarsarelnslsfenfreallsfsregardlngfheclr- cumsfances ofhuman llfe andfhelr own llmlfed pofenflal fo alfer fhesecond lflons.No, rafherfhanmerecognlflveadapfaflon,excep- flonalconsclencelnvolvesfhesfrongandsfeadylngsensaflonofbe- lngparfofsomefhlnggreaferfhanoneselí. Indeed, consclencewould seem fo be fhe nexus ofpsycholog and splrlfuallµ, asrevealedbywhafpsychologlsfs nowknowabouf the slngularlyupllfflngeffecfs ofa moral sense based ln emoflonal connecfedness. Inrellglonandsplrlfuallµ, fheexperlenceaffhlslo- cus ls called by names such as oneness, unlµ, lnferbelng, In psy- - 215 " MAR T HA S T OlT cho|og, it is ca||cd conscicncc or thc mora| scnsc. Vhatcvcr ìts namc,it is apowcrlu|intcgratorolhumanthought, cmotion,andac- tion that kncw its origins in our primcva| bio|ogica| past. 1hrough our gcncs, our brains, and pcrhaps our vcq sou|s, it has bccomc a protcctivc, productivc, andmood-sustaininglorcc inourpsycho|og- ica| and socia| |ivcs, and lorthousands olycars has spokcn to our mosttransccndcnttradìtionsandtothcmostadmirab|c mcmbcrs ol ourracc. Conscicnccisthcsti||sma||voiccthathasbccntryingsincc thc inlancyolour spccìcs to tc|| us thatwc arc cvo|utionarì|y, cmo- tiona||y, and spiritua||y Cnc, andthat ilwc scck pcacc and happi- ncss,wc mustbchavcthatway. Conscicncc, and uniquc|yconscicncc, cancompc| us out olour ownskinsandintothcskinolanothcr,orcvcnintocontactwiththc Abso|utc. It is bascd in our cmotiona| tics to onc anothcr. In its purcstlorm, itisca||cd|ovc.Andwondcrlu||y, bothmysticsandcvo- |utionaq psycho|ogists, who concur on not much c|sc, agrcc that pcop|c by thcir norma| naturc arc morc |ikc|y to bc |oving than ma|cvo|cnt. 1his conc|usion signihcs a brcathtakingdcparturc lrom ourusua|,morccynica|vicwoloursc|vcs. 1hco|ogians and scicntists agrcc a|sothat thc human mistakcs tcndingto contravcnc ournorma||ybcncvo|cntnaturc arc twolo|d. 1hc hrstmìstakc is thc dcsìrc to bc pcrsona||y incontro| ol othcrs andolthcwor|d. 1his motivation invo|vcs thc i||usion thatdomina- tion is a worthwh¸i|c goa|, an i||usionthatis mosthxcd inthc socio- pathic mind. And thc sccond tragic crror is mora| cxc|usion. Vc knowthcrcto bc cnd|cssdangcrin dccidingthatthc ¨othcr¨ ìs somc- thing |css than human÷thc othcr gcndcr, thc othcrracc, thc lor- cìgncr,thc ¨cncmy, ¨andpcrhapscvcn thcsociopathhimsc|l-which Lwhythc qucstion olwhatto dowiththc mora|out|awis suchan uncasyonc inthco|oganda|soinpsycho|og. Howdowclaccthc potcntia||y catac|ysmic cha||cngc olpcop|c who simp|y ¨don't havc wc||-dcvc|opcd human |ivcs¨î So lar, psycho|og has |ch this qucs- tion comp|ctc|y unanswcrcd, though it wou|d sccm an cvcr morc 215 T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R prcssingissuc as timc gocs by and tcchno|ogis pro|ilcratcd. Acr a||, thc dcvi| iscvo|ving, too. A lor thc qucstion olwho is morc lortunatc, thc pcrson ruth- |css|y cngagcdon|yin cxact|ywhathc wants to do, oryou, who arc ob|igatcd` byyourconscicncc÷onccagain,I askyoutoimagincwhat you wou|d bc |ikc ilyou had no scvcnth scnsc. Butthis timc asyou cnvisionyourhugc inhucncc andwca|th, oryourpcrmancnt |cisurc withoutgui|t, imaginc itwhi|cbcaringinmindwhat conscicnccand on|y conscicncc can bring to a |ilc, what it ha brought to yours. Ficturc c|car|y thc lacc olsomconc you |ovc morc than a|| olyour carth|yposscssions,somconclorwhomyouwou|drunhcad|onginto a bumingbui|dingilthiswcrc rcquircd olyou÷a parcnt, a brothcr, asistcr, adcarlricnd,your|ilcpartncr,yourchi|d.1q topicturcthat samc lacc÷a parcnt`s, oradaughtcr's, ora son's÷wccping in gricl, orsmi|ingin pcaccandjoy. Andnow imaginc lora momcntthatyou cou|d |ooklorcvcrand lcc| abso|utc|y nothing, no |ovc, no dcsirc to hc|p or cvcn to smi|c back. Butdonotimagincthis carccningcmptincsstoo |ong,thoughit wou|d strctch throughout a |ilctimc il you wcrc a pcrson without conscicncc,somconcwhocou|d gui|t|css|yd�anythingat a||. Rathcr, rcturntoyourlcc|ings. Inyourmind, scc thclaccyou|ovc, touch a chcck, hcarthc |aughtcr. Conscicncc b|csscs our individua| |ivcs with just this kind ol mcaningcvcqday. Without it, wc wou|d bc cmotiona||yho||ow and borcd, and wou|d spcnd ourdays pursuing rcpctitivc gamcs olour ownmisguidcdcrcation. Formost ol us, most olthc timc, conscicncc is so ordinaq, so dai|y, and so spontancous thatwc do notcvcnnoticc it. But con- scicncc is a|so much |argcr than wc arc. It is onc sidc ol a con- Irontationbctwccnanancicntlactionolamora|sc|l-intcrcstthathas a|ways bccndoomcd, bothpsycho|ogica||y andspiritua||y, and acir- c|c olmora|mindsjustas agc|css. Aapsycho|ogistand as acitizcn ¯ 217 ¯ M.R T HA S T OUT ol thc spccics, I votc lor thc pcoplc with conscicncc, lor thc o ncs whoarc lovingandcommittcd, lorthc gcncrous and gcntlc souls. I ammost imprcsscdbythoscindividualswho lccl,quitcsimply, that hurtingothcrsiswrong' and thatkindncssisright, andwhoscactions arc quictlydircctcdbythismoral scnsc cvcqdayolthcirlivcs.1hcy arc an clitc olthcir own. 1hcy arc old and young. 1hcyarc pcoplc whohavc bccngonclorhundrcdsolycars andthcbabywhowillbc bomtomorrow.1hcycomclrom cvcqnation, culturc, and rcligion. 1hcyarc thc mostawarcand locuscd mcmbcrs olourspccics. �d thcyarc, andalwayshavcb ccn, ourhopc. ¬ ¬ 2)8 DO\CS Introduction: Imagine page 6 now thought to be present in about 4 percent of the population: See K. Barr et al. . "Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personalit in Adult Primar Care Patients, " Joural of Family Practice 45 ( 1997) : 151-158; R. Bland, S. Newman, and H. Om, "Lifetime Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Edmonton, " Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 77 ( 1988): 24-32; J. Samuels et aI., "DSM-III Personalit Disorders in the Communit, " American Joural of Psychiatr 151 ( 1994) : 1055-1062; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Serices, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Statistical Sourcebook ( Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Serices Administration, 1991) . page 6 Tis condition of missing conscience: For the past two hundred years, sociopathy, variously conceptualized, has been called by a variet of different names in the Western world. For a detailed discussion of the histor of such labels and diagnoses, see J Millon, E. Simonsen, and M. Birket-Smith, "Historical Conceptions of Psychopathy in the United States and Europe, " i n Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Volent Behavior, eds. T. Millon et al. ( New York: Guilford Press, 1998) . page 6 According to the curent bible of psychiatric labels: American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Association, 1994) . For detailed descriptions and critiques of ¯ 2)9 ¯ NOT E S the APA feld trials used to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria for antisocial personalit disorder, see W. Livesley, ed. , Te DSM-N Personality Disorders (New York: Guilford Press, 1995) . page 6 Other researchers and clinicians: See, for example, R. Hare, "Psychopathy: A Clinical Construct Whose Time Has Come," Criminal Justice and Behavior 23 ( 1996): 25-54. page 7 And sociopaths are noted especially: The accepted expression is "shallowness of emotion, " although in the case of sociopathy a more accurate description would be "absence of emotion. " page 8 As Î have detailed in case studies: M. Stout, Te Myth of Sanity: Divided Consciousness and the Promise of Awareness (New York: Viking Penguin, 2001) . page I2 Robert Hare: R. Hare et aI. , "The Revised Psychopathy thecklist: Descriptive Statistics, Reliabilit, and Factor Structure, " Psychological Assessment 2 ( 1990) : 338-341 . page I 2 Of his subjects. Hare: R. Hare, Without Conscience: Te Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us ( New York: Guilford Press, 1999), p. 207. page I2 And Hervey Cleckley: H. Cleckley, Te Mask of Sanity, 5th ed. (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1976) , p. 90. page I3 with its know relationship to behavior: For a review of research on problems associated with sociopathy, see D. Black and C. Larson, Bad Bos, Bad Men: Confonting Antisocial Personality Disorder ( Oxord: Oxord University Press, 2000) . See also D. Dutton, with S. Golant, The Batterer: A Psychological Profile (New York: Basic Books, 1995); G. Abel, J. Rouleau, and J. Cunningham-Rathner, "Sexually Aggessive Behavior, " in Forensic Psychiatr and Psychclogy, eds. J. Curran, A. McGarry, and S. Shah ( Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1986); L. Grossman and - 220 N OT E S J . Cavenaugh, "Psychopatholog and Denial in Alleged Sex Offenders," Joural of Nerous and Mental Disease 178 ( 1990): 739-744; J. Fox and J. Levin, Overkill: Mass Murder and Serial Killing Exposed (New York: Plenum Press, 1994); and R. Simon, Bad Men Do What Good ' Men Dream (Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Press, 1996). page I4 From nowhere, a line fom a thirty-year-old apocalyptic song: Black Sabbath, "Luke's WalVWar Pigs, " Paranoid. Warner Bros. Records, 1970. page I6 what nOelist ! Scott Fitzgerald: Fitzgerald, Tender Is the Night. Chapter I. Te Seventh Sense page 27 In the fourh centur, the Chritian scholar Saint Jerome: See G. Evans, Mediaeval Commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard ( Leiden, D. E. J. Brill, 2002) . page 27 Jerome' illustrious contemporar, Augustine of Hippo: See Augustine, Confessions, trans. H. Chadwick ( Oxord, OH: Oxford Press, 1998), and R. Saarinen, Weakness of the Will in Medieval Tought fom Augustine to Buridan ( Leiden, D. E. J. Brill, 1994) . page 28 A solution to the theological dilemm over conscience: See J McDermott, ed. , Summa Theologiae: A Concise Translation (Allen, Å. Thomas More, 1997); B. Kent, "Transitory Vice: Thomas Aquinas on Incontinence, " Te Joural of the Histor of Philosophy 27 ( 1989) : 199-223; and J Potts, Conscience in Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge Universit Press, 1980) . page 29 Freud proposed tbat i n tbe norl coure of development: See S. Freud, Te Ego and the Id, i n Te Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. J. Strachey (New York: Y Y Norton, 1990), and S. Freud, Civilisation and Its Discontents, in ibid. - 22) N OT E S Chapter 2 . Ice People: The Sociopaths page 44 Robert Hare writes: R. Hare, Without Conscience ! p. 208. page 45 Jane Goodall says the chimpanzees she obsered: J. Goodall, Trough a Window: My Thirty Yeat with the Chimpanzees of Gombe (New York: Houghton Miflin, 2000) , pp. 210-21 1 . Chapter Õ. Wen Normal Conscience Sleeps page 57 to borrow an expression fom Erin Staub: E. Staub, Te Roots of Evil: Te Origins of Genocide and Other Group V�lence (Ca�bridge: Cambridge Universit Press, 1989). See also E. Staub, "Ethnopolitical and Other Group Violence: Origins and Prevention ' :' in Ethnopolitical Watare: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions, eds. D. Chirot and M. Seligman (Washington, D. C. : American Psychological Association, 2001), and N. Smith, "The Psycho-Cultural Roots of Genocide, " Amercan Psychologist 53 ( 1998): 743-753. page 59 One explanation is our trancelike state: For descriptions and exam­ ples of dissociative states, see M. S�(ut, The Myth of Sanity. For a discussion of how dissociative phenomena may affect whole populations, see L. deMause, Te Emotional Life of Nations (New York: Karnac, 2002) . page 60 In 1VÚ1 and 1 VÚZ, i n New Haven, Connecticut: S. Milgram, "Behavioral Study of Obedience, " Joural of Abnoral and Social Psychology 67 ( 1963) : 371-378. See also S. Milgram, Obedience to Authorty: An Expermental Vew (New York: Perennial, 1983) , and J Blass, ed. , Obedience to Authority: Curent Perpectives on the Milgram Paradigm (Mahwah, NJ: Lwrence EribaumAssociates, 2000): page 65 Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall: S. Marshall, Men against Fire: Te Problem of Battle Command in Future War (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1978) , p. 30. 222 N OT E S page 66 In his book On Killing: D. Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learing to Kill in War and Society (Boston: Back Bay Books, 1996) , p. 2. page 66 A Peter Watson writes: P. Watson, War on the Mind: The Militar Uses and Abuses of Psychology (New York:, Basic Books, 1978) , p. 250. page 68 In contrast, research involving Vetnam veterans: J. Stellman and S. Stellman, "Post Traumatic Stress Disorders among American Legionnaires in Relation to Combat Experience: Associated and Contributing Factors, " Environmental Research 47 ( 1988) : 175-210. This research, involving 6, 810 randomly selected veter­ ans, examined the relationship between symptoms of PTSD and participation in the killing process, and was the frst study to quantif levels of combat. Chapter 9. Te Nicest Person in the World page 76 Doreen Littlefeld is what personality theorist Teodore Millon would call: Many people have tried to identif different kinds of so­ ciopaths. One of tne most interesting typologies is Theodore Millon's. Millon identifes ten subtpes of psyc�opathy: cov­ etous, unprincipled, disingenuous, risk-taking, spineless, explo­ sive, abrasive, malevolent, tyrannical. and malignant. He notes that "the number 10 is by no means special. . . . Taxonomies may be put forward at levels that are more coarse or more fne­ grained." Millon's taxonomy is detailed in J Millon and R. Davis, "Ten Subtpes of Psychopathy, " in psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Volent Behavior eds. T. Millon et al. on average only about ZÛ percent of prison inmates in the United States: See R. Hare, K. Strachan, and A. Forth, "Psychopathy and Crime: A Review, " in Clinical Approaches to Mentally Disordered Ofender, eds. K. Howells and C. Hollin (New York: Wiley, 1993) , and S. Hart and R. Hare, "Psychopathy: Assessment and - 223 ¯ N OT E S Association with Crimin�l Conduct, " in Handbook of Antisocial Behavior, eds. D. Stoff, ]. Breiling, and ]. Maser (New York: Wiley, 1997). Chapter 5. Wy Conscience Is Partially Blind page 90 Relatedly, people without conscience have an uncanny sense: See L. Robins, Deviant Children Grown Up: A Sociological and Psychiatric Study of Sociopathic Peronality ( Huntington, D¦ Krieger Publishing,, 1974) . page 93 Benja�in Wolman: B. Wolman, Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders fom Hostility to Homicide (Amherst, D¦ Prometheus Books, 1999), p. 136. page 99 We raise our children, especially girls: See D. Cox, S. Stabb, and K. Bruckner, Womens Anger: Clinical and Developmental Perspectives ( Philaddphia: Brunner-Routledge, 1999) ; L. Brown, Raising Teir Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard Universit Press, 1999), p. 166; L. Brown, "Educating the Resistance: Enc
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lraísc for ¨P fascinating, important book about what iii.:I Í good and bad people bad, and how good jt ()III( themselves from those others." \ ! s c c ì c ¡ a \ \ D C Y \ o c · ¡ 1 !t Ht1 !1t33 BR O ADWAY BO O KS Vt !3t3 1!t Ht 31 01 U3 Nartha 5tout !h · .1 NEW YO RK � Kä|âJWâÏ Ï!± bLL¡LlAÏ! M±XÏ ÍLLK. Copyright ©200â by Martha Stout. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. For information, address Broadway Books, a division of Random House, Inc. lK¡MÏ±Í ¡M Ï1± \MJÏ±Í bÏAϱb Lr AN±K¡LA ÜKLAÍWA1 ÜLLKb and its logo, a letter B bisected on the diagonal. are trademarks of Random House, Inc. Boo|1:s|g»çL||:nC|p·|ono ISBN 0-7394-âô74-ì For Steve Stout, my brother and the person I think of first when I think of strength of character The conscience of Û people is their power -]cIn DtyJen 011 contents Acknow|cdgmcnts / xi Author`s Motc / xiii Introduction: Imaginc / I 1hc Scvcnth Scnsc / I9 TWU 1!1 Icc Fcop|c: 1hc Sociopaths / J6 Whcn Morma| Conscicncc S|ccps / 52 |UUÝ |1Y 1hc Miccst Fcrson in thc Wor|d / 70 WhyConscicncc Is Fartia||yB|ind / 86 51T Mowto Rccognizcthc Rcmorsc|css l I0J 5tY 1hc Etio|ogoICui|t|cssncss: What CauscsSociopathyî l I 20 t1û h T ¼1¤ 1hc Sociopath Mcxt Ooor l I40 1hc Crigins oIConscicncc l I64 Tt¼ Bcrnic`sChoicc:WhyConscicncc IsBcttcr l I8I t1J'' ¯ CroundhogOay l I97 TWt1Yt Conscicncc in Its Furcst Form: ScicnccVotcs Ior Mora|i¡ l 209 Motcs l 2I 9 Indcx l 233 Æ acknowledgments Much of the time, the absorbing task of writing a book feels less like authoring and more like channeling, through your fngers and a key­ board, the lessons and inspiration of countless other people, wise friends known over many years and teachers disguised as students, patients, and colleagues. I wish I could go back in time and thank them all, and I take delight in this chance to thank the people who most helped and supported me during the year I wrote The Sociopath Next Door. For her commentary and utter indispensability, and her patience, I thank my friend and colleague Carol Kauffman, she of the legendar creativity at solving problems, whose generosit never skipped a beat, even though she was in the middle of writing Pivot Points. Because none of this would have been possible without her mov­ ing commitment to her mission, and for her having been always a deep well of grace, comprehension, and heart in a wide desert, I thank my agent and treasured friend, Susan Lee Cohen. If I had attempted to design the world's most superb editor, I could not have done nearly so well as Kristine Puopolo at Broadway Books, and I thank her for her intelligence, her precision, and her ex­ traordinary ability to be quietly right, always, without ever being in­ trusive. I thank Diane Wemyss for her caring and her organizing, and for having suggested one of the events I write about, and Elizabeth Haymaker for her charm across the miles. & XI ACKN OWL E DGM E NT S I thank Steve Stout and Darcy Wakefeld, for making me believe in love again. Once again-and always-I thank my remarkable parents, Eva Deaton Stout and Adrian Phillip Stout, for showing me just how much love and light two people of surpassing conscience can bring to the world. And with awe, and more love than I could have imagined before I knew her, I would like to thank my daughter, Amanda, my frst reader and my most insightful one. She has taught me, among so many other things, that kindness and integrit come with the soul. x|: author's note The descriptions in The Sociopath Next Door do not identif individ­ uals. At the ver heart of psychotherapy is the precept of confden­ tialit, and as usual I have taken the most exacting measures to preserve the privacy of all real persons. All names are fctitious, and all other recognizable features have been changed. Some individuals who appear in the book willingly gave their consent to be anony­ mously portrayed. In these cases, no information has been included that might in any way identify them. The story in the chapter entitled "Groundhog Day" is fction. Otherwise, the people, events, and conversations presented here are taken from my twenty-fve-year practice of psycholog. However, be­ cause of my commitment to confdentialit, the people and circum­ stances portrayed in these pages are composite in nature; that is to say, each case represents a great many individuals whose character­ istics and experiences have been adopted conceptually, carefully altered in their specifcs, and combined to form an illustrative char­ acter. Any resemblance of such a composite character to any actual person is entirely coincidental. xtít J1¨J0JJ!³J 01 + e 11ð_11t Minds difer still more than faces. ÷VcItuíre Í magine-if you can-not having a conscience, none at all, no feel­ ings of guilt or remorse no matter what you do, no limiting sense of concern for the well-being of strangers, friends, or even family members. Imagine no struggles with shame, not a single one in your whole life, no matter what kind of selfsh, laz, harmful, or immoral action you had taken. And pretend that the concept of responsibil­ ity is unknown to you, except as a burden others seem to accept without question, like gullible fools. Now add to this strange fantasy the abilit to conceal from other people that your psychological. makeup is radically different from theirs. Since everyone simply as­ sumes that conscience is universal among human beings, hiding the fact that you are conscience-free is nearly effortless. You are not held back from any of your desires by guilt or shame, and you are never confronted by others for your cold-bloodedness. The ice water in your veins is so bizarre, so completely outside of their personal ex­ perience, that they seldom even guess at your condition. MART HA ST OUT In other words, you are completely free of internal restraints, and your unhampered liberty to do just as you please, with no pangs of conscience, is conveniently invisible to the world. You can do anything at all, and still your strange advantage over the majorit of people, who are kept in line by their consciences, will most likely remain undiscovered. How will you live your life? What will you do with your huge and secret advantage, and with the corresponding handicap of other peo­ ple (conscience)? The answer will depend largely on just what your desires happen to be, because people are not all the same. Even the profoundly unscrupulous are not all the same. Some people­ whether they have a conscience or not-favor the ease of inertia, while others are flled with dreams and wild ambitions. Some human beings are brilliant and talented, some are dull-witted, and most, conscience or not, are somewhere in between. There are violent peo­ ple and nonviolent ones, individuals who are motivated by blood lust and those who have no such appetites. Maybe you are someone who craves money and power, and though you have no vestige of conscience, you do have a magnifcent IQ. You have the driving nature and the intellectual capacity to pur­ sue tremendous wealth and influence, and you are in no way moved by the nagging voice of conscience that prevents other people from doing everthing and anything they have to do to succeed. You choose business, politics, the law, banking, or international develop­ ment, or any of a broad array of other power professions, and you pursue your career with a cold passion that tolerates none of the usual moral or legal incumbrances. When it is expedient, you doctor the accounting and shred the evidence, you stab your employees and your clients (or your constituency) in the back, marr for money, tell lethal premeditated lies to people who trust you, attempt to ruin colleagues who are powerful or eloquent, and simply steamroll over groups who are dependent and voiceless. And all of this you do with ? T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR the exquisite freedom that results from having no conscience what­ soever. You become unimaginably, unassailably, and maybe even globally successful. Why not? With your big brain, and no conscience to rein in your schemes, you can do anything at all. Or no-let us say you are not quite such a person. You are am­ bitious, yes, and in the name of success you are willing to do all man­ ner of things that people with conscience would never consider, but you are not an intellectually gifted individual. Your intelligence is above average perhaps, and people think of you as smart, maybe even very smart. But you know in your heart of hearts that you do not have the cognitive wherewithal, or the creativity, to reach the careening heights of power you secretly dream about, and this makes you resentful of the world at large, and envious of the people around you. As this sort of person, you ensconce yourself in a niche, or maybe a series of niches, in which you can have some amount of control over small numbers of people. These situations satisfy a little of your desire for power, although you are chronically aggravated at not hav­ ing more. It chafes to be so free of the ridiculous inner voice that in­ hibits others from achieving great power, without having enough talent to pursue the ultimate successes yourself. Sometimes you fall into sulk, rageful moods caused by a frustration that no one but you understands. But you do enjoy jobs that afford you a certain undersupervised control over a few individuals or small groups, preferably people and groups who are relatively helpless or in some way vulnerable. You are a teacher or a psychotherapist, a divorce lawyer or a high school coach. Or maybe you are a consultant of some kind, a broker or a galler owner or a human services director. Or maybe you do not have a paid position and are instead the president of your condo­ minium association, or a volunteer hospital worker, or a parent. 3 MA RT H A ST OUT Whatever your job, you manipulate and bully the people who are un­ der your thumb, as often and as outrageously as you can without get­ ting fred or held accountable. You do this for its own sake, even when it seres no purpose except to give you a thrill. Making people jump means you have power-or this is the way you see it-and bul­ lying provides you with an adrenaline rush. It is fun. Maybe you cannot be the CEO of a multinational corporation, but you can frighten a few people, or cause them to scurry around like chickens, or steal from them, or-maybe best of all-create sit­ uations that cause them to feel bad about themselves. And this is power, especially when the people you manipulate are superior to you in some way. Most invigorating of all is to bring down people who are smarter or more accomplished than you, or perhaps classier, more attractive or popular or morally admirable. This is not only good fun; it is existential vengeance. And without a conscience, it is amazingly easy to do. You quietly lie to the boss or to the boss's boss, cr some crocodile tears, or sabotage a coworker's project, or gas­ light a patient (or a child), bait people with promises, or provide a little misinformation that will never be traced back to you. Or now let us say you are a person who has a proclivity for vio­ lence or for seeing violence done. You can simply murder your coworker, or have her murdered-or your boss, or your ex-spouse, or your wealthy lover's spouse, or anyone else who bothers you. You have to be careful, because if you slip up, you may be caught and punished by the system. But you will never be confronted by your conscience, because you have no conscience. If you decide to kill, the only diffculties will be the external ones. Nothing inside of you wil ever protest. Provided you are not forcibly stopped, you can do anything at all. If you are born at the right time, with some access to family fortune, and you have a special talent for whipping up other people's hatred and sense of deprivation, you can arrange to kill large numbers of unsuspecting people. With enough money, you can accomplish this 4 T H E S O C I OPAT H N E XT DOOR from far away, and you can sit back safely and watch in satisfaction. In fact, terrorism (done from a distance) is the ideal occupation for a person who is possessed of blood lust and no conscience, because if you do it just right, you may be able to make a whole nation jump. And if that is not power, what is? Or let us imagine the opposite extreme: You have no interest in power. To the contrar, you are the sort of person who really does not want much of anyhing. Your only real ambition is not to have to ex­ ert yourself to get by. You do not want to work like everone else does. Without a conscience, you can nap or pursue your hobbies or watch television or just hang out somewhere all day long. Living a bit on the fringes, and with some handouts from relatives and friends, you can do this indefnitely. People may whisper to one another that you are an underachiever, or that you are depressed, a sad case, or, in contrast, if they get angry, they may grumble that you are laz. When they get to know you better, and get really angry, they may scream at you and call you a loser, a bum. But it will never occur to them that you literally do not have a conscience, that in such a fun­ damental way, your ver mind is not the same as theirs. The panicked feeling of a guilty conscience never squeezes at your heart or wakes you in the middle of the night. Despite your lifestle, you never feel irresponsible, neglectful, or so much as em­ barrassed, although for the sake of appearances, sometimes you pre­ tend that you do. For example, if you are a decent observer of people and what they react to, you may adopt a lifeless facial expression, say how ashamed of your life you are, and talk about how rotten you feel. This you do only because it is more convenient to have people think you are depressed than it is to have them shouting at you all the time, or insisting that you get ûjob. You notice that people who do have a conscience feel guilt when they harangue someone they believe to be "depressed" or "troubled." Aa matter of fact, to your further advantage, they often feel obliged to take care of such a person. If, despite your relative povert, you § MART HA S T OUT can manage to get yourself into a sexual relationship with someone, this person-who does not suspect what you are really like-may feel particularly obligated. And since all you want is not to have to work, your fnancier does not have to be especially rich, just reliably conscience-bound. I trust that imagining yourself as any of these people feels insane to you, because such people are insane, dangerously so. Insane but real-they even have a label. Many mental health professionals refer to the condition of little or no conscience as "antisocial personality disorder," a noncorrectable disfgurement of character that is now thought to be present in about 4 percent of the population-that is to say, one in twent-fve people. This condition of missing con­ science is called by other names, too, most often "sociopathy, " or the somewhat more familiar term, psychopathy. Guiltlessness was in fact the frst personality disorder to be recognized by psychiatry, and terms that have been used at times over the past centur include manie sans d€lire, psychopathic inferiority, moral insanity, and moral im­ becility. According to the current bible of psychiatric labels, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Í of the American Psychiatric Association, the clinical diagnosis of "antiso­ cial personalit disorder" should be considered when an individual possesses at least three of the following seven characteristics: ¦ I ) failure to conform to social norms; (2) deceitfulness, manipulative­ ness; (3) impulsivit, failure to plan ahead; (4) irritabilit, aggres­ siveness; ¦ 5) reckless disregard for the safet of self or others; ¦ 6) consistent irresponsibility; ¦7)lack of remorse after having hurt, mis­ treated, or stolen from another person. The presence in an individ­ ual of any three of these "symptoms," taken together, is enough to make many psychiatrists suspect the disorder. Other researchers and clinicians, many of whom think the APAs defnition describes simple "criminality" better than true "psychopa­ thy" or "sociopathy, " point to additional documented characteristics 5 T HE S O C I OPAT H N E XT DOOR of sociopaths as a group. One of the more frequently observed of these traits is a glib and superfcial charm that allows the true so­ ciopath to seduce other people, fguratively or literally-a kind of glow or charisma that, initially, can make the sociopath seem more charming or more interesting than most of the normal people around him. He or she is more spontaneous, or more intense, or somehow more "complex," or sexier, or more entertaining than everone else. Sometimes this "sociopathic charisma" is accompa­ nied by a grandiose sense of self-worth that may be compelling at frst, but upon closer inspection may seem odd or perhaps laughable. ("Someday the world will realize how special I am," or "You know that after me, 'no other lover will do,") In addition, sociopaths have a greater than normal need for stim­ ulation, which results in their taking frequent social, physical, fnan­ cial, or legal risks. Characteristically, they can charm others into attempting dangerous ventures with them, and as a group they are known for their pathological lying and conning, and their parasitic relationships with "friends. " Regardless of how educated or highly placed as adults, they may have a histor of early behavior problems, sometimes including drug use or recorded juvenile delinquency, and always including a failure to acknowledge responsibility for any prob­ lems that occurred. And sociopaths are noted especially for their shallowness of emo­ tion, the hollow and transient nature of any afectionate feelings they may claim to have, a certain breathtaking callousness. They have no trace of empathy and no genuine interest in bonding emo­ tionally with a mate. Once the surface charm is scraped off, their marriages are loveless, one-sided, and almost always short-term. If a marriage partner has any value to the sociopath, it is because the partner is viewed as a possession, one that the sociopath may feel an­ _Q to lose, but never sad or accountable. All of these characteristics, along with the "symptoms" listed by the American Psychiatric Association, are the behavioral manifesta- 7 MARTHA STOUT tions of what is for most of us an unfathomable psychological con­ dition, the absence of our essential seventh sense-conscience. Crazy, and frightening-and real, in about 4 percent of the pop­ ulation. But what does 4 percent really mean to society? As points of ref­ erence to problems we hear about more often, consider the follow­ ing statistics: The prevalence rate for anorexic eating disorders is estimated at 3.43 percent, deemed to be nearly epidemic, and yet this fgure is a fraction lower than the rate for antisocial personality. The high-profle disorders classed as schizophrenia occur in only about I percent of us-a mere quarter of the rate of antisocial per­ sonalit-and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say that the rate of colon cancer in the United States, considered "alarmingly high," is about 40 per 100, 000-one hundred times lower than the rate of antisocial personality. Put more succinctly, there are more sociopaths among us than people who suffer from the much-publicized disorder of anorexia, four times as many sociopaths as schizophrenics, and one hundred times as many sociopaths as people diagnosed with a known scourge such as colon cancer. A a therapist, I specialize in the treatment of psychological trauma survivors. Over the last twent-fve years, my practice has in­ cluded hundreds of adults who have been in psychological pain every day of their lives on account of early childhood abuse or some other horrendous past experience. ^ I have detailed in case studies in The Myth of Sanity, my trauma patients sufer from a host of torments, including chronic anxiety, incapacitating depression, and dissocia­ tive mental states, and, feeling that their time on earth was unbear­ able, many of them have come to me after recovering from attempts to commit suicide. Some have been traumatized by natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes and wars, but most of them have been controlled and psychologically shattered by individual human perpetrators, often sociopaths-sometimes sociopathic strangers, but more tpically sociopathic parents, older relatives, or $ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR siblings. In helping my patients and their families cope with the harm done to their lives, and in studying their case histories, I have learned that ' the damage caused by the sociopaths among us is deep and lasting, ofen tragically lethal, and startlingly common. Working with hundreds of surivors, I have become convinced that dealing openly and directly with the facts about sociopathy is a matter of ur­ gency for us all. About one in twent-fve individuals are sociopathic, meaning, essentially, that they do not have a conscience. It is not that this group fails to grasp the diference between good and bad; it is that the distinction fails to limit their behavior. The intellectual difference between right and wrong does not bring on the emotional sirens and flashing blue lights, or the fear of God, that it does for the rest of us. Without the slightest blip of guilt or remorse, one in twenty-fve peo­ ple can do anything at all. The high incidence of sociopathy in human societ has a pro­ found efect on the rest of us who must live on this planet, too, even those of us who have not been clinically traumatized. The individu­ als who constitute this 4 percent drain our relationships, our bank accounts, our accomplishments, our self-esteem, our ver peace on earth. Yet surprisingly, many people know nothing about this disorder, or if they do, they think only in terms of violent psychopa­ thy-murderers, serial killers, mass murderers-people who have con­ spicuously broken the law many times over, and who, if caught, will be imprisoned, maybe even put to death by our legal system. We are not commonly aware of, nor do we usually identif, the larger num­ ber of nonviolent sociopaths among us, people who often are not blatant lawbreakers, and against whom our formal legal system pro­ vides little defense. Most of us would not imagine any correspondence between con­ ceiving an ethnic genocide and, say, guiltlessly lying to one's boss about a coworker. But the psychological correspondence is not only there; it is chilling. Simple and profound, the link is the absence of 9 MART HA ST OUT the inner mechanism that beats up on us, emotionally speaking, when we make a choice we view as immoral, unethical, neglectful, or selfsh. Most of us feel mildly guilt if we eat the last piece of cake in the kitchen, let alone what we would feel if we intentionally and methodically set about to hurt another person. Those who have no conscience at all are a group unto themselves, whether they be homi­ cidal trants or merely ruthless social snipers. The presence or absence of conscience is a deep human division, arguably more signifcant than intelligence, race, or even gender. What differentiates a sociopath who lives off the labors of others from one who occasionally robs convenience stores, or from one who is a contemporary robber baron�or what makes the diference be­ tween an ordinary bully and a sociopathic murderer-is nothing more than social status, drive, intellect, blood lust, or simple oppor­ tunity. What distinguishes all of these people from the rest of us is an utterly empty hole in the psyche, where there should be the most evolved of all humanizing functions. For something like 96percent of us, conscience is so fundamen­ tal that we seldom even think a bout it. For the most part, it acts like a reflex. Unless temptation is extremely great (which, thankfully, on a day-to-day basis it usually is not), we by no means reflect on each and every moral question that comes our way. We do not seriously ask ourselves, Shall I give my child lunch money today, or not? Shall I steal my coworker's briefcase today, or not? Shall I walk out on my spouse today, or not? Conscience makes all of these decisions for us, so quietly, automatically, and continually that, in our most creative flights of imagination, we would not be able to conjure the image of an existence without conscience. And so, naturally, when someone makes a truly conscienceless choice, all we can produce are explana­ tions that come nowhere near the truth: She forgot to give lunch money to her child. That person's coworker must have misplaced her briefcase. That person's spouse must have been impossible to live with. Or we come up with labels that, provided we do not inspect too ¬ )0 T H E S OCIO PAT H N E XT D OOR closely, almost explain another person's antisocial behavior: He is "eccentric, " or "artistic, " or "really competitive, " or "laz, " or "clue­ less, " or "always such a rogue. " Except for the psychopathic monsters we sometimes see on tele­ vision, whose actions are too horrifc to explain away, conscienceless people are nearly always invisible to us. We are keenly interested in how smart we are, and in the intelligence level of other people. The smallest child can tell the difference between a girl and a boy. We fght wars over race. But as to what is possibly the single most mean­ ingul characteristic that divides the human species-the presence or absence of conscience-we remain effectively oblivious. Ver few people, no matter how educated they are in other ways, know the meaning of the word sociopathic. Far less do they under­ stand that, in all probability, the word could be properly applied to a handful of people they actually know. And even after we have learned the label for it, being devoid of conscience is impossible for most human beings to fantasize about. In fact, it is diffcult to think of another experience that quite so eludes empathy. Total blindness, clinical depression, profound cognitive defcit, winning the lottery, and a thousand other extremes of human experience, even psy­ chosis, are accessible to our imaginations. We have all been lost in the dark. We have all been somewhat depressed. We have all felt stu­ pid, at least once or twice. Most of us have made the mental list of what we would do with a windfall fortune. And in our dreams at night, our thoughts and our images are deranged. But not to care at all about the effects of our actions on society, on friends, on family, on our children? What on earth would that be like? What would we do with ourselves? Nothing in our lives, waking or sleeping, informs us. The closest we come, perhaps, is the experi­ ence of being in so much physical pain that our abilit to reason or act is temporarily paralyzed. But even in pain there is guilt. Absolute guiltlessness defes the imagination. Conscience is our omniscient taskmaster, setting the rules for our ~ ]] « MAR T HA S T OUT actions and meting out emotional punishments when we brea�the rules. We never asked for conscience. It is just there, all the time, like skin or lungs or heart. In a manner of speaking, we cannot even take credit. And we cannot imagine what we would feel like without it. Guiltlessness is uniquely confusing as a medical concept, too. Quite unlike cancer, anorexia, schizophrenia, depression, or even the other "character disorders," such as narcissism, sociopathy would seem to have a moral aspect. Sociopaths are almost invariably seen as bad or diabolical, even by (or perhaps especially by) mental health professionals, and the sentiment that these patients are somehow morally offensive and scar comes across vividly in the literature. Robert Hare, a professor of psycholog at the University of B ritish Columbia, has developed an inventor called the Psychopathy Checklist, now accepted as a standard diagnostic instrument for re­ searchers and clinicians worldwide. Of his subjects, Hare, the dis­ passionate scientist, writes, "Everone, including the experts, can be taken in, manipulated, conned, and left bewildered by them. A good psychopath can play a concerto on anyones heartstrings . . . . Your best defense is to understand the nature of these human predators." And Hervey Cleckley, author of the I94I classic text Te Mask of Sanity, makes this complaint of the psychopath: "Beaut and ugli­ ness, except in a ver superfcial sense, goodness, evil, love, horror, and humor have no actual meaning, no power to move him. " The argument can easily be made that "sociopathy" and "antiso­ cial personalit disorder" and "psychopathy" are misnomers, reflect­ ing an unstable mix of ideas, and that the absence of conscience does not really make sense as a psychiatric category in the frst place. In this regard, it is crucial to note that all of the other psychiatric di­ agnoses (including narcissism) involve some amount of personal dis­ tress or miser for the individuals who sufer from them. Sociopathy stands alone as a "disease" that causes no dis-ease for the person who has it, no subjective discomfort. Sociopaths are often quite satisfed with themselves and with their lives, and perhaps for this ver reason ¬ ] ? T H E S O CIOPATH NE XT D O O R there is no effective "treatment. " Typically, sociopaths enter therapy only when they have been court-referred, or when there is some sec­ ondary gain to be had from being a patient. Wanting to get better is seldom the true issue. All of this begs the question of whether the absence of conscience is a psychiatric disorder or a legal designa­ tion-or something else altogether. Singular in its ability to unnerve even seasoned professionals, the concept of sociopathy comes perilously close to our notions of the soul, of evil versus good, and this association makes the topic diff­ cult to think about clearly. And the unavoidable them-versus-us na­ ture of the problem raises scientifc, moral, and political issues that boggle the mind. How does one scientifcally study a phenomenon that appears to be, in part, a moral one? Who should receive our pro­ fessional help and support, the "patients" or the people who must endure them? Since psychological research is generating ways to "di­ agnose" sociopathy, whom should we test? Should anyone be tested for such a thing in a free societ? And if someone has been clearly identifed as a sociopath, what, if anything, can societ do with that information? No other diagnosis raises such politically and profes­ sionally incorrect questions, and sociopathy, with its known relation­ ship to behaviors ranging from spouse battering and rape to serial murder and warmongering, is in some sense the last and most fright­ ening psychological frontier. Indeed, the most unnerving questions are seldom even whis­ pered: Can we say for sure that sociopathy does not work for the in­ dividual who has it? Is sociopathy a disorder at all, or is it functional? Just as unwelcome is the uncertainty on the fip side of that coin: Does conscience work for the individual, or group, who has it? Or is conscience, as more than one sociopath has implied, simply a psy­ chological corral for the masses? Whether we speak them out loud or not, doubts like these implicitly loom large on a planet where for thousands of years, and right up to the present moment, the most universally famous names have always belonged to those who could " ]3 " MART HA ST OUT manage to be amoral on a large-enough scale. And in our present­ day culture, using other people has become almost trendy, and un­ conscionable business practices appear to yield unlimited wealth. On a personal level, most of us have examples from our own lives in which someone unscrupulous has won, and there are times when having integrit begins to feel like merely playing the fool. Is it the case that cheaters never prosper, or is it true, after all, that nice guys fnish last? Will the shameless minorit really inherit the earth? Such questions reflect a central concern of this book, a theme that occurred to me just after the catastrophes of September I I, 200!, propelled all people of conscience into anguish, and some into despair. I am usually an optimistic person, but at that time, along with a number of other psychologists and students of human nature, I feared that my country and many others would fall into hate-flled conflicts and vengeful wars that would preoccupy us for many years to come. From nowhere, a line from a thirty-year-old apocalyptic song invaded my thoughts whenever I tried to relax or sleep: "Satan, laughing, spreads his wings. " The winged Satan in my mind's eye, roaring with cynical laughter and rising from the wreckage, was not a terrorist, but a demonic manipulator who used the terrorists' acts to ignite the kindling of hatred all over the globe. I became interested in my particular topic of sociopathy versus conscience during a phone conversation with a colleague of mine, a good man who is normally upbeat and full of encouragement but who was at that moment stunned and demoralized along with the rest of the world. We were discussing a mutual patient whose suici­ dal symptoms had become alarmingly worse, apparently on account of the disasters in the United States (and who has improved a great deal since then, I am relieved to report). My colleague was saying how guilt he felt because he was torn apart himself and might not have the usual amount of emotional energ to give to the patient. This extraordinarily caring and responsible therapist, overwhelmed ~ ]4 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR by events, like everyone else, believed he was being remiss. In the middle of judging himself, he stopped, sighed, and said to me in a weary voice highly uncharacteristic of him, "You know, sometimes I wonder, Why have a conscience? It just puts you on the losing team. " I was very much taken aback by his question, mostly because cynicism was so unlike this man's usual hale and heart frame of mind. After a moment, I replied with another question. I said, "So tell me, Bernie. If you had a choice, I mean really, literally had a choice in the matter-which you don't, of course-would you choose to have a conscience like you do, or would you prefer to be sociopathic, and capable of . . . well, anything at all?" He considered this and said, "You're right" (although I had not meant to imply telepathy). 'Td choose to have a conscience. " "Why? " I pressed him. There was a pause and then a long, drawn-out "Well . . . " Finally, he said, "You know, Martha, I don't know why. I just know I'd choose conscience. " And maybe I was thinking too wishfully, but it seemed to me that after he made this statement, there was a subtle change in Berie's voice. He sounded slightly less defeated, and we started to talk about what one of our professional organizations planned to do for the people in New York and Washington. After that conversation, and for a very long time, I remained in­ trigued by my colleague's question, "Why have a conscience?" and by his preference to be conscience-bound rather than conscience-free, and by the fact that he did not know why he would make this choice. A moralist or a theologian might well have answered, "Because it's right, " or "Because I want to be a good person." But my friend the psychologist could not give a psychological answer. I feel strongly that we need to know the psychological reason. Especially now, in a world that seems ready to self-destruct with global business scams, terrorism, and wars of hatred, we need to hear why, in a psychological sense, being a person of conscience is - ]§ * MARTHA STOUT preferable to being a person unfettered by guilt or remorse. In part, this book is my answer, as a psychologist, to that question, "Why have a conscience? " To get to the reasons, I frst discuss people who are without conscience, the sociopaths-how they behave, how they feel-so that we can look more meaningfully into the value, for the other 96percent of us, of possessing a trait that can be aggravating, painful, and-yes, it is true-limiting. What follows is a psycholo­ gist's celebration of the still small voice, and of the great majority of human beings who fnd themselves graced with a conscience. It is a book for those of us who cannot imagine any other way to live. The book is also my attempt to warn good people about "the so­ ciopath next door, " and to help them cope. As a psychologist and as a person, I have seen far too many lives nearly obliterated by the choices and acts of a conscienceless few. These few are both dan­ gerous and remarkably diffcult to identify. Even when they are not physically violent-and especially when they are familiar and close to us-they are all too capable of mangling individual lives, and of mak­ ing human societ as a whole an unsafe place to be. To my mind, this dominance over the rest of us by people who have no conscience at all constitutes an especially widespread and appalling example of what novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald referred to as "the tranny of the weak. " And I believe that all people of conscience should learn what the everyday behavior of these people looks like, so they can recog­ nize and deal effectively with the morally weak and the ruthless. Where conscience is concerned, we seem to be a species of ex­ tremes. We have only to turn on our televisions to see this bewilder­ ing dichotomy, to encounter images of people on their hands and knees rescuing a puppy from a drainage pipe, followed by reports of other human beings slaughtering women and children and stacking the corpses. And in our ordinary daily lives, though perhaps not so dramatically, we see the contrasts just as plentifully. In the morning, someone cheerfully goes out of her way to hand us the ten-dollar bill - )5 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR that we dropped, and in the afternoon, another person, gnnnmg, goes out of his way to cut us of in traffc. Given the radically contradictory behavior we witness ever day, we must talk openly about both extremes of human personalit and behavior. To create a better world, we need to understand the nature of people who routinely act against the common good, and who do so with emotional impunit. Only by seeking to discover the nature of ruthlessness can we fnd the many ways people can triumph over it, and only by recognizing the dark can we make a genuine affrma­ tion of the light. It is my hope that this book will play some part in limiting the so­ ciopath's destructive impact on our lives. A individuals, people of conscience can learn to recognize "the sociopath next door," and with that knowledge work to defeat his entirely self-interested aims. At the very least, they can protect themselves and their loved ones from his shameless maneuverings. * ]} * the seventh sense �. ��/C . Vrtue is not the absence of vices or tb€avoidance of moral dangers; virtue is a vivid and separate thing, like pain or a particular smell. -G. K. Chesterton J his morning, |oc, athirty-ycar-old attomcy, isrunninghvc min- utcslatcIor ancxtrcmclyimportantmcctingthat,with orwith- out him, will start promptlyatcight o`clock. Mc nccdsto kccp up a good imprcssionwiththc morc scnior mcmbcrs oIhis hrm, which mcansjustaboutcvcqbody, andhcwouldlikctohavcthchrstword with thcsc wcalthy clicnts, whosc conccrns includc |oc`s budding spccial¡oIcstatc planning. Mc has bccn prcparing his agcnda Ior days bccauschcIcclsthcrcis alotatstakc, and hcvcqmuchwants to bc in thc conIcrcncc room atthc start oIthc mccting. \nIortunatcly, thcIurnaccin|oc`stownhouscsuddcnlystoppcd makinghcat inthc middlc oIthc night. Frcczingand pacing, aIraid thc pipcs would burst, hc hadtowaitIorthc cmcrgcncyrcpairman IromthcIuclcompanybcIorchccouldlcavcIorworkthis morning. Whcnthcmanshowcdup,|oclcthiminandthcn, dcspcratctogct tothcmccting, abandoncdhiminthctow:housctomthcIumacc, hoping thc Icllow would provc rcasonablyhoncst. At last, |oc was " ) 9 " MAR T HA S T OUT ablc to racc to his Audi and sct otI Ior thc oIhcc, but with only twcn¡-hvc minutcs lcItto makc athir¡-minutc drivc. Mc rcsolvcd to bcndthc rulcs alittlc andmakcupthctimc. Mow|ocisspccdingalongaIamiliarroutctowork, clcnchinghis tccthandswcaringundcrhisbrcathatthcslowdrivcrs,atallthcdriv- crs rcally. Mcrcintcrprcts acouplcoIrcd lights, passcsa linc oItraI- hc by usingthc brcakdown lanc, and clings Iranticallyto thc hopc that hc can somchowmakc it to thc oIhcc by8.00.Whcn hc hits thrccgrccnlightsina row, hcthinksthathcmayjustsuccccd.With hisrighthand, hcrcachcs ovcrtotouchthcovcrnightbaginthc pas- scngcr's scat, to rcassurchimsclIthathc rcmcmbcrcdto bringit. In additiontocvcqthingclsc, hc hastocatch a I0. I5 planc to Mcw Yorkthis morning, atripIorthchrm, andthcrcwillccrtainlynotbc timcaItcrthcmcctingtogobackhomcIorhisthings. Mishandcon- tactsthccushionylcathcroIthcbag÷itisthcrc andpackcd. And at this vcq momcnt, |oc rcmcmbcrs. Mc Iorgot to Iccd Rccbok. Rccbok is|oc`sthrcc-ycar-old blond Labradorrctricvcr, so namcdbccausc, bcIorc hcgottoobusyatthchrm,|ocuscdtotakc carly-moning runswith his cnthusiastic ncwpct. Whcnworktook ovcrandthcmomingroutincchangcd,|ocIcnccdinthcsmallback- yard and installcd a doggdoor in thc bascmcnt, allowingthc dog solo acccss to thc outsidc. Atthis point, runs togcthcr in thc park arc wcckcnds only. But cxcrcisc or not, Rccbok consumcs scvcral pounds oIScicncc Oictcvcqwcck, alongwithahugc assortmcntoI lchovcrhumanIoodandatlcastoncIullboxoIjumbobonctrcats. 1hcyoung dog`s appctitc is stupcndous, and hc sccms to livc quitc happilyIortwo plcasurcsalonc-histimcwith|oc, andhisIood. |oc got Rccbokas a puppy, bccauscwhcn|ocwas a boy, his Ia- thcrwouldnot lct himhavc apct, and hc had vowcd to himsclIthat whcn hc was grown up and succcssIul, hcwould havc a dog, a big onc.Athrst,RccbokhadbccnnotvcrydiûcrcntIromthcAudi,an- othcracquisition, amarkcroI|oc`sindcpcndcnccandmatcrialpros- pcri¡. Butsoon|ochadIallcn inlovcwiththc animalhimsclI. Mow - 20 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR cou|d hc notî Rccbokadorcd|oc unconditiona||y, and Irom puppy- hood hadIo||owcdhimaroundthchouscasiI|ocwcrcthcccntcroI a||thatwasgoodinthcunivcrsc.Ahispuppygrcwto doghood, |oc rca|izcdthatthis crcaturc had asdistinctand individua| apcrsona|- i¡asanyhumanbcing, andthathis|iquidbrowncycscontaincd at |castasmuchsou|. Mow,whcncvcr|oc|ooksintothosccycs, Rccbok wrink|cs his soIt bcigc browinto scvcra| Io|dcd-carpct Iurrows and starcsback. Inthisway, thcswcct,ungain|ydogappcarsprctcrnatu- ra||ythoughtIu|, as iIhc canrcad|oc`s mindand is conccmcd. Somctimcswhcnthcrc is a busincsstrip, |ikc today, |oc isgonc IromhomcIoradayandaha|I, orcvcna|itt|c|ongcr, andcachtimc hc comcs back, Rccbok grccts him at thc door with boundingjoy and instantancous Iorgivcncss. BcIorc hc takcs onc oI thcsc trips, |oc a|ways |cavcs |argc mbing bow|s Iu|| oI Iood and watcr Ior Rccbokto consumc in his abscncc, which Rccbok docs casi|y. But thistimc, bctwccnthcIurnaccprob|cmandhispanicaboutthc8:00 mccting,|ocIorgot.1hc doghasnoIoodandmaybccvcnnowatcr, and no way to gct any unti| tomorrow cvcning, whcn |oc rcturns Iromhistrip. Maybc I can ca|| somconc to hc|p out, |oc thinks dcspcratc|y. Butno. Hcisbctwccngir|Iricndsatprcscnt,andso no onchasakcy to his housc. 1hcimpossibi|i¡oIhissituationbcginsto dawn onhim,andhc gripsthcstccringwhcc|cvcnhardcr. Hc abso|utc|ymustmakcthis_ mccting, and hc can bc thcrc on timc iI hc just kccps going. But whatabout Rccbokî Hcwi||not starcto dcathina dayand aha|I, |ocknows, buthcwi||bc miscrab|c÷andthcwatcr-how|ongdocs ittakcan anima|to dicoIdchydrationî|ochasnoidca. Sti||driving asIastasthctraIhcw bcar, hctricstothinkabouthisoptions.1hc avai|ab|c choiccs tumb|c ovcr onc anothcr in a rush. Hc can attcnd thc 8:00 mcctingand thcn go homc and Iccdthc dog, butthatwi|| makc him miss his I0:Ió IÍight, andthctrip iscvcn morc important thanthcmccting. Hc cangotothc mcctingand|cavc in thcmidd|c. - 2) MA RT H, A S T OUT Mo, thatwouldbc sccnasoûcnsivc. Mc cantryto gcta latcrhight, butth�n hcwillbcvcqlatcIor1is appointmcnt in McwYork, may cvcnmissitcntircly, whichcouldcosthimhisjob. Mccanignorcthc doguntiltomorrow. Mccanturnaroundnow, missthc8.00mccting at thc hrm, takc carc oIthc dog, and sti|lmakc it to thc airpon I�r his I0. I5hight. Likcamaninpain,|ocmoansloud|yandslumpsinhisscat.|ust a Icw blocks Irom work, hc pulls thc carinto a spot markcd CON­ STRUCTION ONLY, dialsthcoIhcc onhisccllphonc, andtcllsasccrc- · tary!o inIorm thosc at thc morning mccting that hc will not bc ¸ attcnding. Hcturnsthc cararound andgocs homcto Iccd Rccbok. ´ i hat ¡s Conscicncc: Amazingly, Irom a ccrtain point oIvicw, thc human bcingwc arc calling |oc dccidcs to bc abscnt Irom an important mccting with somc wcalthy clicnts, an cvcnt hc has spcnt scvcral days pl ¿ nning Ior, andwhcrc hispcrsonalintcrcstsquitcclcarly rcsidc. Athrst, hc docscvcrythinghc cantogcttothc mcctingontimc, riskingallthc ¸¸ posscssions inhistownhouscto a rcpairmanhc hasncvcrmct bc- Iorc, andhisownphysicalsaIc¡inhiscar.Andthcn,atthcvcqlast minutc, hcturns around and gocs homc to Iccd a dog, a guilclcss, wordlcsscrcaturcwhocouldnotcvcnsomuchasrcprovc|oclortg- noringhim. |oc sacrihccs ahigh-stakcs dcsircoIhisownin lavoroI an actionthatno onc willwitncss ¦ cxccpt maybc thc rcpairman) , a choiccthatwillnot cnrichhimbycvcnonc pcnny. hatcouldpos� siblycauscayoung, ambitiouslawycrto dosuchathingî , · Mostrcadcrswillsmilcalittlcwhcn|octurnshiscararound. c � � IcclplcascdwithhimIorgoingbackto Iccdhisdog. Butwhya�cwc plcascdî Is|oc actingoutoIconscience? Isthiswhatwc mcanwhcn wc makc an approving rcmark about somconc's bchavior, such as ¨Hisconsci�nce stoppcdhim'î ¬ ¬ 22 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R What is this invisible, inescapable, ftusttatingly incottuptible pattofuswe call¨conscience, ¨ anyway? Thequestionisacomplicatedone,evenasitpettainstothesim- plevignetteabout]oeandReebok,because,sutptisingly,theteatea numbetofmotivationsothetthanconsciencethat,sepatatelyotto- gethet,mightcause]oe-mightcauseanyofus-tomakeanappat- euself-sactincingchoice.Fotexample,pethaps]oesimplycannot stomachthethoughtoftetumingftomhis NewYotkttipto nnd a Labtadot tettievet dehydtated and dead on hiskitchenßoot Not knowinghowlongadogcansutvivewithoutwatet,heisunwillingto takethetisk, buthisavetsiontothehotti(ingscenatioisnotxactly conscience Itissomethingmoteliker �vulsionotfeat. ¯ ,´ Otmaybe]oe is motivated bywhatthe neighbotswillthinkif theyheatReebokhowlinginhunget,ot,wotse,iftheyleatnthedog hasdied,aloneandttapped,while]oewasonabusinessttip. How willhe evetexplainhimselfto his ftiends and acquaintances?This wotgisnotteally]oesconscience,eithet,buttathethisanticipation ofsetiousembattassmentandsocialte]ection.Ifthisiswhy]oegoes back home to feed his dog, he is hatdlythe ntst human being to makeadecisionbasedonthedteadofwhatothetswillthinkofhim, tathetthanonwhathemight doifhewetesutehis actionswould temainacompletesectet.The opinions ofothetpeople keepusall inline,atguablybettetthananythingelse Otmaybethisisallamattetoftheway]oeseeshimself.Pethaps ]oedoesnotwanttoviewhimself,inhisownmindseye,asthekind ofwtetchwhowouldcommitanimalabuse, andhisself-imageasa decentpetsonis ctucialenoughtohimthat,whenhehasnoothet altetnative,hew fotgoanimpottantmeetinginthesetviceofpte- seting that image. This is an especially plausible explanation fot ]oesbehaviotTheptesetvationofself-imageisamotivatotofsome nototieg.Inlitetatuteandoftenl�histoti�alaccountsofhumanac- tion, dedicationto one'sownself-te�td is tefetted to as °honot. ° Liveshavebeenfotfeited,�atsha��beenfoughtovet¨honot.° Itis ¬ 23 " MAR T HA S T OUT anancientconcem.Andinthemodetnneldofpsycholog,howwe viewoutselves ttanslatesto the newet concept of¨self-esteem,¨ a sub]ectaboutwhichmotepsychologbookshave beenwtittenthan pethapsanyothetsi�gletopic. I Maybe]oeiswillingtotelinquishafewcateetpointstodayinot- dettofeelokaywhenhelooksathimselfinthemittottomottow, in otdettotemain¨honotable¨inhisowneyes Thiswouldbelaudable andvetyhuman-butitisnotcouscience. The inttiguingttuth ofthe mattet isthatmuch ofwhatwe do thatlookslike conscience is motivated bysome othetthingalto- gethet-feat, social ptessute, ptide, even simple habit. Andwhete ]oe is concetned, anumbetofteadetswillsttongly1avotanexpla- nationothetthanconscience because someofhisbehaviotsateal- teady questionable. He toutinely leaves his young dog alone fot many houts at a time, sometimes fot neatly two days. This veg moming,thoughheisskippinghismeetingandgoinghometofeed thedog,hestillintendstomakethatI0:Ióßightandbegoneuntil the following evening. Reebok will have no one to be with, and nowhetetogoexceptasmallfenced-inbac|atd . Consigningadog tosuchasituationisnotvegnice-itteßects,atbest,acettainlack ofempathyon]oespattfottheanimals social needs. Still,ttuthtotell,beingnicewouldnotnecessatilybeconscience, eithet. Fot btiefpetiods, anyteasonably clevet sociopath can act withsaintlikenicenessfothisownmanipulativeputposes.Andpeo- plewhodopossessconscienceateoftenunkinddespitethemselves, outofignoranceot,asin]oe'scasepethaps,inadequateempathy,ot ]usttun-of-the-millpsychologicaldenia| { ·Ç Nicebehaviot,ptudentaction,thoughtsabouthowothetpeople . -·. ��·=-- ~- ` will teact to us, honotable conduct in the intetest of out self- tegatd-like conscience, all ofthese have a positive effect onthe wotldatleastmostofthetime,andanyotallofthemmightgetthe dogfeds,times,butnonecanbedennedastheindividualscon- science.ThìsÌs becauseconscienceisnotabehaviotata!l,¸ not some- 24 m T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R thing that we do ot even something that we think ot mull ovet. Conscienceissomethin� tha � �� j \ Inothetwotds,conscienceis e ehaviotaln�tcognitive. Conscienceexists ptimatilyinthe tealmof¨affect, ¨ bettetknownas . emotion . To clati(this disti n ction, letus take anothetlookat]oe. Heis notalwaysnicetohisdog,butdoeshehaveaconscience?Whatev- idence would cause, say, a psychologist to decide that, when ]oe passeduphismeetingandwenthometotescueReebok,hewasact- ing out of conscience tathet than because ofwhat othet people wouldthink, otto ptesetve hisownself-image, otmaybe ftomthe notewotthynnancialconsidetationthat, thteeyeatsbefote, hehad paidtwelvehundteddollatsfotaputebtedLabtadotpuppyguatan- teedagainsthipdysplasiaandheattdisease? A apsychologist,Ì ampetsuadedmostbyafeatuteofthestoty wehavenotevenaddtessedunti|now-thefactthat]oefeelsaffec- tionfotReebok. Hei��motio'aJly _ atta dJ�d t�his dog. k�eb�kfol� -. .·· ~ ^ ·- lows]oe atoundthehouse,and]oe likes it.]oe gazes intoReebok's eyes. Reebokhaschanged]oeftomattophypetownettoasmitten petownet. And onaccountofthisattachment, Ì believethatwhen ]oegaveuphismotningplanandwenthometotakecateofhisdog, hemaypossiblyhavebeenactingoutofconscience.Ifwecouldgive ]oe attuth setumand askbimwhatwasgoingoninsidehim atthe momenthedecidedtotutnthecatatound,andheweretosaysome- thinglike,¨I]ustcouldn'tstanditthatReebokwasgoingtobethete hunggandthitsgallthattime, ¨then Ì wouldbe teasonablycon- vincedthat]oewasconscience-dtiveninthissituation. Ìwouldbebasingmyevaluationof]oeonthepsychologofcon- scienceitself. Psychologicallyspeaking,conscienceisasenseofob- ¡~·~¬¬ ~~¬ ··¬ ª¯*´¯´ `¯¨ ¨¨¨¯¯ ¯¯`¯�¯¯¯¯ ligation ultimately based in an emotional attachment to anothet livi�,atue,�i:��but � �t al�� y sah���nbeing) , ottoa,r � up of h�ma� b�i�gs, otevenin some casesto humani,�s a wbcle. ` C ���ci��.edo � s � ot�xistwithoutan�m ¡ l � �albond:osomeoneot something,andinthiswayconscienceiscloselyalliedwiththespec- ¯ 25 _` MA RT HA S TOUT ttumofemotionswecall¨love ¨This allianceiswhatgivesttuecon- science its tesilience and itsastonishingauthotiµ,ovetthose who have it, andptobablyalsoitsconfusingandftusttatingqualig. Conscience can motivate us to make seemingly ittational and even self-desttuctive decisions, ftom the ttivialtothe hetoic, ftom missing an 8:00 meetingto temainingsilent undettottute fotthe loveofone'scountg. !tcandtiveusinthiswayonlybecauseitsfuel isnoneothetthanoutsttongestaffections.Andwitnessingotheat� ing about an act ofconscience, even one as otdinagas feedinga dog,pleasesus, becauseanyconscience-boundchoicetemindsusof thesweetties1hatbnd A stogaboutconscience is a �togabout iheconnectednessoflivingthings, andinunconscioustecognition, wesmileatthettuenatuteofthetale.We undetstandhow exctuci- ating]oe's feelings ate ashe sttuggleswithhis conscience, andwe smile at]oeandReebok-becausewealways smileatlovets TheHistor of Conscience Notevegonehasaconscience,thisinteteningsenseofobligation based in out emotional attachments to othets Some people will nevetexpetiencetheexquisiteangstthattesultsftomlettingothets down, othuttingthem, otdeptivingthem, otevenkillingthem. !f the ntst nve senses ate the physical ones-sight, heating, tou�h, smell,taste-andthe¨sixthsense°ishowwe tefettooutintuition, thenconsciencecanbenumbetedseventhatbestItdevelcpedlatet intheevolutionofoutspec¡esandisstillfatftomunivetsal l�m�m�ttets �utkl�t,i�thed ay-to-day coutse oIotttlives, weateusuallyunabletotellthediffetencebetweenthosewhopos- sess conscience andthosewhodo not Could an ambitiousyoung lawyetconceivablyhaveaseventhsense?Yes, conceivably Coulda mothet ofsevetalyoungchildtenhavea seve�th sense? Ofcoutse shecouldCoulda ptiest,chatgedwiththespititual wlfateofanen- ¬ 2ó T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR tite community, be conscience-bound? Let us hope so. Could the powetful political leadet ofa whole nation ofpeople have a con- science?Cettainly. Ot, conttastingly, could any of these people be uttetlywithout conscience?Theanswetisonce again,unnetvingly, yes. Theanonymigof¨evil¨anditsmaddeningtefusaltoattachitself teliablytoanypatticulatsocietaltole, tacialgtoup,otphysicaltype has always µlagued theologians and, mote tecently, scientists. Thtoughout human histog, we havc ttied mightily to pin down ¨good¨and¨evil, °andtonndsomewaytoaccountfotthoseinout midstwhowould seemto be inhabitedbythe lattet. Intbe foutth centug, the Chtistian scholat Saint]etome inttoduced the Gteek wotdsynderesis todesctibetheinnateGod-givenabiligtosensethe diffetence betweengood andevil. He intetpteted Ezekiel'sbiblical visionoffout|ivingcteatutesemetgingftomacloud¨withbtightness tound about it, and nte ßashing fotth continually. ° Each cteatute hadthe bodyofa man, buteachhadfoutdinetentfaces.The face inftontwashuman, thefaceonthetightwasthatofalion,theleft face was that ofan ox, and the face in back was an eagle's. !n ]etome's intetptetation ofEzekiel's dteam, the human face tepte- sentedthetationalpanofman,thelionteflectedtheemotions,the oxsymbolizedthe appetites, andthelofgeaglewas ¨that spatkof consciencewhichwas notquenched even inthe heattofCain. . . thatmakesus,too,feeloutsinfulnesswhenweateovetcomebyevil DesiteotunbtidledSpitit. . . .Andyetinsomemenweseethiscon- science ovetthtown and displaced, they have no sense ofguilt ot shamefottheitsins. ° ]etome's illusttious contempotaty, Augustine ofHippo, agteed with]etomeconcetningthenatuteofconscience.Augustineassuted his followetstbat¨menseethe motaItuleswtitten inthe bookof |ightwhichiscalledTtuthftomwhichalllawsatecopied. ¨ Butaconspicuousptoblemtemained. SincetheTtuth-the ab- soluteknowledgeofgoodandevil-isgivenbyGodtoa|lhumanbe- " 27 * MAR T HA S T OUT ings,whyateallhumanbeingsnotgood?Whydowe¨seethiscon- scienceovetthtow anddisplaced¨ insome people?Andthis ques· tion temained at the centet of the theological discussion about consciencefotmanycentuties. Despitethe sticjwicket,the altet- native suggestion-the ptoposal that only some people had con- science-was impossibletomake,becauseitwouldhavemeantthat bywithholdingtheTtuthftomafewofHis setvants, God Himself hadcteatedevilinthewotldandhaddisttibutedit,inseemingtan- domness, amongalltheµpesandentetptisesofhumanig. Asolutionto thetheologicaldilemmaovetconscienceseemedto come inthe thitteenth centug, whenThomas Aquinasptoposed a toundaboutdistinctionbetweensynderesis, Saint ]etomes infallible God-givenknowledgeoftightandwtong,andconscientia, whichwas comptised ofmistake-ptone humanteasonasitsttuggledtoteach decisionsaboutbehaviot.To makeitschoices concetningwhichac- tions to take, Reasonwas supplied with petfect infotmation ftom God, but Reason itselfwas tathetweak. Inthissystem, fallible hu- mandecisionmaking,notalackofconscience,istoblamefotwtong decisions andactions. Doingwtongis simplymakingamistake. ln conttast, accotdingtoAquinas, ¨Syndetesis cannot ett,+tptovides ptincipleswhichdonotvag,]ustasthelawsthatgovemthephysi- calunivetsedonotvag. ¨ Toapplythisviewto outcontempotatyexample-when]oete- membetsthathis dogiswithoutfoodandwatet, God-given innate synderesis (conscience) immediately infotms him that the absolute tightactionistotetutnhomeandtakecateofthedog. Conscientia, amentaldebateabouthowtobehave,thentakestbisTtuthintocon- sidetation.Thefactthat]oedoesnottumthecatatoundinstanta- neouslybut, instead,spendsafewminutesdelibetatingisthetesult ofthe natutalweaknessofhuman teason. That]oedoes makethe tight decision in the end means, in Aquinas's scheme, that ]oe's motalvittues ate,thtoughsttengthened Reason, developinginthe tightditection.Had]oedecidedtoletthedoggohunggandthitsg, ¯ 28 ¯ | ¸ · T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR histhetebyweakened Reasonwouldhave beenditectinghismotal vittuestoHell,theologicallyspeaking. Gettingdowntotheolog's btass tacks, accotdingtothe eatly chutchfathets, ¦ I ) thetulesofmotaligateabsolute. ¦ 2) allpeople innatelykowtheabsoluteTtuth,and (3) badbehaviotisthetesult offaulgthinking,tathetthanalackofsynderesis, otconscience,and sincewe allhave a conscience, ifonlyhumanreason wete petfect, thetewouldbenobadbehaviotAndindeed,theseatethethteebe· liefs about consciencethathave been held bymuch ofthe wotld thtoughout mostofmodemhistog. Theitinßuenceonthewaywe think about outselves and othetpeople,eventoday, is inestimable. Thethitdbeliefis especiallyhatdtoletgo of. Neatlyamillennium aftet Aquinas made his ptonouncement about synderesis, when scmeone consistentlybehavesinways we nnd unconscionable, we callonanupdatedvetsionofthe°weakReason°patadigm.Wespec- ulatethatthe offendethas beendeptived, otthathis mind is dis- tutbed, otthathis eatlybackgtound makes him do it.Wetemain exttemelyteluctanttoptoposethemotesttaightfotwatdexplanation thateithetGod otnatute simplyfailedto ptovide himwithacon- science. Fotsevetalhundtedyeats,discussionsaboutconsciencetended to centetatoundthe telationship between human teason and di- vinelygivenmotalknowledge.Afewcotollatydebatesweteadded, mosttecentlytheoneovetproportionalism, adivineloopholewhetein Reasonasksustodosomething¨bad°inotdettobtingaboutsome- thingelsethatis¨good°-a¨]ustwat, °fotexample. Butatthebeginningofthetwentiethcentug, conscienceitself undetwent a fundamental ttansfotmation, due to the gtowing ac- ceptanceinEutopeandtheUnitedStatesofthetheotiesofphysi- cianscientist(andatheist) SigmundFteud.Fteudptoposedthatin thenotmalcoutseofdevelopment,youngchildten'smindsacquited anintemalizedauthotityngute,calledasuperego, thatwouldintime teplacethe actual extemalauthotig-the actual extemalauthotig ¬ 2µ ^ MAR T HA S T OUT beingnotGodbutone's ownhumanpatents.Withhis¨discoveg¨of thesupetego, Fteudeffectivelywtestedconscienceoutofthehands · ofGod and placed it in the anxious clutchesofthe all-too-human family. Thischangeofaddtessfotconscience tequitedsomedaunt- ingshiftsinoutcentuties-oldwotldview.Suddenly, outmotalguides hadfeetofclay, andabsoluteTtuth begantosubmittothe uncet- taintiesofcultutaltelativism. Fteud'snewsttuctutalmodelofthe minddidnot involve a hu- manpatt,alionpatt,anoxpatt,andaneagle.Ttipattiteinstead, his visionwasofthesupetego,theego,andtheidTheidwascomposed of all the sexual and unthinking aggtessive instincts we ate botn with,alongwiththebiologicalappetites Asuch,theidwasoneoin conßictwiththedemandsofacivilizedsocieg. Inc � nttast,theego was the tational, awate patt ofthe mind. It couldthinklogical[, make plans, and temembet, and because the egowas equipped in theseways,itcouldiutetactditectlywithsocietyand,tovaçngde- Æ gtees,getthingsdonefotthemoteptimitive id.Thesupetegogtew outoftheegoasthechildincotpotatedtheextemaltulesofhisot hetpatentsandofsocieg.Thesupetegoeventuallybecameaftee- standingfotce inthe developingmind,unilatetally]udgingand di- tectingthechild'sbehaviotsandthoughts. Itwasthecommanding, guilt-btandishing innetvoice that said no, even when nobodywas atound. Thebasicconceptofsupetegomakescommonsensetous.We onen obsetve childten intemalizing and even enfotcing theit pat- ents' tules. (Mothetftowns andsaysto hetfout-yeat-old daughtet, �'Noshoutinginthecat. ¨Pfewminuteslatet,thesamefout-yeat-old points impetiouslyathetnoisytwo-yeat-oldsistetand shouts, ºNo shoutinginthecat' ¨ ) Andmostofus,asadults,haveheatdoutown supetegoSomeofusheatitquiteoften, +nfact.Itisthevoiceinout headsthatsaystous, Idiot'Why'dyoudothat?otYouknow, ifyou don'tnnishthis tepotttoight, you'll be sotg, otYou'dbettetget youtcholestetolchecked. Andinthestogof]oe andReebok,]oe's 30 m T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR decision to miss his meeting could easily have been made by his supetego. Fotputposesofillusttation,letusspeculatethat]oe'spet- · withholdingfathetusedtosaytohimwhenhewasfout, ¨No,little i ]oey,wecan'tgetadogAdogu attemendoustesponsibiliµWhen youhaveadog,youalwayshavetointettuptwhatyoute doingand takecateofit ¨ ]oesadultdecisiontotumhiscatatoundcouldwell havebeenditectedbyhissupetego,whichinsistedthathefulnllthis vegdictum. !na¬oteabsttusemannet, Fteudhimselfmighthavewondeted whethet]oessupetegohadcaused]oetosetuphiswholemotning, unconsciouslyofcoutse-being|ntoomuchofahutg,fotgettingto putoutthe dogfood-suchthathisfathetstulecouldbe ¨ptoved, ¨ and ]oe¨punished¨ fot getting a pet FotinFteudian theog, the supetegoisnot]ustavoice, it isanopetatot, asubtleandcomplex manipulatot, aptovetofpoints.!tptos�cutes,]�dges� a � dca�tiescut sentences, a nditdoesallthisquiteoutsid eofoutconsciousawate- ness Whilethe supetego, inthe best case, canhelpthe individual getalongin socieµ, it can alsobecomethemostovetbeatingand pethaps the most desttuctive patt ofhis petsonaliµ Accotdingto pgchoanalysts, an especiallyhatsh superego, hammeting away in� sidesomeone'shead,cancteatealifelongdeptession,otevenptopel itspootvictimintosuicide AndsoFteudinttoducedthewotldtothedecidedlyseculatno· tionthatconsciencemigh�n�edtobe tepaitedinsomepeople,and thatthtoughpsychoanalysis,one�ight ��t�allyrep a itit. !naddition-moteshocki�g still � ¡ n d �ndls�ll��e�slinked the nnal establishment ofthe supetegotothe child's tesolutionof the Oedipus complex The Oedipuscomplex, sometimescalledthe Flectta complex in gitls, isfotmed whentheyoungchild begins to tealize,betweentheagesofthtee andnve,thatheotshewillnevet completelypossessthepatentoftheoppositesex !nptosaictetms, boys mustacceptthat theywillnotmatgtheitmothets, and gitls mustacceptthattheywillnotmatgtheitfathetsOedipalsttuggles, ° 3) ° ]' , MART H A S T OUT and the tesulting feelings of competition, feat, and tesentment towatdthepatentofthesamesex,atesopowetfulanddangetousto the child'sfamilytelationships, accotdingtoFteud,thattheymust bethotoughly°teptessed°otkeptftomawateness,andthistete sion°ismadepossiblebyadtasticsttengtheningoftheyoungsupet- . ego. Ftomthispointon,shouldanysexualfeelingsatisetowatdthe patentofthe opposite sex, otanytivaltousfeelingstowatdthepat- ent of the same sex, these feelings will be vanquished by the dteaded,tuth|essweaponofthenewlyfottinedsupetego-immedl- ate, unbeatable guilt. Inthisway, the supetego gains its autonomy andits ctowningadvantage insidethe mind ofthechild. !tisase� vetetaskmastetinstalledto setve outneedtotemaina patt ofthe gtoup. Whatevetelseonemaythinkofsuchtheotizing, cteditmustbe given1o Fteudfotundetstandingthat out motal sense was not a one-size-nts�allhetmeticcode, butwas instead dynamic, and intti- catelytiedupwithessentialfamilyandsocietalbonds.Withhiswtit� ings on the supetego, Fteud impatted to an awakening scienti6c wotld:hatoutusual tespectfotlawand otdetwas not simplyim- , posed on us ftom the outside. We obeythe tules, we honot the vittues, ptimatilyftom an intemalneedthatbegins in infancy aud eatly childhood to ptesetve and temain embtaced by out families andthelatgethumansocieginwhichwelive. Conscience Versus Superego Whethet ot not one believes that supetego is an inttapsychk schemet,otthatitis,touseFteud'swotds,°theheittotheOedipus complex, °supetegoitse|fmustbeacknowledgedasatichanduseful concept. A aninnetvoice acquitedthtoughoutsigni6cantchi , l�­ hood telationships, commenting on out shottcomings and tailing ~ 32 ~ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR againstoutttansgtessions,supetegoisafeatute ofsub]ectiveexpe- tience that most people tecognize easily. °Don't do that. ° °You shouldn'tfeelthatway. °°Becateful,you'llhuttyoutself.°°Beniceto youtsistet.°°Cleanupthatmessyoumade °°Youcan'taffotdtobuy that. °°Well,thatwasntvetysmatt,was it?° °You've]ust gottodeal with it. °°Stopwasting time. ° Supetego yammets atus insideout mindsevegdayofoutlives Andsomepeople'ssupetegosatetathet moteinsultingthanothets. Still, supetego isnotthesamethingas conscience. It mayfeel likeconsciencesub]ectively, andmaybeonesmallpattofwhatcon- science is, but supetego by itselfisnotconscience. This isbecause Fteud,asheconceptualizedthesupetego,thtewoutthebabywith thebathwatet, inamannetofspeaking.Ine]ectingmotalabsolutism ftom psychological thought, he counted out something else too. Quite simply, Fteud counted out love, and all ofthe emotions te- latedtoloveThoughheoftenstatedthatchildtenlovetheitpatents in addition to featingthem, the supetego he wote aboutwas en � _t�telyfe�t-b���¸d Inhisview,]ustaswe featoutpatents'stemctiti- cismswhenwe atechildten, sodowe featthe excotiatingvoice of supetegolatet on. Andfeatis all. Thete isno place intheFteudian supetego fotthe conscience-building eftects � o� ÍOVc• comp���ion, tendemess,otanyofthemo�¸ po�itivefeel� �. _ Ad�����ieu�e,�swh�ve seenin]oeandReebok,isanintet- vening sense ofobligation based in outemotional attachments to othets-all aspects ofout emotional attachments-including most especially love, compassion, and tendetness. In fact, the seventh sense, in those individuals w ho po���ss1t, is ptimatily¸lov�- and compass�on-based. We have ptogtessed, ovet the centuties, ftom faith ina God-ditectedsynderesis, to abeliefina punitive patental supetego,U anundetstandlngthatconscienceisdeeplyandaffect- inglyanchotedinoutabiligto cateaboutoneanothet.Thissecond ptogtession-ftoma]udgeintheheadtoamandateoftheheatt- 33 MA RTHA S T OUT involves lesscynicismabout human natute, mote hope fot us asa gtoup,andalsomotepetsonaltesponsibilityand,attimes,motepet- sonalpain. A an illusttation, imagine that undet some impossiblybizatte set ofcitcumstances, one night you take tempotatyleave ofyout senses, sneak ovet to the house of an especially likable neighbot, and, fotnopaniculatteason, mutdethetcat.]ustbefotedaybteak, youtecovetyout senses andtealizewhatyouhave done.What do youfeel?Whatisthespecincnatuteofyoutguilµteaction?Unseen behindyoutlivingtoomcuttain,youwatchyoutneighbotcomeout to het ftont step and discovetthe cat She fallsto het knees. She scoopsuphetlifelesspetin hetatmsSheweepsfotaveglongtime. Whatisthentstthingthathappenstoyou?Doesavoiceinside youtheadscteam,Thoushaltnotkill'You'llgoto]ailfotthis'-thus temindingyouoftheconsequencestoyoutselfOt, instead,doyou feelinstantlysickthatyouhavemutdetedananimaland�adeyout neighbot cg in gtief !n those ntst moments of watching yout sttickenneighbot,whichteactionismotelikelytobefallyou?!tisa tellingquestion.Theanswetwillptobablydetetminewhatcoutseof actionyouwilltake,andalsowhethetyouateinlluencedonlybythe sttidentvoiceofyoutsupetego,otbyagenuineconscience Thesamekindofquestionappliestooutoldftiend]oe.Doeshe decidetosactincehismeetingbeca�seofthe unconscious featin- stilled in him in childhood byhis fathets opinions about dogs, ot does he makethe sactince because he feels awful when he thinks about Reebok's ptedicament? What ditects his choice? !s it pute supetego, otis itfullyfotmed conscience? !fit is conscience, theÎ ]oe'sdecisiontobeabsentftomascheduledmeetingatwotkisami- notillusttationofthefactthat,itonicallyconsciencedoesnotalways fcllow the tules. !t places people (and sometimes animalsj abve �codes ofconduct and institutionaleµectaiions. Fcttinedwith po� tentemotions, conscience is agluethatholdsustogetbet, anditis D stickietthanitis]ust. !tchetisheshumanisticidealsmotetl:anlaws, ¬ . - 34 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R and if push comes to shove, conscience may even go to ptison. Supetegowou|dnevetdothat. A sttict supetego betates us, saying, You'te being naughg, ot You'teinadequate.Asttongconscienceinsists, Youmusttakecate ofhim¸othetotitotthem] , nomattetwhat. Feat-based supetego stays behind its datkcuttain, accusing us andwtingingitshands.Conscienceptopelsusoutwatdintheditec- tionofothetpeople,towatdconsciousactionbothminotandgteat. Attachment-basedconsciencecausestheteenagemothettobuythe little ]at of cteamed peas instead ofhet favotite nngetnail polish. Conscience · ptotectsthe ptivil � �es ofintimacy, makes ftiendskeep theitptomises, pteventstheangetedspouseftomstt|kingbackItin- ducestheexhausteddoctottopickupthephonefothisftightened patientatthteeinthemotning.Itblowswhistlesagainstinstitutions whenlives ate endangeted. Ittakestothe stteetstoptotestawat. Conscienceiswhatmakesthehumantightswotkettiskhetveglife. When it is combinedwithsutpassing motal coutage, it is Mothet Tetesa,MahatmaGandhi, NelsonMandela,AungSanSuuKyi. Insmallandlatgeways, genuineconsciencechangesthewotld. Rooted inemotionalconnectedness, itteaches peace andopposes hattedandsaveschildten.Itkeepsmattiagestogethetandcleansup tivets and feeds dogs and gives gentle teplies. It makes individual livesbettetandincteaseshumandignigovetall. Itis tealandcom- pelling,anditwouldmakeusctawloutofoutskinifwedevastated outneighbot. Theptoblem,asweateabouttosee,isthatnotevegbodyhasit. Infact,4petcentofal|peopledonothaveit. Letustumncwtoa discussion of such a petson-someone who simply has no con- science-andseewhathelooksliketous. » - ° 35 ! ` ' ! `· l ce people: the sociopaths Conscience U the window of our spirit, evil is the curtain. -Doug Horton Y henSkipwasgtowingup,hisfamilyhadavacationcottageby asmalllake inthehillsofVitginia,whetetheywentfotapatt ofeachsummet.TheyvacationedtheteftomthetimeSkipwaseight yeatsolduntilhewentawaytohighschool in Massachusetts Skip lookedfotwatdtohissummetsinVitginia.Thetewasnotalottodo thete,buttheoneactivityhehadinventeuwassomuchfunthatit madeupfotthegenetallackofexcitement !nfact,sometimesbac� atgtadeschoolinthewintet,escapingintohisownthoughtswhäe somestupidteachetwentonandonaboutsomething,hewouldg�t apictuteofhimselfplayinghis gamebythewatmVitginialake,�ud hewouldchuckleoutloud. ·� Í Skipwasbtilliantand handsome, evenas achild. "brìÌÌìa�t and handsome, ¨ hispatentsandhispatents'ftiendsandevenhisteach- etswouldtematkovetandovet.Andsotheycouldnotunders�nd, whyhisgtadeswete so mediocte, otwhy, whenthe time came, �e seemedtohavesolittleintetestingoingoutondates.Whattheydld¸ - 35 ° TH E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R notknowwasthatftomthe age ofeleven, Skiphadbeenoutwith plengofgitls,butnotquiteinthewayhispatentsandteachetswete imagining Thetewasalwayssomeone,usuallyanoldetgitl,whowas willingto succumbto SIip's flattegandhis chatmingsmile. Often thegitlwouldsneakhimintohettoom,butsometimesheandagitl would simplynnd a secluded spot on a playgtound ot undet the bleachets at the sonball neld As fothis gtades, he teallywas ex- ttemely smatt-he could have made sttaightA-plusses-but get- ting Cs was completely effottless, and so that was what he did. Occasionally, hewould evengetaD, which amused him, sincehe nevet«tudied.Theteachets likedhim, seemedto bealmostasvul- netable to his smiles and his compliments as the gitls wete, and evegoneassumedthatyoungSkippetwould end upatagoodhigh schoolandthenadecentco�lege,despitebisgtades. Hispatentshadagteatdealofmoney, wete °megatlh, ¨asthe othet kids put it. Onsevetal occasionswhenhewas abouttwelve, Skip satatthe antiquetolltopdeskhispatentshadboughtfothis bedtoom, tgingto calculatehowmuchmoneyhewouldgetwhen they died Hebased his calculations onsomennancialtecotdshe had stolenftomhisfathet's study. The tecotdswete confusingand incomplete,buteventhoughhecouldnotattive atanexactngute, Skipcouldseecleatlythatsomedayhewouldbequitetich. Still, Skip hada ptoblem. Hewasboted mostofthe time. The am�sements he putsued, eventhe gitls, eve� foolingthe teachets, even thinking about his money, did not keep him enetgized fot longet than half an hout ot so. The family wealth held the most ptomise asanentettainment,butitwasnotundethisconttolyet- hewasstillachild.No,theonlytealteliefftombotedomwasthefun hecouldhaveinVitginia.Vacationsweteaveggoodtime.Thatntst summet, when he was eight, he had simply stabbed the bullftogs withascissots,fotwantofanothetmethod. Hehaddiscovetedthat he couldtakeanetftomthe nshingshedandcaptutetheftogseas- ilyftomthemudbanks ofthelake Hewouldholdthemdownon 37 MA RT HA S T OUT theitbacks, stabtheitbulgingstomachs, andthentumthem back ovettowatchtheitstupid]ellyeyesgodeadastheybledout.Then hewouldhutlthecotpsesasfatoutintothelakeas hecould,yelling atthe deadftogsastheyflew,°Toobadfotyou,youlittlefuck-face ftogg' ° Thetewetesomanyftogsinthatlake. Hecouldspendhoutsat atimekillingthem,andstillitlookedasifthetewetehundtedsand hundteds ofthem left fottomottow. But bythe end ofthat ntst summet, Skiphaddecidedthathe could dobettet Hewas tited of stabbingthe ftogs. Itwouldbe so gteatto blowthem up, to have something that would make the fat little squitmets explode, and towatdthisendhehadateallygoodplan. Heknewplen t yofoldet boysbackhome,andoneinpatticulatheknewtookafamilyttipto SouthCatolinadutingsptingbteakevegAptil.Skiphadheatdthat ntewotkswetefotsaleandeasytogetinSouthCatolina.Withalit- tle btibe ftom Skip, his ftiendTimwould buyhim some ntewotks thete and smuggle them home in the bottom ofhis suitcase. Tim wouldbescatedtodoit,butwithapeptalkftomSkip,andenough money, hewould. Next summet, Skipwouldhavenot scissots but ntewotks' Finding cash atound the house was no ptoblem, and the plan wotkedlikeachann.ThatAptil,hecameupwithtwohundteddol- latsfotantewotksvatiegpackcalled¨Stat-SpangledBannet,°which hehadseeninagunmagazine,andanothetonehundteddollatsto sweetenthedealfotTim.AndwhenSkipnnallygothishandsonthe package, it was a beautiful thing. He had chosen °Stat-Spangled Bannet° because it contained the latgestnumbet oldevices small enoughtont, otalmostnt,intothemouthofabullftog.Thetewas a supplyoftiny Roman candles, and some ¨Lady Fingets,°which weteslimlitt|etedntectackets,andabunchofone-inchshellscalled ¨Wizatds°, and his favotite, some two-inch shells in a box labeled ¨MottalDesttuction,°whichhadaskullandctossbonesblazonedon theftont. " 38 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R That summet, he shoved the devices, one by one, into the mouthsofthecaptutedftogs,ignitedthem,andthtewtheftogshigh into the aitovetthe lake. Otsometimes hewould putthe ignited ftog down, tun on, and watch ftom a distance as the animal ex- ploded onthe gtound The displayswetemagnincent-blood, goo, lights,sometimesabignoiseandthosecolotfulßowetlikeshapes.So wondetfulwetethetesultsthatsoonhebegantoctaveanaudience fot his genius. One aftetnoon, he enticed his six-yeat-old sistet, Claite,downtothelake, lethethelphimcaptuteoneoftheftogs, andthenbefote heteyes, made anaitbomeexplosionofit. Claite scteamedhysteticallyandtanasfastashetlegswouldcatghetback tothehouse Thefamilysstately¨cottage¨satabouthalfamileftomthelake, beyondasetenestandofhundted-foothemlocks.Thiswasnotsofat awaythat Skips patents had not heatd explosive noises, and they imaginedthatSkippetmustbesettingoffntewotksbythelake. But they had long since tealizedthathewas notthe sott ofchildwho could be conttolled, and that they needed to choose theit battles vegcatefully. The ntewotks issue was not one they chose to deal with,notevenwhenslx-yeat-oldClaitecametunningintotellhet mothetthatSkippetwasblowingupftogs.Skip'smothettutnedup the tecotdplayetin the libtagas loud as itwould go, and Claite ttiedtohidehetcat,Lmily. Super Skp Skipissociopathic. Hehasnoconscience-nointetveningsenseof obligation based inemotionalattachmentsto othets-andhislatet life,whichwewillgettoin amoment,ptovidesaninsttuctiveexam- pleofwhatanintelligentadultwithoutaconsciencecanlooklike. ]ustasitisdifnculttoimaginehowwewouldfeelifwe hadno conscienceatall,soitisvetyhatdtouseone'simaginationtocon- 39 > MAR T HA S T OUT sttuctanaccutatepictute ofsuch a petson. Amotaland uncating, doesheendupisolatedontheedgesofsocieg?Doesheconstantly thteatenandsnatlandquitepossiblydtool,devoidasheisofsucha fundamental humanchatactetistic? One mighteasily imaginethat Skipgtewuptobeakillet.Intheend,pethapshemutdetedhispat- entsfottheitmoney. Maybehewound updeadhimself, otinthe bowelsofamaximum-secutigptison. Sounds likely, butnothingof thekindactuallyhappened.Skipisstillalive,he hasnevetkil|edany- one,notditectlyatleast,and-sofat-hehas notseentheinsideof anyptison.Totheconttag, thoughhehas notyetinhetitedhis pat- ents'mouey, hehasbecomesuccessfulandtichetthanaking.And ifyoumethimnow,encountetedhimasasttangetinatestautantot on the stteet, hewould look like any othetwell-gtoomed middle- agedfellowinapticeybusinesssuit. Howcouldthispossiblybe?Didhehaveatecoveg? Didheget bettet?No.Inttuth, hegotwotse. HebecameSupetSkip. Withpassing,ifnotstellat,gtades,hischatm,andhisfamily'sin- lluence, Skip did indeed get into that good boatding school in Massachusetts,andhisfamilybteathedasighoftelief,bothfothis acceptance by the school and fot his telative absence ftom theit lives. Histeachets stillfoundhimchatismatic, but his mothetand si�tethadleamedthathewasmanipulativeandspoo|.Claitewould sometimes speak of°Skippet'sweitd eyes, °and het mothetwould givehetadefeatedlookthatsaid,Idon'twanttotalkaboutit.Most evegoneelsesawonlyahandsomeyoungface. Whencollegecameatound, Skipwas accepted into!isfathet's alma matet (and his gtandfathet's befote that), whete he became legendagasapatgboyandaladies'man.Gtaduatingwithhiscus- tomagC avetage,heentetedanMBAptogtamatalessptestigious institution, because hehadngutedoutthatthe businesswotldwas a place whete he might mastetthe gameeasilyand amuse himself usinghisnatutalskills.Hisgtadesgotnobettet,buthislifelongabil- & 40 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R ig to chatm people and get themto dowhat hewanted became motetenned. When hewas tweng-six, he]oined the Atika Cotpotation, a companythat made blasting, dtilling, and lcading equipment fot metal-otemines. He hadintense blue eyes and astunningsmileat allthe tight moments, and to his newemployetsheseemedalmost magicallytalentedatmotivatingsales teptesentatives andinfluenc- ingcontacts.Fothispatt,Skiphaddiscovetedthatmanipulatinged- ucatedadultswasnohatd e tthanithadbeentoconvincehisyoung ftiendTimtobuyntewotks inSouthCatolina,andofcoutselying, inincteasinglyelegantways, cameaseasilyasbteathing. Evenbet- tet, chtonicallyboted Skip telished the ptessutes offast-ttack tisk takingandwasmotethanwillingtotakethebigchancesthatnoone elsewould.Befotehisthitdannivetsagatthecompany, hehadgone aftetthe coppet in Chile and the gold in SouthAftica, eventually makingAtikaintothewotld'sthitd-latgestvendotofbothshaftand open-pit mining equipment Atika's foundet, whom Skip ptivately viewedasafool,wassoenchantedwithSkipthathegavehimanew FettatiGT8asa¨cotpotategift.° Whenhewasthitg, Skipmattied]uliette,thelovely, soft-spoken tweng-thtee-yeat-old daughtet ofa celebtated billionaitewhohad madehisfottuneinoilexplotation.Skipmadesutethat]uliette'sfa- thetsaw him asthe btilliant, ambitious son he had nevethad. Skip sawhisbillionaitefathet-in-lawaswhathewas,aticketto]ustabout evegthingAnd,quiteaccutately, hesawhisnewwife,]uliette,asa sweet, teptessed gentlewoman who would thotoughly accept het tole aswife and socialcootdinatot, andwhowould ptetend notto knowthatSkip'slifetemained]ustasdevoidofpetsonaltesponsibil- ig and full oftandom sexual encountets as it had evet been. She wouldbeatttactiveandtespectableonhisatm,andshewouldkeep hetmouthshut. Aweekbefotethewedding,Skip'smothet,alteadyfeelingcloset * 4) * MART HA S T OUT to ]uliette than to Skip, weatily inquited of het son, ¨This mat- tiage. Doyou teallyneed to dothisto hetlife?°Skipstattedto ignote het, ashe usuallydid Butthenhewas appatentlysttuckby ' somethingfunny, and he teplied to het ptotestwith �n eat-to-eat gtin.¨We bothknowshe'llnevetknowwhathithet,°hesaid.Skip's mothet|ookedconfusedfotamoment,andthensheshuddeted. Mattied,sociallyensconced, andbtingingincloseto$80million ayeatfotAtika,Skipwasmadeptesidentofitsintemationaldivision andamembetoftheboatdbefote histhitg-slxthbitthday. Bythis time, he and}uliette hadtwo little gitls, completinghispublicdis- guiseasafamilyman Hisconttibutionstothebusinesscamewith a cettain ptice, but nothing that could not be handled i� a cost- efncientmannet.Lmployeessometimescomplainedthathewas ¨in- sulting°ot¨vicious, °andAtikawassuedwhenasectetatyclaimedhe hadbtokenhetatmwhile tgingto fotce het1o sit in his lap. The casewassettledoutofcouttwithnftythousanddollatsandagagot- detfotthesectetag.Fifgthousanddollatswasnothingtothecom- pany, telatively speaking. Hewas ¨Supet Skip, ° and his employet undetstoodthathewaswellwotththeupkeep. Oftheincident,Skiplatettematkedptivately, ¨She'sinsaneShe btokehetownatm. She sttuggledwith me,thestupidbitch.Why the helldidshe putupsuchanght?° Aetthe sectetaty, thetewete additionalchatgesofsexualmis- conduct,butSkipwassovaluabletotheotganizationthateachtime aptoblemcame up,Atikasimplydisbutsedanothetchecktomake suteitwentaway The othetboatdmembetsbegantoteíettohim astheit ¨companyptima donna. °A theyeats passed, he teceived gtantsofmotethanI millionshates, makinghimthesecond-latgest individualshateholdet,aftetAtika'sfoundet.Andin200I , attheage ofnfg-one,Skiptookovetaschiefexecutive Mote tecently, some ofhis ptoblemshavebecome s|ight|y |ess manageable,butwithhis usualattogance,Skipiscon6denthewill landonhisfeet-pethapsalittletooconndent. In2003, hewasac- " 42 " . I T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D OOR cusedofftaudbytheSecutitiesandExchangeCommission.Hede- niedthechatge,ofcoutse, andatptesentthedecisionoftheSECls pending. P|ayingtheGame No, Skip was not consigned to the edges ofsocieg, he does not dtool,andhe isnot (yet) inptison. Infact, heis tichand, inmany citcles, tespected-otatleastfeated,which masquetadesbtilliantly astespectSo what iswtongwiththis pictute?Otpethapsthe ques- tionshouldbe.Whatisthewort pattofthispictute,thecenttalflaw inSkipslifethatmakeshimintoattagedydespitehis success, and intothemaketofttagediesfotsomanyothets?Itisthis.Skiphasno emotionalattachmentstoothetpeople,noneatall.Heiscoldasice. Hismothetisthetetobeignoted, otsometimesbaited.Jissis- tetisthetetobetotmented. Othetwomenate sexualplundetand nothingmote.Hehasbeenwaitingsincechildhoodfothisfathetto doonlyonething-todieandleavehismoneytoSkipHisemploy- ees atethetetobemanipulatedandused,ashis ftiendshavealways been. Hiswife and even his childtenate meantfot the eyes ofthe wotld.Theyate camouflage. Skip is intellectually gined, and he u fabulousatthe gamesmanshipofbusiness Butbyfathismostim- ptessivetalentishisabilitytoconcealftomneatlyevegonethettue emptinessofhisheatt-andtocommandthepassivesilenceofthose fewwhodoknow. Most of us ate ittationally influenced by appeatance, and Skippethasalways lookedgood Heknows]usthowtosmile. Heis chatming,andwecanteadilyimaginehimshowetingflattegonthe bosswhogavehimtheFettati,meanwhilethinkinghimthefool,and undemeathitallbeingincapableofgtatitudetowatdanyone.Helies attfullyandconstantly,withabsolutelynosenseofguiltthatmight givehimawayinbodylanguageotfacialexptession. He uses sexu- 43 MAR T HA S T OUT alityas manipulationandhides hisemotionalvacancybehindvati- ous tespectable toles--cotpotate supetstat, son-in-law, husband,fa- thet-whichate neatlyimpenettabledisguises Andifthechatmandthesexualigandthetoleplayingsomehow fail,Skipusesfeat,asutewinnet. His icinessisfundamentallyscag RobettHatewtites, °Many people nnditdifncultto dealwiththe intense,emotionless,otptedatog'stateofthepsychopath, ¨andfot someofthemotesensltivepeopleinhislife,Skip'sintenseblueeye�, theoneshissistetseesas °weitd, ¨ maywellbethoseofthedispas- sionatehuntetgazingathispsychologicalptey !fso, thetesultwi|l ptobablybesilence. Fotevenifyouknowabouthim,knowwhathisheattislike,and havecaughtontohis modus opetandi, howwillyou callhimout? Whomcanyoupossiblytell,andwhatwillyousay?°He'saliat¨?°He's ctaz¨? °He taped me in his ofnce¨? °He's gotspoo|eyes¨? °He usedto kill ftogs¨? Butthis is a leadet ofthe communig, in an AtmanisuitThisis]uliettesbelovedhusband,andthefathetoftwo. Thismanisthe CEO oftheAtikaCotpotation,fotgoodnesssake' ]ustwhatateyouaccusinghimof,andwhatptoofdoyouhave?Who isgoingtosoundctaziet-chiefexecutive Skip, othisaccuset?Ad sealing his invulnetabilig, thete ate those who need Skip to be atoundfotoneteasonotanothet,includingpeoplewhoatewealthy and powetfulAtetheygoingtocatewhatyousay? . !nhis unassailabilig, andinmanyothetways, Skipu anexem- plagsociopath. Hehas, inthewotds oftheAmetican Psychiattic Association, °agteatetthannotmalneedfotstimulation ¨ andsoh , e --~ - often takes bi_tisks, and he_uiltlessly chatms othets into taking them, too. He has ahistotyofundocumentedchildhood °behavlot ptoblems, ¨ obscutedbyhispatents'socialptivilege. Heis deceitful and manipulative. Hecanbeimpulsivelyagg;�e with °a teck|ess distegatd fot the safety of othets, ¨ as he was with the emp|oye� whose atmhe bt�ke, andwiththe othetwomenwhose stotieswill nevetbe heatd. Pethapsthe onlyclassic°symptom¨ Skip does not ¯ 4 ¯ ¹ T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R .exhibitissubstanceabuseThecosestheevetcomestothatis one ¯�¨` ¨¯¯'¨¨"´` ¨"¯ º·~�=¬�~ toomanyscotchesaftetdinnet. Othetwise,thepictute iscomplete. Heisnotgenuinelyintetestedinbondingwithanyone,heisconsis- tentlyittesponsible,andhehasnotemotse. Andsohowdoesallofthi�t�tnin l.is mind?Whatmakes him tick?Whatexactlydoes Skip¬ao/? Mostofushaveothetpeopletomotivateusandtopopulateout desites People dtive outwishes and out dteams. Peoplewholive withus,peopl e whoatefataway, belovedpeoplewhohavedied,ag- gtavating people who will not leave, places made sentimental by whomwe knewthete, even outpets-these nll outheatts and out thoughts.Eventhemostinttovettedamongusisdennedbyhette- lationships, and pteoccupiedwithteactionsto and feelings about, antipathiesandaffectionsfot, othetpeople.Emotionalinttigue, to- mance, nuttuting, te]ection, andteunioncomptiseneatlyallofout litetatuteands�ng.Weateovetwhelminglytelationalcteatutes, and thisisttueallthewaybacktooutptimateancestots.]ane Goodall saysthechimpanzeessheobsetvedinGombe¨haveatichtepettoite ofbehavioutsthatsetve to maintainottestote socialhatmony . . . . The embtacing, kissing, pattingandholdingofhandsthat setve as gteetingsaftetsepatation. . . Thelong,peacefulsessionsoftelaxed social gtooming. The shatingoffood . The concetnfotthe sick ot wounded. °And so without out ptimotdial attachments to othets, whatwouldwebe? Evidently,wewouldbetheplayetsofagame,onethattesembled agiantchessmatch,withoutfellowhumanbeingsasthetooks,the knights, and the pawns Fotthis isthe essence ofsociopathicbe- haviotanddesire TheonlythingSkipteallywants-theonlything left-|� t� w. _ º¨"¹· . · ~ · Ski;doesnotspendanytimeseatchiugfotsomeonetolove.He cannot love. He does notwottyaboutftiends ot family membets whomaybesickotinttouble,becausehecannotwotgaboutothet people. He cates nothingfotothets, andsohecannoten]oytelling .i ¬ 4 ã MA RT HA S T OUT his patents ot his wife about his many successes in the business wotldHecanhavedinnetwithwhomevethepleases,buthecannot shate the momentwithanyoneat al| Andwhenhis childte � wete botn, hewasnotscated,butneithe�washee�cited. He candetive n�tea|ç1tom bei�g withthem,o�f�om watchingthem gto�up. ButtheteisonethingSkipca�do, andhedoesthisonething bettetthanalmostanyone els� S�ip is btilliantatwinning. Hecan dominate Hecanbendothetsto hiswillWhenhewas aboy, the ftogs died when hedecided they should die, his sistet scteamed whe n hewantedhetto,andnowhehasgoneontobiggetandbet- tetgames !n awotldwhetepeople sttuggle]usttomakea living, Skipconvincedothetstomakehimtichbefotehewasthitg.Hecan make fcols ofhis well-educated employets and even his billionaite fathet-in-law. Hecancause theseothetwise-sophisticatedpeopleto ]ump, and then laugh at them behind theit backs. He inßuences latgennancialdecisions onan intetnationalplaying neld, cantum mostsuchattangementstohisownadvantage,andnooneptotests. Otifsomeonedoescomplain,hecancutthatpetsonoffattheknees with]ustawell-placedwotdottwo. Heca ^ ftightenpeople, assault them,bteakanatm,tuinacateet,andhiswealthycolleagueswillfall allovetthemselvesmakingsutehenevetpaysthepenaltiesanyot- dinaty petson would pay. Hebelieves he canhave anywoman he wants,andmanipulateanymanhecomesactoss,including,mostte- cently, evegoneattheSecutitiesandExchangeCommission. Heis SupetSkip. Sttategies and payoffs atetheonlythtillshe knows, andhehasspenthisentitelife gettingbettet attte ga�e. Fot Skip,thegameisevegthing,andthoughheistooshtewdtosay so,hethinks_¿zztofusatenaïveandstupidfotnotyl¿n¿it his way. And this is exactlywhat happens to the human mind when ¯motionalattachmentandconscienceatemissing. Lifeisteducedto a contest, and othethu�anbeings seemto benothingmotethan gamepieces,tobemovedabout,usedasshields, ote]ected. Ofcoutse, fewindividualsequalSkipinthelevelofhisIQotin ¬ 45 ª T H E S O C I O. PAT H N E XT D O O R his physical appeatance. Bydennition, most people, includingso- ciopaths,ateavetage in intelligence and looks, andthegamesthat avetage sociopathsplayate not inthe same elite league as Supet Skip'sglobalcompetitions Manycontempotagp�chologists, my- selfincluded,tecallntstleatningaboutpsychopathyftomaneduca· tionalmovie onthesub]ect,viewedwhenwewetecollegestudents inthe I9/0s.The nebbishycasestudyinthemovie istemembeted as¨Stamp Man,°becausehedevotedhiswholelifetothe unlikely pto]ectofstealing postage stampsftomUnited Statespostofnces. Hewasnot intetestedinpossessingthe stamps, otinsellingthem fotcash.Hisonlyambitionwastoexecuteasimplebteak-inatnight andthennndaspotalittledistanceftomthepostofncehehad]ust tobbed, whetehe couldwatchthe ftenzofthentstemployeesto entetthebuildinginthemotning,followedbytheemetgencyattival ofthe police. Skinny, pale, and mouselike, the man intetviewed in the moviewas anythingbut scaty His intelligencewas avetage at most, and he could nevet have played Skip's gtand intetnational game,withitsmastetfulsttategiesandbillionaiteopponents.Buthe could play his own game, and psychologically, his simple stamp- stealinggamewassutptisinglysimilattoSkip'scotpotateone Unlike Skip's,Stamp Man'splanswete inelegantandttanspat- ent, and he was always discoveted and attested He had been to couttandthento]ailcountlesstimes, andthiswasthewayhelived hislife-tobbing,watching,goingto]ail,gettingoutof]ail,andtob- bingagain. Buthewasunconcetned,becausetheeventualoutcome ofhisschemingwasittelevanttohim. Ftomhispetspective,allthat mattetedwasplayingthegameandseeing,atleastfotanhoutotso eachtime,theittefutableevidencethathe,StampMan,couldmake . ¯ ¯ ·· ¯`¯¯´ people jump. In Stamp Man's opinion, being able to make people ¡a�, ma�t he was winning, and in this way, no less than phe- nomenally anluent Skip, he illusttates what a sociopath wants. Conttollingothets-winning-ismotecompellingthananything(ot an y one) else. � • "¯ * ··¬ '¯ ^¨¯¬~¬~m 47 MAR T HA S T OUT Pethapstheu|timate in dominatinganothetpetsonistotake a life, and the psychopathicmutdetet ot cold-blooded setialkilletis thentstthing � anyofusimaginewhenwethinkofsociopathicde- viance. Shottofa sociopathic leadetwho divetts the coutse ofan entitenation, leadingitintogenocide otunnecessagwat,thepsy- chopathic killet is sutely the most tetti(ing example ofa psyche withoutconscience-themosttetti(ing example, butnottbemost common one. Homicidalsociopaths ate nototious.We tead about theminnewspapets, heat aboutthemontelevision, see them pot- ttayedin6lus, andweateshakentooutcotebytheknowledgethat inoutmidsttheteatesociopathicmonstetswhocankillwithoutpas- sionottemotse.Butconttatytopopulatbelief,mostsociopathsate notmutdetets, atleastnotinthesensethattheykillwiththeitown two hands. We can see this ftom statistics alone About one in tweng-nve people ate sociopathic, butoutside ofptisons, otgangs andothetpoveµ- andwat-totngtoups, the incidenceofmutdetets inoutpopulationis,thankfully, fatless. Whensociopathyandbloodlustcometogethetinthesamepet- son,thetesultisadtamatic-evenacinematic-nightmate,ahottot ngutewhoseems|atgetthanlife. Butmostsociopathsatenotmass mutdetets ot setial killets. They ate not Pol Pot ot Ted Bundy. Instead, most ate onlylife-slze, likethetest of us, andcantemain unidentined fot long petiods oftime. Most people without con- scienceate motelike SkipotStampMan, otthemothetwhouses hetchi|dtenastools,otthethetapistwhodelibetatelydisempowets vulnetablepatients,ottheseduce-and-manipulatelovet,otthebusi- ness pattnetwho empties the bankaccount and vanishes, ot the chatming ¨ftiend¨ who uses people and insists she has not. The methodssociopathsdteamupto contto|othets-the schemescon- tt�vedto ensute ¨wins¨-atequitevatious, andonlyafewofthem havetodowithphysicalviolenceAtetall,violenceisconspicuous, andunlesspetfotmedagainsttheuttetlypowetless,suchaschildten otanimals,itislikelytogetthe_petpettatotcaught ¬ 48 ° T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R !nanycase,thoughtheyatehotti(ingwhentheyoccut, btutal mutdetsatenotthelikeliestresultofconsciencelessness.Rathet,the game isthethingTheptizetobewoncantunthegamutf� � �wotld ¯dominatiot. to a f��e 1uncb, butit is a l� � ys th� same game-con- tto|ling, ��kingcthet,�,,`'wiuning.'' E ��ni�g� ui� � f � shion i. .l| th�tre�ins �f��tpetsonal meaningwhen �ttach- mentandconscience a teabsent.Whenthevalueoftelationshipshas beenteducedtoneatlynothing,dominanceissometimesassettedby mutdeting people. But mote often, it is accomplished by killing ftogs,ottackingup,sexualconquests, otseducingandusingftiends, orexploitag th�copp�t i�C|i|�, cr stealingsome p�stage stamps ]usttosee people sctamble. Do Sociopaths Kow They Ae Sociopaths? Dosociopathsundetstandwhattheyate?Dotheyhavesome insight intotheitnatute,ot,instead,couldtheyteadthisbookftomcovetto covet and failto see themselves tef|ected? !nmywotk, ! am often askedthesekindsofquestions,especiallybypeoplewhoseliveshave been detailedbycollisionswithsociopathswhomtheydid �ottec- ognizeassuchuntilitwastoolate.!donotknowexactlywhytheis- sueofinsightassumessomuchimpottance,exceptpethapsfotout feelingthatifapetsongetsthtoughlifetotallywithout conscience, beotsheshouldatleastacknowledgethatvegfact.Wefeelthatif • l ¯¨. someoneisbad,heshouldbebutdenedwiththeknow|edgethahe u bad.!t seems to ustheultimateinin]usticeth�tapetsoncou|dbe �vi|,b�outassessment,andsti|| feelhne �bouthimse|f. Howevet, this is exactlywhat seems to h�ppe n. Fot the most patt, peop|ewhomweassessaseviltendtoseenothingatallwtong with t��itw �¨ º �)eig� ���ew,�o,� th� a t,inLmou,i � theit tefusal to acknowledge tesponsibility fot the decisions they .. · � .· ~� '--- ---....-�--�---¯¯"*ª¹^'" * ¯�´ make,otfottheoutcomesoftheitdecisions. !nfact,atefusaltosee � 49 - ´ MARTHA S T OUT thetesultsofone'sbadbehaviotashavinganythingtodowithone- self-¨consistent ittesponsibilig¨ in the language ofthe Ametican Psych�tnetstoneofthe antisocialpetsonal- |ty diagnosis. Skipillustt¯dthisaspectofhis petsonaligwhenhe exp¯inedtha:the employeewhoseatmhebtokehadactua|lybto- kenheto�atmwhenshe didnot submitto himteadilyenough. Peoplewithout conscience ptovide endless examples ofsuchstun- ning¨lvedonenothingwtong¨statements.Oneofthemostfamous is a quotation ftom Chicagos sadistic Ptohibition gangstet, P Capone. ¨I amgoingto St. Petetsbutg, F|otida, tomottow. Letthe wotthycitizensofChicagogettheitliquotthebesttheycan.I'msick ofthe]ob-it's athanklessoneandfu|lofgtief.Ive beenspending the bestyeatsofmylifeas a public benefactot. ¨Othetsociopaths do not bothetwith such convoluted teasoning, otthey ate not in commanding-enoughpositionstohaveanyone listentotheitoutta- geous logic. Instead, when conftontedwithadesttuctive outcome thatiscleatlytheitdoing,theywillsay,plainandsimple,¸ � ² vetdid that, ¨andwillto all apµeatances believe theitownditect lie. This (at��� ofs 9 ciopathy m�kes self-awateness imp��sible, and inthe end, ]ustasthe sociopath has no genuine te|ationshipswithothet people, hehasonlyavegtenuc�s onewithhimself . • , ´ ¹ , Ifanything,peoplewithoutconsciencetendtobelievetheitway ofbeing in the wotld is supetiotto outs They often speak ofthe naïveté ofothetpeop|eandtheittidicu|oussctuples,otoftheitcu tiosiµaboutwhysomanypeopleate unwillingto manipulateoth- ets, even inthesetvice oftheitmostimpottantambitions. Otthey theotizethatallpeopleatethesame-unsctupulous,likethem-but ate dishonestlyplayacting som�thingmythical called ¨conscience. ¨ Bythis lattet ptoposition, the· only sttaightfotwatd and honest peop|em thewotldatetheythemse|ves.Theyate being ¨teal¨ ìn a sociegofphonies Still, I believe that somewhete butied safely away ftom con- sciousness,thetemaybeafaintintetnal¬utmutingthatsomething . 50 . T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R is missing, somethingthat othet people have I saythis because I ` have heatd sociopaths speak offeeling °empty¨ ot even °hollow ° And I saythisbecausewhatsociopaths envy, andmayseekto de- sttoy as a patt oftbe game, is usuallysomethin� inthe chatactet sttuctuteofapetsonwith conscience, andsttongchatactetsateof- . ¯¯ tenspeciallytatgetedbysociopaths.Andmostofall, Isaythis be- cause it is human beings who ate tatgeted, tathet than the eatth itself,otsome aspectofthematetialwotldSociopathswanttoplay theit games withothetpeople.Theyate not somuchintetested in challengesftomthe inanimate. Eventhe desttuctionoftheWotld Ttadetowets was mainly aboutthe peoplewhowete inthem, and thepeoplewhowouldseeandheataboutthecatasttopheThissim- ,lebutctucialobsetvationimpliesthat,insociopathy,t�etete � ains someinnateidticat�onwithothethumanbeings, atiewiththe speciesitself. owevet, this thi n inbotn connection,which e�.bles envy, isone-dimensionalandstetile,especiallywhenconttastedwith thevast attayofcomplex and highlychatged emotionaltesponses mostµeoplehavetooneanothetandtotheitfellowhumanbeings asagtoup. Ifallyouhadevetfelttowatdanothetpetsonwetethecoldwish to°win,¨howwouldyouundetstandthemeaningoflove,offtiend- ship,otcating?Youwouldnotundetstand.Youwouldsimplygoon . ¯^¬ dominating, and denying, andfeelingsupetiot. Pethaps,ouwo�ld expetiencealittleemptinesssometimes,atemote senseofdissatls- íaction, butthatis all.Andwiththewholesaledenial,of,outttue impactonothetpeople, howwouldyouundetstandwhoyouwete? Once again,youwouldnot Like SupetSkip himself, SupetSkip's mittotcantellonlylies. His glass does notshowhimtheicinessof hissoul,andtheSkipwhospenthischildhoodsummetsmutilating bullftogsbyanothetwise-peacefulVitginialakewilleventuallygoto his gtave not undetstanding that his life could have been full cf lmeaningandwatmth - 5) * ` | when normal conS C lence s leeps Te price of feedom is eteral vigilance. �Thomas Jefferson . ~�- L onscience is a cteatot ofmeaning. A a sense of �onsttaint tooted in out emotional ties to o n e anothet, it ptevents life ftom devolvingintonothingbutalongandessentiallybotinggame of attempted dominance ovet out fellow human beings, and fot eveglimitationconscience imposes onus, itgives usamomentof connectednesswithanother abtidgetosomeoneotsomethingout- side ofoutoftenmeaninglessschemesConsidetingtheice-coldal- temative ofbeingsomeone like Skip, conscience is devoutlyto be wished.Sothequestionatises.Inthe 96petcentofuswhoatenot sociopathic, does conscience evet chan ¿e? Does it evetwavet ot -+·~-. ~ -~~¬• �··¬~¬ - �� ¯¯¯ ¯' ·**`+=¬~�~. weaken-otdie? ^¯ ' ·· " .�····¬�`` Thettuthisthatevenanotmalpetson'sconsciencedoes notop- etate onthe same levelallofthetime.Oneofthesimplestteasons fotthischangeabilityisthefundamentalcitcumstancesofliving.a· ø side a fallible, need-dtiven human body. When out bodies ate e�- ¯¸ 52 ¯ T H E S OC I OPAT H N E XT D O O R hausted, sick, ot in]uted, all ofout emotional functions, including conscience,canbetempotarilycomptomised. o ~ > Jo illusttatethis,ashedtivesalonginhiscat,letusgiveattotney .]oe,ownetofReebok,adizzingfevetofabout I02degtees.Wecan seetightawaythathiscommonsenseisfalteting,since,sickasheis, he is stilltgingtogettohismeetingatwotk. Butwhat abouthis motal sense? A a pitilessvitustakes possessionofhis body, what does ]oe do when he temembets that his dog Reebok, whom he loves,hasnofood?Inthisvetsionofthestog, ]oe maybatelyhave enoughenetgtogothtoughwiththeplanshehasalteadymade,let alone be able to thinkquickly, ptiotitize onthe spot, and teditect himself,ashedoesinthenonsick-]oescenatio.Fevetishandqueasy, nowhisemotionalteactiontoReebok'sdisttessisinditectcompeti- tionwithhis ownmiseg.MaybeconsciencewillstillptevailOnthe othethand,maybe]oe, weakenedbyillness,nolongetpossessesthe completesttengtbofhis convictions. Followingthe coutse ofleast tesistance,maybehewill]ustkeepdtivingandtgtosuffetthtough hisotiginalplans, andReebok,thoughnotaltogethetfotgotten,will betelegatedtcanemotionalbackbutnetfotawhile. Thisisnotteallyhowwewanttothinkabout]oe,otaboutout- selves, butitis intetesting, anditisttue Outexalted sense ofcon- science the btinget ofconnection and meaning, can at times be signincantlyanectedbysomethingastotallyittelevanttotightvet- suswtong, as untelatedto outmotalsensibilities, as the flu-ota missed night's sleep, ot a cat ctash, ot a toothache Notmal con- sciencenevetdisappeats,butwhenthebodyisweak,c.nsciencecan ¸etvegsleepyandunfocused. Passaulttothebodyis o ne o ftwothings-theothetonebeing gteat îeat-that elevate continued, wide-awake conscience to an hetoiclevelinouteyes Ifapetsonisacutelyillotsetiouslyin]uted, _ ,�taftaid,andyettemainsttuetohisothetemotionalattachments, �wethinkofthatpetson as coutageous. The classic example isthe 53 M4R T HA S T O ' ftontline soldietwho, thoughin]utedhimself, tescues his comtade ftomenemynte. Thatwe insist on the concept ofcoutage to de- sctibesuchacts is outtacitackuowledgmentthatthevoiceofcon- scienceiscommonlyoutshoutedbysubstantialpainotfeat.Andin otdetto catefotReebok, if]oeweteto makeanexttadtivehome evenwithafevetofI02, wemightseehisbehaviotashetoicinami- notwayWewoulddomotethan]ustsmileathimsentlmentallyWe mightwantto pathimon theback. Anothet bodily inßuence on conscience is, sttangely enough, hotmones ¸ 1otelatethis impaitment ofconscience succinctly�ac- cotdingtongutesftomtheNationalAdoption!nfotmationCleating- house, Ió to I8petcentoftecentbitths inthe UnitedStateswete `unwantedbythemothet¨atthetimeofconception Itisfaittoas- sume that some ofthese ptegnancies tesulted ftom ignotance ot genuineaccident,butto be sute,hundtedsof1housandsofbtand- newAmeticans ate now livingthe insecute existence ofunwanted childten simply because a physical appetite eclipsedtheit¡a���is' consciencesfot]ustafewminutes in eachcase.Whenspeakingof sexual ptessutes, weacknowledge howdifncult it can be to atgue withoutbiologicalnatute, andwetaiseinstancesofsustainedcon- science to the lofg designation of`vittue. °Notewotthyisthat, by thisdennition, weateoftenmote`vittuous°atfotgthanweweteat tweng, andthis°vittue°is achievedmetelythtoughaging. Thete ate ttagic biological subvetsions of conscience, as well. These include thevatious schizophtenic disotdets that sometimes causeindividualstoac¡based�npsychoticdelusions.Whenthehu- ¸manbtainisimpaitedinthisway, `Thevoicestoldmetodoit°isnot a]oke buta hotti(ing tealig, andfotthehaunted soulwhosepsy- chosiswaxesandwanesovettime,theteisthepossibiligof`waking¨ ftominsanigtonndthathehasactedonadelusional ideaagainst hisownconscienceandwill. Fottunately,theptessutesoutbodiesbtingtobeatonconscience atefaitlycitcumsctibed.Outsideofcombat, situationsinwhichwe 54 T H E S OC" O PATH N E XT D OOR mustmakectucialmotaldecisionswhileweatesevetelyin]uteddo nothappentousevetyday, otevenevegyeat,andfotmostpeople, sexualenthtallmentissimilatlyinftequent. Out-of-conttolpatanoid schizophteniaistelativelytate. Eventakentogethet,the biological limitationsonoutmotalsensedonotaccountfotvegmuchofthe incomptehensib|y bad behaviotwe can tead about in outnewspa- petsotseeonouttelevisionsanyhoutofanyday.Schizophtenicsate unlikelyto be otganized tettotists. Toothaches do not cause hate ctimes. Unptotectedsexdoesnotstattwats. Sowhatdoes? MoralE×clusion EachyeatontheFoutthof]uly,thelittleseasideNewEnglandtown whete I live lights 8 thtee-stogcelebtatogbonnte on the beach. Palletsofdgwoodatenailedtogethetandattfullystackedontopof one anothetin atowetlike shape that dominates outquaintland- scapefotsevetaldays befotethe Foutth. Thetowetis consttucted ]ustso,withenoughplanksofwoodandenoughspacefotaitßowin betweenthatitcanbecountedontoflameupquickly. Itisignited as datkness falls, with the volunteet nte depattment standing by, hosesatthe teady,]ustin case.The atmospheteisfestive.The band plays pattiotic songs.1hete at� hot dogs and Slutpees and a nte- wotksdisplay.Whenthebonntehasbutnedoutcompletely,thechil- dtentetutntothebeach,whetethentemenobliginglydtenchthem withtheithoses Allofthishasbeenatownttaditionfotsiµyeats,butnotbe- ingabigfanofmassiventes,Ihaveattendeditonlyonce,in2002, whenIwasencoutagedbyftiendsIwasamazedbythenumbetsof ' peoplewhohadsomehowptessedthemselvesintoouttinycotnetof .theAtlanticcoastline, some ofthemftomnf t yotmote miles away, Y | and I]ostledwiththectowdtonndaspotcloseenoughto seethe - 55 ~ MART H A S TOUT nte, but fat enough away nottoget my eyebtows singed, otsol thought.Ihadbeenwatnedthatoncethentegotgoing,thetewould be mote heat than I could imagine, and it was alteady a nineg- degteeday.Asthesunbegantoset,thetewetehootsandshoutsand callsfotthetowettobetotched, andwhenflamewasnnallyputto wood,thetewasacollectivegasp.Thenteimmediatelybegantoen- gulfthewoodensttuctuteliketheunstoppablefotceitwas,ftomthe sandupwatdtoanights|thatsuddenlyblazedAndthencamethe heat.Withthefeelofaneat-solidob]ect,awallofunbeatable,even ftightening�upetheatedaittolledoutwatdftomthenteinwavesof incteasing intensig, taking the ctowd by sutptise and pushing us awayenmasseEachtimeIthoughtIwasfatenoughaway, Ihadto movebackanothetnftyyatds,andthenanothetnfgyatds,andthen anothet. Myface hutt. Iwouldnevethavedteamedthat a bonnte couldmakethatmuchheat,notevenonethatwasthteestotieshigh. Once people had tetteated to a sufncient distance, a sense of happy fascination tetutned, and when the otnamental top ofthe towetwas consumed by the nte, tbe ctowdapplauded. The otna- mentatthe summithad been builtto tesemble alittle house, and nowthe house contained a miniatute infetno This and the vague senseofdangetandtheheatalldistutbedmesomehow, andIcould not seem to shate the feeling ofa1estive occasion. Instead, pet- vetsely, Ibegantothinkaboutthete�lityofthewitchbutningsinthe sixteenthandseventeenth�entuties, eventsIhavealwaysthoughtof as incomptehensible, andhot as Iwas, I shiveted alittle Itis one thingtoteadabouta ntelatgeenoughtoexecuteahumanbein�. It isanothetthingtostandinftontofsuchante,alongwithanexcited, hootingctowd The sinistethistotical associations would not leave me, andstubbotnlykeptmeftomtakinganydelightinthemoment. Iwondeted.Howhadthewitchbutningshappened?Howcould such nightmates have been teal? Evetthe psychologist, I looked atound atthe people. Cleatly, these wete not bewildeted Basque tefugees in I6I0, ftanticallyseatchingfotdiaboliststo butn Hete - 55 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR we wete, a ctowd ofnew-millennium, peace-loving, nonhystetical citizens,unscattedbyhatdshipotmenacingsupetstition.Thetewas noblood lust hete, otsub]ugationofconscience.Thetewas laugh- tet and neighbotly feeling. We wete eating hot dogs and dtinking Slutpeesand celebtating Independence Day.Wewete nota heatt- less, amotal mob, andwewouldbyno means have tallied atounda mutdet, letalonethestagingofatottute. Ifbysomebizattetealig watp thete had suddenlybeen a human ngute wtithing in those colossalflames,onlytheanonymoushandfulofsociopathsamongus wouldhave beenunanected otpethapsentettained Ofthe test, a fewgoodpeoplewouldhavestatedinpatalyzeddisbelief, anumbet ofespeciallycoutageouspeoplewouldhave ttiedto intetvene, and mostofthectowdwouldhavefledinundetstandabletettot.Andthe once-cheetfulbonntewouldhavebecome attaumaticimageseated intoallofoutbtainsfotthetestofoutlives. Butwhat ifthe butning human ngute had been Osama bin Laden? HowwouldthisctowdofAmeticannationals in2002 have teactedifsuddenlyconftontedwiththepublicexecutionofthepet- sonidentinedbythemasthewotld'smostdespicablevillain?Would these notmally conscience-bound, chutchgoing, nonviolent people havestoodbyandallowedit?Mightthetehavebeenenthusiasm,ot atleasiacquiescence,tathetthannauseaandhottotatthespectacle ofahumanbeingdyinginagony? Standingtheteamongallthose goodpeople,Isuddenlytealized thattheteactionmighthavebeensomethinglessthanhottot,sim- plybecauseOsamabinLadenisnot ahumanbeinginoutview.He u Osama,andassuch,tobottowanexptessionftomEtinStaubin Te Roots of Evil, hehasbe�ncompletely`excludedftomoutmotal univetse. °The intetventions ofconscience no longetapplyto him. Heisnothuman. Heisanit. Andunfottunately,thisttansfotmation ofamanintoani/makeshimscatietaswell Sometimes people appeat to desetve out motal exclusion of them,astettotistsappeattodo Othetexamplesofits atewatctim- - 57 MAR T HA S T OUT |nals,ch|ldabductots,andsetialk|llets,and|neachofthesecases,a cons|deted atgument can be (and has been) made, t|ghtly ot wtongly, thatcetta|n t|ghts to compass|onatetteatmenthave been fotfe|ted.But|nmostcases,outtendencytoteducepeopletonon- be|ngs |s ne|thetcons|deted notconsc|ous, andthtoughouth|stoty outptocl|vigtodehuman|zehastoooftenbeentutned aga|nstthe essent|ally|nnocent. Thel|stofoutgtoupsthatsomepott|onofhu- mank|ndhasatonet|meotanothetdemotedtothestatusofhatdly evenhuman|sextemelyIongand, |ton|cally, |ncludescategot|esfot neatlyevegone ofus.blacks,Commun|sts,cap|tal|sts,gays,Nat|ve Amet|cans, ]ews, fote|gnets, `w|tches, ¨ women, Musl|ms, Cht|s- t|ans,the Palest|n|ans, theIstael|s,thepoot,thet|ch,the It|sh, the Engl|sh, the Amet|cans, the �|nhalese, Tam|ls, Alban|ans, Ctoats, Setbs,Hutus,Tutsis,and Itaq|s, tonamebutafew. Andoncetheothetgtouphasbecomepopulatedbyits, anyth|ng goes, espec|ally|fsomeone |nauthot|(g|vestheotdet Consc|ence |snolongetnecessa, because consc|enceb|ndsustoo:|� i�gs a�!�t .: ���sc�¬����:�tlqt � p ����� omy · , y n ¤ s, ��¬, � �ot ys You ��«���a÷�motse, and � |m- (and maybeevenpta|seftomtheothets|nmygtoup-Ican ¬ � �� � � '¯"¨������ ·¨������� otbutn ` � Ishouldtecotdthatnothingbadactuallyhappenedatthebon- ntem 2002. AsfatasIknow,thesemacabtethoughtsoccuttedonly tome.The ßamesconsumedonlywood.Thentewas as|ghttobe- hold,andthenbumed|tselfout,]ustasplanned.Laugh|ngch|ldten, safe|nthe|thometown,tompedonthebeachandgotdousedbythe ntemen. One w|shes that human gathet|ugs could always be as peaceful. 58 . T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D OOR Te Emperor's New Clothes When conscience fal|s into a ptofound ttance, when it sleeps thtough acts of tottute, wat, and genocide, political leadets and othet ptominent individuals can make the dinetence between a gtadualteawakeningofoutseventhsense and a continued amotal nightmateHistogteachesthatattitudesandplanscomingftomthe topdealingptagmaticallywithptoblemsofhatdshipandinsecutiµ inthegtoup,tathetthanscapegoatinganoutgtoup,canhelpuste- tutntoamotetealisticviewofthe °othets ° Intime,motalleadet- shipcanmakeadiffetence. Buthistogshows usalsothataleadet withnoseventhsensecanhypnotizethegtoup consciencestillfut- thet, tedoubling catasttophe Usingfeat-based ptopaganda to am- plifyadesttuctive ideolog, suchaleadetcanbtingthemembetsof aftightenedsocieµtoseetheits asthesoleimpedimenttothegood life,fotthemselvesandmaybeevenfothumaniµasawhole,andthe conßictasanepicbattlebetweengoodandevilOncethesebeliefs havebeendisseminated, ctushingtheits withoutpiµotconscience can,withchillingease,becomeaninconttovettiblemandate Thetecuttencethtoughouthistogofthissecondµpeofleadet taisesalonglistofdumbfoundingquestionsWhydoesthehuman tacetoletatethissottowfulstogovetandovet,likeamindlessbto- kentecotd?Whydowecontinuetoallow�d:�:t�� ated byself-intete,ot By ¡heit own ,s,|ogicalissuesftomth�� to £nbluemess at.dpoliticcrlsimtoam ad � � � ��� ¯¯¯ ^ *� wat? Inthewotstinstances,whydowe let people whothink like �" ftog-killing,atm-bteakingSkiptuntheshowandplaygamesofdom- inancewith othet people's lives?What becomes ofout individual consciences?Whydowenotstandupfotwhatwefeel? Oneexplanationisoutttancelikestate,whichletsusbelievethat the ones who ate dying ate only its anyway And thete is feat, of õ9 MAR T HA S T OUT coutse-always-andoftenasenseofhelplessness.We lookatound atthectowdandwethinktooutselves,Toomanyateagainstme, ot ! don't heat any othet people ptoiesting this, ot, even mote te- signed|y, That's]ustthe waythewotld is, otThats politics. All of thesefeelingsandbeliefscansignincant|ymuteoutmotalsense,but whetethedisablingofconsciencebyauthotigisconcetned,theteis som�thingevenmoteeffective,somethingmoteelementalthanob- ]ecti(ingthe °othets, ¨mote cloying andmisetab|ethan asenseof he|plessness,andevidentlymotedifnculttoconquetthanfeatitself. Vegsimply, we ate ptogtammedto obeyauthotigeven ag�inst our _ ow conscience�. !n I96I and I962, inNewHaven, Connecticut,YaleUnivetsity ptofessotStanleyMilgtamdesignedand nlmed oneofthemostas- tonishing psychologica| expetiments evetconducted. Mi|gtam set outtopitthehumantendencytoobeyauthotityassquarelyaspos- sible against i�vidual conscience. C�ncetninghis method of·n- quig,hewtote, °Ofa|lmota|ptinciples,theonethatcomesclosest tobeingunivetsallyacceptedisthis. oneshouldnotinflictsufíeting onahelplesspetsonwhoisneithethatmfulnotthteateningtoone- self.Thisptinciple isthe countetfotceweshallsetinoppositionto obedience. ¨ Mi|gtam's expetimental ptocedute was telentlessly sttaightfot- watd, andthe n|medvetsion ofhis study has outtaged humanists, andunsuspectingcollegestudents,fotfottyyeats. !nthestudy, two men, sttangets to each othet, attive at a psychologlabotatogto patticipate in anexpetimentthat has beenadvettised as havingto dowith memogand leaming. Patticipation is tewatdedwith fout dollats, plus nµ cents fot catfate. At the lab, the eçetimentet ( Stanley Mi|gtam himself, in the nlmed vetsionj explains to both menthatthestudyconcems°theeffectsofpunishmentonleatning. ¨ Oneofthetwoi sdesignatedasthe°leatnet¨andisescottedintoan- othettoomandseatedinachait.Allwatchastheleametsatmsate mattet-of-f�ctly sttappedtothe chait, °to pteventexcessive move- - 50 " T H E S OC 1 0 PAT H N E XT DO 0 R ment, °andanelecttode is attachedtohiswtist Heistoldthathe mustleatnalistofwotdpaits(blue box, nice day, wild duck, etc) ,and thatwhenevethemakesamistake,he willteceive anelectticshock �|eachmistake,theshockwillincteaseinintensig The othet petson is told that he is to be the `teachet° in this leatning expetiment Aftettheteachethaswatchedthe leatnet get sttappedtoachaitandwitedfotelectticshock,theteachetistaken intoadiffetenttoomandaskedtotakeaseatinftontofalatge,omi- nous machine called a `shockgenetatot °The shockgenetatothas thitçswitches,attangedhotizontallyandlabeledby`volts, °ftom Ió voltsallthewayto4ó0volts, in I5-volt inctements Inadditionto the numbets, the switches ate btandedwith desctiptotsthat tange ftom SLIGHT SHOCK to the sinistetappellationofDAGER-- SEVERE SHOCK. Theteachetishandedthelistofwotdpaitsandtoldthathis ]obistoadministetatesttotheleatnetintheothettoom.Wenthe leametgets ananswettight-fotexample, teachet calls out `blue,° andleatnetanswets`box°-theteachetcanmoveontothenexttest item Butwhen the leatnet gives an.ncottect answet, the teachet mustpushaswitchandgivehimanelectticshockTheexpetimentet insttuctsthe teachet to begin at the lowest level ofshock ou the shockgenetatot,andwitheachwtonganswet,toincteasetheshock levelbyoneinctement The le�met in the othet toom is actually the expetimentet's ttainedconfedetate, anactot, andwillteceive noshocks at all But ofcoutsetheteachetdoesnotknowthis, anditisthe teachetwho isthetealsub]ectoftheexpetiment Theteachetcallsoutthentstfewitemsofthe`leamingtest, °and then ttouble begins, because the leatnet-Milgtam's accomplice, unseen intheothettoom-stattstosoundveguncomfottable. At 7ó volts, the leatnetmakesamistake onthe wotd pait, the teachet administets the shock, and the leatnet gtunts. At I20 volts, the leamet shouts to the expetimentetthatthe shocks ate becoming painful,andat Ió0volts,theunseenleatnetdemandstobeteleased - 5) MA RT HA S T OUT ftom the expetiment. / the shocks get sttonget, the leamet's ptotests soundmoteand �otedespetate,andat28óvolts,heemits an agonized scteam. The expetimentet-theYale ptofessot in the white lab coat-stands bebind the teachet, who is seated at the shockgenetatot,andcalmlygivesasequ e nceofsctiptedptods,such. as `Please continue, ¨ ot The expetiment tequites that you con- tinue, ¨ot''Whethettheleatnetlikesitotnot,youmustgoonuntil hehasleatnedallthewotdpaitscottectly. Sopleasegoon.¨ Milgtamtepeatedthisptocedutefotgtimesusingfotgdiffetent sub]ects-people who wete `in evegday life tesponsible and de- cent¨-including high school teachets, postal cletks, salesmen, manuallabotets, andengineets.Thefotçteptesentedvatiousedu- cationallevels, ftomonemanwhohadnotnnishedhighschoolto othetswhohaddoctotalotothetptofessionaldegtees.Theaimof theexpetimentwastodiscovethowlongthesub]ects(theteachets inthisexpetiment)wouldtaketodisobeyMilgtam'sauthotigwhen ptesentedwithacleatmotal impetative. Howmuchelectticshock wouldtheyadministettoapleading, scteamingsttangetmetelybe- cseanauthotigngutetoldthemtodoso? WhenI showMilgtamsnlmto alectutehallfullofpsycholog students, I askthemtoptedicttheanswetsto thesequestions.The students ate always cettain that conscience will ptevail. Many of themptedictthatalatgenumbetofthesub]ectswillwalkoutofthe expetimentassoonastheynndoutabouttheuseofelectticshock. Mostofthestudentsatesutethat, ofthesub]ectswho �emain, all buta fewwill defythe expetimentet, pethaps tellinghimto go to hell, atleastbythetimethemanintheothettoomdemandstobe fteed(atIó0volts) . Andofcoutse, thestudentsptedict, onlyatiny numbetofvetysick,sadisticsub]ectswillcontinuepushingswitches all thewayto 4ó0 volts, whete the machine itselfsays LACLK~ 5LVLKL 5MLLK. Hete iswhatactuallyhappens.Thitg-foutofMilgtamsotiginal fotgsub]ectscontinuetoshockth� t.�, w�th�, |�li�xobe . � � · -- =. - 52 t T H E S OC I O PAT H N E XT D O O R sttappedto a chait, even aftethe asks to beteleased ftomtbe ex- petiment In fact, ofthese thiµ-foutsub|ects,tweng-nve-thatis to say, 62.ó petcent ofthe total gtoup--n�vet disobeythe expeti- metetatanypoint,continuingtoptesstheswitchesallthewayto the end ofthe sequence ¦4ó0 voltsj despite entteaties and shtieks ftomthemanintheothettoom.Theteachetssweat,theycomplain, theyholdtheitheads, buttheycontinue.Whenthe nlm is ovet, I watchtheclock. Inalectutehallfullofstudentswhohave]ustseen thisexpetimentfotthentsttime,theteisalwaysstunnedsilencefot atleastone fullminute Aftet the otiginal expetiment, Milgtam vatied his design in a numbet ofways In one vatiation, fotexample, sub]ectswete not commandedto opetatethe switches zhat shockedthe leatnet, only to call outthe wotds fotthewotd-pa|r iest befote anothetpetson pushedtheswitches. Inthisvetsionoftheexpetiment,thitg-seven offottypeople ¦92.ópetcentj cont,nuedtopatticipate tothe high- estshocklevelonthe°genetatot. ¨Tbusfat,theteachetsinthestudy had beenonlymen. Milgtamnowttied his expetimentusingfotty women,speculatingthatwomenmightbemoteempathicTheitpet- fotmance was vittually identical, except that obedient women te- · potted �ote s ¹� e ss ¹ � ²¦ � �e dien � men. Stud�� usingthe Milgtam modelwetetepeatedatsevetalothetunivetsities,andsooninvolved mot ª thanathousandsub]ectsofbothgendetsandftommanywalks oflife.Thetesultstem�inedessentiallythesame. Themany-times-teplicated outcome ofhis obedience studyled . Milgtamtomakethefamousptonouncementthathashaunted,and also motivated, somanystudents ofhumannatute "A substantial ptoponionofpeopledowhattheyatetoldtodo, ittespectiveofthe contentoft � e � ' t a � dw �� h '� ' li���ationsofcoi:sci�t:ce,so lo ngas I I ' · theypetceivetbatthecommandcomesftomalegitimateautbotig. ° | · · Milgtam belie�ed t h at �uth�ti( �o�ld ;�t c���� t� sl��p mainly because the obedie�t person ma�es �n ' ad]ustment of thought, ° whichistoseehimselfasnot responsi b l e f or h is own actio �: ' ¯¬ ~�- • ••¨-. . ^• • "¨ ` · • • « « 53 & MARTHA S T OUT · In bismind,heisnolongetapetsonwhomustac�inamotallyac- countableway, butthe agentofanextetnalauthotigtowhomhe at:tibut� � all responsibilig and all initiative This °ad]ustmen: of thought° makesit muc| �asietfot|enignleadetshiptoestablishot- detand conttol, but bythe same psychological mechanism, it has countlesstimestolledoutthetedcatpetfotself-setving,malevolent, andsociopathk ¨authotities. ° WhereConscienceDrawstheLine . Theextenttowhichauthotigdullsconscienceisanectedbythepet- ceivedlegitimacyofthatauthotig Ifthepetsongivingtheotdetsis seenasasubotdinate,otevenasanequal,thesame¨ad]ustmentof thought°maynevetoccut InMilgtam'sinitialstudy, oneofthemi- notityofpeoplewhoeventuallytefusedtocontinuewiththeexpeti- mentwasathitg-twc-yeat-oldengineetwhoappatentlytegatdedthe scientistinthelabcoptas,atmost,bisintellectualpeetThissub]ect pushedhischaitawayftomtheshockgenetatotandinanindignant tone said to Milgtam, '1m an electtical engineet, and I have had shocks. . IthinkI'vegonetoofatalteady,ptobably °Inanintetview latet,whenMilgtamaskedhimwhowasaccountab|efotsho�kingthe ¸ ¸ ¸manintheothettoom,hedidn�tassignanytespo�sibiligtotheex- petimentet Instead, heteplied, ¨I would putitonmyselfcntitely ° � Hewasaptofessionalpetsonwi:h anad�a���! · e±��ti��, ��d�du- cationmustbe acknowledgedas one ofthe factotsthat detetmine whethetotnotconsciencestays alett ItwouldbeÛ gtaveaudatto- gantmistaketoimagineth�tanacad�micdegteeditectlyincteases thesttengthofcons�ienceinthehumanpsyche.Ontheothethand, educationcansometimeslevelthepetceivedlegitimacyofanauthot- ig ngute, andthetebylimitunquestioningobedienceWitheduca- tion andknowledge, the individual maybe abletoholdontothe petceptionofhiu- othetselfasalegitimateauthoti( ó " · " T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R Relatedly, in anothet petmutation ofhis expetiment, Milgtam posedan°otdinagman, °tathetthanascientist, asthepetso�who otdetedthesub]ectstoad�inistetshocks.Whenan°otdinatyman° �wasinchatg-insteadofamaninawhitelabcoat,obedienceonthe patt of the sub]ects dtopped ftom 62.ó petcent to 2O petcent. _ ªPackagingandpetceptionsatenotevegthing,butevidentlytheyget , ptetµclose. Some ofusmaytesistapetsonwho lookslikewe do, but mostofuswill obeysomeonewho looks, like anauthotig. This , nndingisofpatticulatconcetn in anagewhen out leadets and ex- pettscometousviathemagicoftelevision,wheteneatlyanyonecan bemadetoappeatpatticianandcommandinglylatgetthanlife. !nadditiontobeinglatgetthanlife, imagesontelevisionateup close andpetsonal-theyate inoutlivingtooms-andanothetfac- totthataffectsauthotity'spowettoovetwhelmindividualconscience istheptoximityofthepetsongivingthecommands WhenMilgtam vatiedhisexpetimentsuchthathewasnotinthetoom,obedience dtoppedbytwo-thitds, toaboutthesame levelaswhenan°otdinaty man° wasinchatge.Andwhen authotigwasnot close by,sub]ects tendedto ¨cheat° by using onlythe lowet shock levels onthe ma- chine The neamess ofauthotigis especially televant to the teal-life obediencetequitementsofcombatandwat.As ittutnsout,individ- ualconsciencedtawsasutptisinglyntmlineatkilling-sutptisingfot thosewhothinkofhumanbeingsasnatutalwatmakets.Thisaspect ofconscienceissotesilientinnotmalpeoplethatmilitagpsycholo- gistshaveneededtodevisewaysatoundit.Fotexample,militatyex- \ petts nowknowthatto make menkillwithanykind ofteliabilig, commands must be given by authotities who ate ptesent with the ttoops. Othetwise,themenintheneldwilltendto °cheat°ontheit otdetstokill,willintentionallymisaimotsimplyfailtonte,tokeep ftomviolatingthismightiestptosctiptionofconscience. Btig Gen S. L. A MatshallwasaUnited Statescombathisto- tianinthePacinctheatetdutingWotldWat!!andlatetbecauethe ~ ¿§ & MA RT HA S T OUT ofnclalhlstotlanoftheEutopeantheatetofopetatlons.Hewtoteof manyWotldWat!!lncldentslnwhlchalmostallsoldletsobeyedand nted theltweapons whlle thelt leadets wete ptesent to command them,butwhentheleadetsleft,thentlngtatedtoppedlmmedlately tobetween I5 and20petcent Matshallbellevedthatthegteatte- llefdlsplayedbysoldlets lna sectotwhetetheywetenotbelngdl- tectlyotdetedto nte °was due not somuchto the teallzatlonthat thlngs wete safetthete astotheblessedknowledgethatfotatlme theywetenot un d er t h e compu l sion to ta k e l i f e. " !nhlsbookOn Ki ll ing: T h e Psyc h o l ogica l C ost o f Learing to Ki ll in War an d S ociety, fotmet\. b. AtmyRangetandpatattoopetL. Co| Dave Gtossman tevlews Matshall's obsetvatlons, along wlth the FB!'s studles ofnonntlngtates amonglaw-enfotcementofncets ln the I950sand I9ö0s,andobsetvatlonsofnonntlngftomalongllst ofwats,lncludlngtheAmetlcanClvllWat,WotldWats !und!!, the VletnamWat, andthe FalklandsWat. He concludesthat °the vast ma]otlgofcombatants thtoughouthlstog, atthemomentofttuth whentheycould andshouldkllltheenemy, have foundthemselves to be consclentlous ob]ectots ' ¨ Atetwelghlng the consldetable hlstotlcalevldencethatgtoundsoldletsoftenteslstandquletlysab- otageoppottunltlesto klll, Gtossman comes to a °noveland teas- sutlng concluslon about the natute of man desplte an unbtoken . � ttadltlonofvlolenceandwat,manlsnotbynatuteaklllet.°To su� vettthebottomllneofconsclence,tobeabletothtustabayonetot pullattlggettoklllasttanget,notmalhumanbelngsmustbecate- fully taught, psychologlcallycondltloned, and commandedbyau- thotltlesonthebattleneld. AIso,lthelpstoencoutagemotalexcluslon,totemlndthettoops thattheenemysoldletsatenothlngbutits, Ktauts,slants, gooks.A PetetWatsonwtlteslnWar on t h e Min d : T e Mi l itar Uses an d A b uses o f Psyc h o l ogy, °thestupldlgoflocalcustomslstldlculed, ¨ and°local petsonalltlesateptesentedasevlldemlgods On and onthe battleneld, fotboththe ttoops and the people 55 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT DOO, R backhome,thepatticulatwatbeingfoughtmustbepotttayedasa ctucialotevenasactedsttugglebetweengoodandevil,whichisex- ¸ actlythemessagethatauthotities-onallsidesoftheconßict-have ttied to convey duting eveg ma]ot wat in histog. Fot example, thoughitisnowdifnculttotemembetanythingbutthe motalout- tage that exploded duting the nnal phases oftheVietnamWat, as that wat began, Ameticans wete tepeatedlyassutedthattheyand onlytheycouldsavetheSouthVietnamesepeopleftomafututeof tettot and enslavement Speeches by leadets duting wattime, in modemtimesbtoadcastedintooutlivingtooms,havealwayspushed hatdo�thisthemeofanabsolutelynecessagmission,thehighcall- ingthat]ustinesthe killing. And patadoxically, authotigcan mote teadilypto]ectthistakeontealigfotthevegteasonthatconscience , chetishes a high calling and a sense ofmembetship in the tight- mindedgtoup.Inothetwotds,consciencecanbetticked, andwhen itcomestokillingsttangets,ttickegisusuallytequited That psycholog can ptovide the militag with techniques to make killets out ofnonkillets, and that the militag is usingthese ptocedutes, isdispititingnews. Butbehindthebadnewsis apatti- cle ofhopethatglintslike a diamond in a sea ofdatkness.Weate beginningtoleatnthathumanbeings atenotthenatutalkillingma- chines we have at times believed outselves to be. Even undet the . despetate ptessutesofcombat,wehaveoftenleftoutweaponsun- nted, ottakenpootaim,fotwhenitwasnotsilencedundetthebell ]at ofauthotig, thete was always an outcgftom outhuman con- nectedness-thete has always been the voice of conscience-te- mindingusthatwemustnotkill Becauseitsessenceiskilling,watistheultimatecontestbetween conscience and authotity. Outseventh sense demandsthatwe not takelife,andwhenauthotityovettulesconscienceandasoldietisin- duced to kill in combat, he is veg likely to sunet post-ttaumatic sttessdisotdetimmediatelyandfotthe temaindetofhis life, along withthe deptession, divotces, addictions, ulcets, and heattdisease � 57 ª MART H A S T OUT that attend ttaumatic memog. In conttast, teseatch involving Vietnamvetetanshas shownthatsoldietswho ate notplacedinsit- uationswhete theyatefotcedto kill ate no mote likelyto develop thesymptomsofPTSDthan ate thosewho spend theit entite en- listmentathome. Thisctipplingcompetitionbetweenoutmotalsenseandoutau- thotigngutes has gone onalmostunceasinglysince humanbeings began to live in hietatchical societies, fot the past nve thousand yeatsdutingwhicha kingotaland-hungty nobleman, ottheleadet ofastateotanationcouldotdetlesspowetfulindividualstoenteta battleandkillAndappatentlyitisasttuggleofconsciencethatwill notbetesolvedinoutchildten'sotoutgtandchildten'slifetimes. Obedience 6, Conscience 4 StanleyMilgtam,whodemonsttatedthatatleastsixoutoftenpeo- plewilltendto obeyto thebittetend anofncial-lookingauthotig who isphysicallyptesent, pointed outthat peoplewho disobeyde- sttuctive authotigsuffet psychologically, too. Often a petsonwho disobeys nndshimselfat oddswiththe social otdet, andmaynudit hatd to shake the feelingthat he has beenfaithlessto someone ot something to whom he pledged allegiance Obedience is passive, anditisonlythedisobedientonewhomustbeatthe`butdenofhis action,¨to use Milgtam's wotds. Ifcoutage is actingaccotdingio one'sconscience despite painotfeat, thensttengthisthe abiligto keep conscienceawakeandinfotcedespitethedemandsofauthot- itiestodoothetwise Andsttength is impottant, becauseinchampioningthevatious causes ofconscience,theoddsateagainstus To illusttate, Iptoposeanimaginagsociegofexactlyonehun- dtedadults, in agtoupthatconfotmspteciselytoknownstatistic�. Thismeansthatoftheonehundtedpeopleinmyhypotheticalsoci- 58 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R eg, foutatesociopathic-theyhave noconscience. Ofthetemain- ingnineg-sixdecentcitizens,allofwhomdohaveconsciences,62.ó petcentwillobeyauthotigmoteotlesswithoutquestion,quitepos- siblytheauthotigofoneofthemoteaggtessiveandconttollingso- ciopathsinthe ctowd. Thisleavesthitg-sbpeoplewhohave both couscience andthe sttengthto beatthe butdens oftheitactions,a \ littlemotethanathitdofthegtoup.These atenotimpossibleodds, buttheyatenoteasyones,eithet. And thete is yet anothet challenge fot the conscience-bound, whichisthat,sttangeasitseems, mostofthesociopathsateinvisi- ble. Letus tumtothatdilemmanow, andthe tematkable case of DoteenLittleneld. " 59 " the ni cest person ¡ the world I saw a werewolf drinking a piia colada at Trader Vcs His hair was perfect -Warren Zevon Ì oteen glances inthe teatview mittot and wishes fot the bil- lionthtimethatshewetebeautiful.Lifewouldbesomucheas- ietSheappeatsptetginthemittotthismotning,testedandwithall ofhetmakeupon,butsheknowsthatifshewetenotsoskilledwith thecosmetics, otifshe wetetited, shewould look quite plain. She wouldlookplainliketheunsophisticatedgitlftomthesticksthatshe was,¸moteasifshe belongedmilkingacowthaninthedtivet'sseat ofthis black BMW She is onlythitg-fout, and hetskin stilllooks good, no lines yet, a little pale maybe. But het nose is slightly pointed, enough to be noticeable, and het sttaw-coloted hait, het mostptoblematicfeatute,staysdgandftizzlednomattetwhatshe does to it Luckily, hetbodyis excellent. She looks awayftomthe mittotanddownathetlightgtaysilksuit,consetvative butfotmnt- ting. Doteen'sbodyisgood,andevenbettet, sheknows]usthowto move. Fot a woman with a plain face, she is inctediblyseductive " 70 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Wben sbewa|ks actoss a toom, a|| tbe men in it watcb Remem- ·¸ betingtbis, sbesmi|esandstattstbecat Aboutami|eftombetapattment,sbetea|izestbatsbefotgotto feedtbedamnMa|tese Obwe||lbestupidftouftoudogwi||man- agetosutviveunti|sbegetsbomeftomwotktonigbt.Attbispoint, _ a montb aftet tbe impu|se putcbase, sbe cannot be|ieve sbe evet bougbtitanyway Sbe badtbougbtsbewou|d|ooke|egantwbensbe wa|kedit,butwa|kingittumedouttobetediousWbensbecannnd 'tbetime,sbewi||bavetogetitputtos|eep,otmaybesbecanse||it tosomeone !twas expensive, afteta|| !nbetpatkingateaontbesptaw|inggtoundsoftbepsycbiattic bospita|, sbe makes sute to patk bet cat beside]enna's tusted-out Lscott, aconvenientvisua|compatisontotemind]ennaoftbeitte|- ativep|aces intbewot|d Onemote g|ance intbemittotandtben ' Doteen picks up bet btiefcase, stuffed to ovetl|owing to make it · c|eatbowbatdsbewotks,andwa|ksup tbestaitstotbesuiteofof- | hces abovetbewatd A sbe passestbtougbtbewaitingtoom, sbe l|asbes a °Wetegood buddies¨ smi|e at !vy, tbe ftumpysectetag- teceptionistfottbeunit,and!vyimmediate|ybtigbtens °Good motning, Dt Litt|ene|d Ob mygoodness, ! |ove yout suit' !ts]ustgotgeous' ¨ °Wby, tbankyou, !vy ! cana|wayscountouyoutoputueina goodmood, ¨ Doteentep|ieswitbanotbetbigsmi|e.°8uzz:newben • mypatientgetsbete,wou|dyou?¨ Doteen disappeatsintobetofnce, and!vysbakesbetbeadand says out |oud to an empgwaitingtoom, °lbatbas got to be tbe nicestpetsonintbewot|d ¨ ! tiseat|y, notquiteeigbto'c|ock, andi nbetofhceDoteengoes to tbe window to watcb bet co||eagues attive Sbe sees ]ackie Rubensteinwa|kingtowatdtbebui|ding,witbbet|ong|egsandbet effott|ess postute ]ackie is ftom los Ange|es, even-tempeted and funny, andbetbeautifu|o|iveskinmakesbet|ook, a|ways, asusbe ¬ ¬ 7) MAR T HA S T OUT ]ustgot backftom awondetfu|vacation. Sbe is bti||iant aswe||, a gteatdea|smattettbanDoteen, andfottbisteasonevenmotetban tbe otbets, Doteensectet|ydespises bet !nfact, sbe bates bet so mu� tbatsbewou|dki||betifsbetbougbtsbe cou|dgetawaywitb it¸:tt sbe knows sbe wou|d eventua||y get caugbt. Doteen and ]ackie wete postdocs togetbet at tbe bospita| eigbtyeats ago, be- cameftiends,at|eastin]ackie'seyes,andnowDoteenisbeatingtu- motstbat]ackie mayteceive tbe Mentot oftbeYeatAwatdlbey atetbesameage.Howcan]ackiepossib|ywinanawatdfotbeinga °mentot¨attbeageoftbip-fout? Ptomtbe|awn,]ackie Rubenstein|ooksupandnotices Doteen intbe ofncewindow Sbewaves Doteensmi|esgit|isb|yandwaves back. Attbis moment, !vybuzzes Doteenfotbetntstpatientoftbe day, astunning|ybandsome,btoad-sbou|deted,butvegftigbtened- |ookingyoungmannamedDennis!nbospita||ingo,DennisisaV!! (vegimpottantpatient,, becausebeistbenepbewofafamousna- tiona|po|itician.!ntbisma]otteacbingbospita|,tbeteateanumbet ofsucb V!!s, ce|ebtities, tbe wea|tby, fami|y membets ofpeop|e wbose namesatebousebo|dwotds. Dennis is notone ofDoteen's psycbotbetapypatients. Ratbet, Doteen is bisadministtatot, wbicb meanstbatsbemeetswitbbimtwiceaweektoinquitebowbistteat- mentisgoing,to makesutetbepapetwotkisdone,andtoapptove bisdiscbatgeftomtbebospita|wbentbetimecomes Doteenbasa|- teadybeatdftomtbestahtbattodayDenniswi||wanttodiscussbis te|easeHetbinksbebasgottenbettetenougbtogobome. lo sepatatetbeadministtativetasksftomtbepsycbotbetapeutic onesisbospita|po|icy. Lacbpatientbasbotbanadministtatotanda tbetapist. Dennis'stbetapist,wbombe»otsbips, istbeta|entedDt ]ackie Rubenstein. Yestetday, ]ackie to|d Doteentbat betpatient Denniswasttemendous|yimptoved,andtbatsbep|anstotakebim onasanoutpatientwbenbe|eavestbebospita|. NowDennissitsinoneoftbe|owcbaitsinDoteenLitt|ene|d's ¬ 72 * T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ofhceandttiestomakeeyecontact,asbeknowsbesbou|difbeis goingto a ppeatwe||enougbtogo bomeftomtbebospita| 8utbe basabatdtimeandkeeps|ookingaway Sometbingaboutbetgtay suitscatesbim,andsometbingaboutbeteyes.Sti||,be|ikes bet, be tbinksSbebasa|waysbeenextteme|ynicetobim,andotbetpeop|e baveto|dbimtbatofa||tbedoctots,DtLitt|ene|distbeonewbois mostintetestedintbepatients.Anyway, sbeistbeexpett. Doteen, seated bebind bet desk, |ooks at Dennis and matve|s again at tbe petfect |ines ofbis face and bis muscu|attweng-six- yeat-o|dbody Sbewondetsbowmucbmoneybewi||endup inbet- iting 8uttbensbe temembetsbetmission, and tties to|ockin bis netvousgazewitbamatetna|smi|e °!beatyou'vebeenfee|ingmucbbettettbisweek,Dennis ° °lbat's tigbt, Dt. Litt|ene|d. !'ve beenfee|ingmucb bettettbis week. Rea||y, awbo|e|otbettet. Myideasate mucbbettetlbey'te notbotbetingmea||tbetime|iketbeywetewben!camein ° °Wbydoyoutbinktbatis,Dennis?Wbydoyoutbinktbey'tenot botbetingyouanymote?¨ °Ob,we||,!vetea||ybeenwotkingbatdontbecognitivetbetapy tecbniques Dt. Rubenstein taugbt me, you know? lbey'te okay ! " mean,tbeybe|pAnd. We||,tbetbingis, !tbink! mteadytogo bomenow.Otsoonmaybe?Dt.Rubensteinsaidsbecou|dkeepsee- ingmeasanoutpatient ° Denniss°ideas, ° tbeonestbatatenotbotbetingbimsomucbat ptesent,atetbepatanoidde|usionstbatcomp|ete|ytakeovetbis|ife fto�timetotime. Onceavibtantteenagetwbomadeste||atgtades andwastbecbampionofbisbigbscboo||actosseteam, Dennissuf- fetedapsycboticbteakdowndutingbisftesbmanyeatinco||egeand wasbospita|ized !ntbesevenyeats sincetben,bebas beeninand out ofpsycbiattic faci|ities as bis de|usionswaxed and waned but nevettea||y|eftbimWbentbesetetti[ing°ideas°bavebimintbeit gtip, be be|ievestbatpeop|eatetçingtoki||bimand |ying about tbeitinteotions,tbattbestteet|igbtsatemonitotingbistbougbtsfot 73 MAR T HA S T OUT tbeC!A,tbatevegpassingcatcontainsanagentwbobasbeensent to abduct and question bim fot ctimes tbat be cannot temembet. His senseoftea|igisftagi|eintbeextteme,andtbetotmentofbis suspieiousness,wbicb is ptesentevenwbentbe conctete de|usions ateintemission,makesitincteasing|ydifncu|tfotbimtobeatound otbetpeop|e,eventbetapists]ackieRubensteinbasdoneana|most mitacu|ous]oboffotgingatbetapeuticte|ationsbipwitbtbis|one|y youngmanwbottustsnoone. °YousayDt. Rubensteinsaidyoucou|dbediscbatged,andtbat sbe'dseeyouasanoutpatient?¨ °Yes.Yes, tbatwaswbatsbesuggested !mean,sbeagteedtbat !wasa|mostteadytogoborne ¨ °Rea||y?¨ Doteen |ooks at Dennis witb a puzz|ed exptession onbetface, as ifexpectingsomec|atincation. °lbatsnotwbatsbe to|dme. ¨ lbete is a |ong pause, duting wbicb Dennis sbuddets visib|y. Pina||y, be asks, °Wbatdoyoumean?¨ Doteen emits a stage sigb, fu|| ofcompassion, and comes out ftombebindbetdesktositintbecbaitbesideDennis'sSbettiesto putbet band onbis sbou|det, butbepu||s bis bodyawayftombet, asifsbeweteabouttosttikebimStatingouttbewindowasfatinto tbedistanceasbecan,hetepeatsbisquestion,°Wbatdoyoumean tbatsnotwbatsbeto|dyou?¨ Doteen undetstands enougb about patanoid scbizopbtenia to knowtbatDennisa|teadysuspectstbisisgoingtobenewsoftteacb- egontbe parofDt Rubenstein, tbe petsonbe thougbtwas bis on|ytea|ftiendintbewot|d. °WbatDt. Rubensteinto|dmewastbatsbewas sureyouwere mucbsicketnowtbanwbenyoucamein.Andasfotoutpatienttbet- apy, sbemadeitvetyc|eattbatsbednevetagteetoseeyououtside oftbebospita|.Sbesaidyouwetemucbtoodangetous. ¨ LventoDoteen,itisappatenttbatsometbinginDennis'sbeart 74 T H E S O C I O PAT: H N EXT , D O O R isllyingoutoftbewindowandaway, nottotetumtobimanytime soon Sbe says,°Dennis?Dennis,ateyouokay?¨ Dennis doesnotmoveotspeak. Sbettiesagain ''l'msosotglbadtobetbeonetote||youtbis Dennis? lm sute itwas ]ust a misundetstanding You know Dt Rubensteinwou|dnevet|ietoyou ¨ 8utDennis is si|ent Hebas to copewitb tbe featofbettaya| evegminute ofbis |ife,buttbis buge newwaveofit, comingftom bis wondetfu| Dt. Rubenstein, bas b|indsided bim and made bim stone-sti||,|ikeastatue Wben Doteentea|izestbatbetea||yisnotgoingtotespond at a||, sbe goestotbe pbone and ca||s fotassistance ln notime,two but|ymenta|bea|tbwotkets appeatatbetofncedootlbeyatebig, butsbeistbeautbotig, andtbeywi||obeybetotdetswitboutques- tion lbinking tbis gives bet a |itt|e sbivet ofp|easute, butweat- ing bet gtavest exptession, sbe signs tbe otdet to boatd Dennis °8oatding¨-aeupbemismtbatmakes itsound|ike tbe bospita| is puuingsomeoneupataninn-meanstbatapatientisttansfetted ftomanun|ockedwatd, sucbastbe one Dennis bas been in, to a |ocked uitwitbgteatet secutig. !atients ate boatded iftbey be- comevio|ent,otwben, |ike Dennis,tbeybavebadasetiouste|apse lfnecessaty, tbeyatetesttainedandtemedicated Doteenisfait|ycettaintbat Denniswi|| not te|| anyone about wbatsbebas]ustsaidtobim Dennisdoesnotte||bissectetsHeis too patanoid 8uteven ifbe doeste|| someone, bewi||not be be- |ieved Nooneevetbe|ievestbepatientsovettbedoctotsAndftom wbatsbe]ustsaw, bewi||beoutofitfotquite a |ongtime, and not tea||yta|kingaboutanytbing.W:tbatusbofsatisfaction,sbetea|izes tbat]ackieRubensteinbas]ust|ostbetse|fonettu|yde|ectab|eVl! patient. Hewi||bewi|d|ypatanoidabout]ackie now, andtbebest pattistbat]ackiewi||b|amebetse|f,wi||tbinksbemissedsometbing impottantinbettbetapywitbbim,otsaidsometbingbatmfu|]ackie 75 MA RT HA. S T OUT issucba|osetabouttbings|iketbat Sbewi||actua||ytaketbetap, andtbensbewi||bandtbepatientohtoanotbettbetapist.Somucb fota||tbeta|katoundtbebospita|aboutDt.Rubensteinbeingamit- ac|ewotket Blue Smoke and Mirrors Doteen Litt|ehe|d is wbat petsona|ig theotist lbeodote Mi||on wou|dca||a°covetouspsycbopatb, ¨wbete°psycbopatb¨tefetstoso- .· ¯ . ciopatby, ottbeabsenceofconscience,and°covetous¨basitsusua| tefetent. an inotdinate desite fot tbe possessions of otbets So- ciopatbsdonota|ways bave acovetous natute-some a�evegdif- fetent|ymotivated-butwben|ackofconscience andcovetousness occuttogetbetintbesameindividua|, afascinatingandftigbtening pictuteemetges Sinceitissimp|ynotpossib|etostea|andbavefot onese|ftbemostva|uab|e °possessions¨ ofanotbetpetson-beaug, inte||igence,success,asttongcbatactet-tbecovetoussociopatbset- �(�esfotbesmitcbingotdamagingenviab|equa|itiesinotbetssotbat tbeywi||notbavetbem,eitbet,otat|eastnot beab|etoen]oytbem / so mucb ^ Mi||onsays, °Hete,tbe p|easute |ies in taking tatbet tbaninbaving¨ ´ lbecovetous sociopatb tbinks tbat |ife bas cbeated betsome- bow, basnotgivenbetneat|ytbesameboungasotbetpeop|e,and sosbemusteventbeexistentia|scotebytobbingpeop|e,bysectet|y causingdesttuctioninotbet|ives Sbebe|ievessbebasbe�ns|igbted by natute, citcumstances, and destiny, and tbat diminisbing¸ot¸bet � �het on|y means ofbeingp o wetfu| Rettibution, usua||y againspeo| «|. �ven� ld�atbattbey bave�eentatgeted,istbe mostimpottantactiviçintbecovetoussociopatb's|ife, betbigbest ptiotity Sincetbisc|andestinepowetgame is ptiotign�mbetone,a||of tbecovetoussociopatb'sdeceitfu|nessandto|etancefottiskatede- - 75 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R _ votedtoit Portbesakeoftbe game, sbemaydevisescbemesand · actstbatmostofuswou|dconsideroutrageousandpoten- tia||yse|f-d e structive,inadditiontocrue|Andyetwbensucbaper- son is around us in our |ives, even on a dai|ybasis, we are often ob|ivioustoberactivitiesWedonotexpecttoseeapersondirecta •dangetous,viciousvendettaagainstsomeonewboinmostcasesbas donenotbingtoburtoroffendberWedonotexpectit, andsowe do not seeit,evenwbenitbappenstosomeoneweknow-ortous QcIbQI1dIIj. lbeactionstakenbytbecovetoussociopatbareoftenso out|andisb,andsogratuitous|ymean,tbatwerefusetobe|ievetbey _ wereintentiona|,oreventbattbeybappenedata||!ntbisway, ber truenatureæ usua||yinvisib|etotbe group Sbecaneasi|ybidein p|ainsigbt,asDoreenbasdoneamonggenuine|yinte||igent,profes- siona|peop|eattbebospita|fornear|yadecade lbecovetoussociopatbis tbe u|timatewo|finsbeep's c|otbing, , andinDoreen'scase,thedisguiseisespecia||ye|aborate Doreenis apsycbo|ogist,or,atanyrate, everyoneattbebospita|be|ievessbe isapsycbo|ogist,wbicbforDoreenLitt|ene|d'spurposesismucbtbe _ sametbing.lbetrutb,sbou|danyoneeverdiscoverit,istbatsbebas |icense, nordoessbe have adoctora|degree.Wben •¬nt - :wo,s|e di!��ce«�ubachek� d�,� i� ,�ycbo|- ogfromberstateuniversitybackbome, buttbatis a|| lberestis ³ ¸ anextravagantcbaradeWbentbeybiredberasapostdocattbebos- pita|,tbeycbeckedberreferences,buttbesewerebotbverypromi- · nentmenwbobadsuccumbedtocertainembarrassing|iaisonswitb her, tbougbtbeysbou|d bave known better lbe biringcommittee didnotcbecktbecredentia|ssbe|isted 8ecausesbecamesopresti- gious|yrecommended,tbeysimp|yassumed sbebada !b D A ter a||,wbooneartbwou|d|ieaboutatbing|iketbat?Aforberabi|ig _ to bebave |ike apsycbo|ogistwe||enougbto foo|tbe professiona|s audtbepatients,Doreenbasa|waysfe|t,andapparent|ysbeisborne outintbisopinion,tbatapersoncan|earna|otbyreadingbooks. Doreenbas]ustseenberrecoveringeigbto'c|ockpatient,drop- ¬¬ 77 " MARTHA S T OUT kickedbiminto anacute|ypatanoidstate as tettibutionagainstan |nnocentco||eague,andsentbimofftobemedicatedandconhned toa|ockedunitWbatdoessbedofottbe temaindetoftbeday?!f weweteto te]oinbetinbetofhce,wewou|dhndtbatsbeca|m|y meets witb tbe test ofbet scbedu|ed patients, makes pbone ca||s, doespapetwotk,andgoestoastaffmeetingWewou|dptobab|ynot see anytbingoutoftbe otdinaty. Mostofbet bebaviotwou|d |ook notma|tous,otc|ose enougbtopass.!etbapssbe does notdobet patientsvegmucb good,butsbedoestbemnoobviousbatmeitbet, except in tbose instances, |ike tbis moming, wben manipu|ating a patientwi||setvetodamageaco||eaguesbebastatgeted. Wby wou|d sbe ditect bet ski||s against psycbiattic inpatients? lbeybavenotbingsbewants.lbeyatedisenftancbisedbytbewot|d, andsbecanfee|powetfu|mete|ybysittinginatoomwitbtbem.lbe exceptionmigbtbetbeoccasiona|fema|epatientwboisa|itt|etoo atttactive ot, wotse, a |iu|etoo smattlben Doteenmigbtbaveto bting bet down a peg ottwo, tweakabitoftbe se|f-battedtbatis usua||ya|teadytbete intbesepatients lnbetto|easapsycbotbeta- pist, sbehndstbistidicu|ous|yeasyto dolbesetupis a|ways one- on-one,andtbepatientneverundetstandswbatbitbetwe||enougb tocomp|aintoanyoneoutsideoftbetbetapytoom. 8utwben peop|e donotptovoke in Doteen a desitefotsome- tbingtheybave,otfotsometbingtbeyare, tbensbedoesnottatget tbem. lo tbeconttaty, sbe maybe especia||ycbatmingandcoutte- ouswbensbebe|ievestbatcettainundet|ings,assbetbinksoftb e m, ate usefu| in maintaining bet sbeep's-c|otbing disguise, a disguise tbatinc|udesaptesentationofbetse|fasanexttaotdinati|ynice,cat- ing,tesponsib|e,andpitiab|yovetwotkedpetsonPotexamp|e,wben Doteenisptepatingto|eavewotkontbedaysbebassectet|ysabo- taged]ackieRubensteinandDennis,sbemakessutetostopbylvy's deskfotanendeating|itt|e cbat Sbe ttiestodotbisevegevening. !vyis tbe sectetag-teceptionist fottbe ptofessiona|s ontbe watd, * 78 * T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R and one nevetknowswbensucb a sttategica||yp|acedpetsonmay comeinbandy. Doteencomesoutofbetofnce, co||apsesintooneoftbetecep- tiontoomcbaits,andsays, °Ob!vy' !'msogtatefu|tbisdayisovet' ¨ !vy istwengyeats o|dettban Doteen Sbeisovetweigbt and weatsbigp|asticeattings Doteentbinkssbeispatbetic. !vytep|iestobetwatm|y, °!knowYoupoottbingAndtbatpoot Dennis' !'mnodoctot, but ! do se etbe patientsatound,youknow, _ , and!sottofbadmybopesup. . !guess!waswtong ¨ °No, noYoutevetyobsetvant. Hedidseembettetfotawbi|e. lbiswotkbteaksyoutbeansometimes ¨ Ofcoutse,tbismomingtbetwono-nonsenseattendantscatging Dennisofftbewatdpassedtigbtinftontofawide-eyed!vy Sbenow |ooksatDoteenwitbconcem °Youknow, DtLitt|ene|d,!wottyaboutyou. ¨ A !vymakestbisconfession,sbenoticestbatDoteen'seyesate poo|ingwitbteats, andsbecontinues ina|owetvoice, °Ob my, to- daywastettib|efotyou,wasn'tIt, deat? !b o peyouwon'ttbink!'m gettingtoopetsona|, butyou't e sosensitivetobedoingtbiskindof wotk ¨ °No, no, !vy. ! m]usttited,andofcoutse!'msadaboutDennis. Don'tte||anyone-!mnotsupposedtop|ayfavotites-butbe'sspe- cia|tome,youknow? ! wisb! cou|d]ustgobomeandgetagood nigbt'ss|eep ¨ °We||,tbat'sexact|ywbatyousbou|ddo,deat ¨ °!wish!cou|d,butwbatwitbtbeemetgencyanda||,!didn'tget mypapetwotkdone,and!tbink!'mgoingtobeupba|ftbenigbtdo- ingit¨ !vy g|ances at Doteen's bu|ging btiefcase and says, °You poot tbingLet'stbinkofsometbingnice,maybe,togetyoutmindoh . ¸ we||,wbatbappenedtodayHow'stbatnewMa|tesedoggofyouts?¨ Doteenb|otsbeteyes witbtbebackofbetbandand smi|es°Ob, 79 MAR T HA STOUT bes tettinc, !vy Actua||y, sometimes bes so cute ! cou|d]ust eat bimup ¨ !vycbuck|es. °We||¡ben, !'||betbeswaitingfotyou.Wbydont yougoonbomenowandgivebimagteatbigbug?¨ °8ettetnotbetoobig! ||squisbbimHesteeny. ¨ lbetwowomen|augbtogetbetovettbis, andtbenDoteensays, °!vy, !vyYouknow, !tbinkyousbou|dbetbepsycbo|ogist.Youa|- waysknowbowtoputmeinabettetmood. !||seeyoubtigbtand eat|ytomottow,okay?We||]ustkeeponkeepingon, !guess. ¨ ' ! || be bete, ¨ afntms !vy. Sbe beams as Doteen picks upbet btiefcaseandwa|ksaway,|istingabittotbebtiefcaseside. Doteenwa|ksbacktotbe|otwbetesbe|eftbetcat,andtbetesbe encountets}enna, ownetoftbe beat-up Lscott sbe patked beside tbismotning.]ennais anewintetnattbebospita|,and, un|ike !vy tbeteceptionist,sbeisyoung, btigbt,andptetç. Sbebas|ong,|ove|y, stick-sttaigbtaubutnbait,andDoteenbastatgetedbet. °He||o,]ennaGoingbome?¨ ]ennab|inksattbeobviousquestion,wbicbsbetbinksisptoba- b|yctiticism,sinceintetnsateexpectedtowotks|avisb|y|ongbouts. 8utsbetecoups.°Yeab.Yes Goingbome.You,too?¨ Doteen |ooks concetned. °Wbat abouttbatemetgencyconfet- enceatCbatwinHaä¨ CbatwinHa||bousesawatdditectedbytbestetnandfeatsome DtlbomasLatson,wbomDoteenknowstobe]enna'sptimagsu- petvisotlbeteis, ofcoutse,noconfetencetbetetigbtnow. Doteen basmadetbisupontbespot. ]enna tutns asben immediate|y. °lbetes an emetgency confet- ence? Nobodyto|dme. Wben?Wby?Doyouknow?¨ Doteen, nowtakingonthedemeanotofascboo|matm,|ooksat betwatcband says, °Abouttenminutes ago, ! be|ieve Didntyou pickupyoutpbonemessages?¨ °Yes, ofcoutse ! did, buttbete tea||ywasntanytbingabouta confetenceLt. Latsonsofnce?¨ ~ $0 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R °!suppose ¨ °Obno.ObmyGod!'vegotto . !sbould. We||,Ì guess!'|| ]ustgettbeteasfastasÌ can.¨ °Goodidea ¨ ]ennaistoopanickedtowondetwbyDt.Litt|ene|dknowsabout a sput-of-tbe-moment confetence tbat does not even invo|ve bet. lbeyoungintetndasbesoutoftbepatking|otandbeginstotunin bet |eatbet pumps actoss an acte of tain-soaked bospita| |awn Doteen stands in tbe patking |ot and watcbes bet go unti|, sti|| sptinting,sbemakesatutnatoundtbefarsideofabui|dinganddis- appeatsftomviewReûectinginsatisfactiontbatCbatwinHa||is|o- catedontbeexttemeoppositeendoftbegtounds, Doteengetsinto tbe bN cbecks betmakeupintbe tearviewmittot, andstattsfot bomelomottow, ottbenextday,sbewi||comeactoss]ennaagain, and ]enna wi|| ask bet about tbe confetence tbat did not exist. ¸ Doteen wi||]ust sbtug and |ook batd into ]ennas soft eyes, and | ennawi||backon Sociopathy Versus Criminalit Doteen Litt|ene|dwi||nevetbeptosecutedfotbetdeeds,inc|uding ptacticing psycbo|ogwitbout a |icense. Dennis's inf|uentia| unc|e wi||nevetdiscovetwbosbetea||yis, notwi||mostofbetotbetpa- tientsottbeitfami|ieslbeptofessiona|s attbe bospita|wi||nevet putsuebet|ega||yfotbetctimina|deceptionoftbem.Sbewi||nevet bepunisbedinanytbing|ikeacommensutatewayfottbecount|ess psycbo|ogica|assau|tssbe commits. !ntbe end, sbe is agoodi||us- ttationoftbediffetencebetweenasociopatbandactimina|,wbicb is,astounding|y,tbesame ¯hingtbatsepatatesaugb h�-yeat- o|dgit|wboisse�naswe||bebavedftomonewboissco|dedfottak- ingcandyftom betmotbet'sputse.lbe dinetence, quitesimp|y, is wbetbetot notsbe getscaugbt. - �º¬`"´' ¯``¯¯ ¯�" �¯� __�•• +� ¬s¹ � ¢+ ~¿ 8) MART HA S T OUT And adu|ts getting caugbt fot committing acts witbout con- scienceisappatent|ymotetbeexceptiontbantbetu|e. Since4pet- cent oftbe entite popu|ation is sociopatbic, one migbt teasonab|y tbinktbatoutptisonsystemisn||edtoovetl|owingwitbsociopatbs, to tbe exc|usion ofotbetgpes ofpeop|e 8uttbis is not�be case. AccotdingtoRobettHateandotbetteseatcbetswbotestconvicts, on avetage on|yabout20 petcentofptisoninmates intbe United Statesatesoc . Hmo t h e rs�are:æ to �:�·t·bis .. ,�.-.. .. -- .. - ` * 20 petcent oftbeptison:u|ationaccountsfotmotetbanó0 pet- c� tb� � s ��� � �i�e ( �_ t� , t � �, ��ed tobbe;, k|dnap- p|ng,·umer��ti�ainst tbe state (tteason, espionage, tettotism, , buttbeactua|sociopatbicbeadcountinptisons,fotbotb menandwomen,ison|yabouttwo inten !ut diffetent|y� most identined ctimina|s ate not sociopatbs. Ratbet, tbeyate peop|ewitbmotenotma|undet|yingpetsona|ities wbosebebaviotistbeptoductofnegativesocia|fotcessucbastbe dtugcu|tute,d�b�d�m es tic vio|ence, a nc��s-gen e raiona| ��statis.«z tmen fewsoctopaiccnmesate evetbtougbttotbeattentionofout|ega|system-tbatvetyfewso- ciopatbs ate ctimina|s intbefotma| sense lbemostcommon so- ciopatbic pton|e, |ike Doteen's, invo|ves ongoing deception and camouûage,andon|ytbemostllagtantctimes(kidnapping,mutdet, and so fottb, ate difncu|tfot a teasonab|yinte||igent sociopatb to concea|Some-bynomeansa||-oftbesociopatbicatmedtobbets andkidnappetsgetcaugbtlbe DoteenLitt|ene|dsoftbewot|dse|- dom do, andevenwbentbeydo getcaugbt, intbe sense ofbeing found out, tbeyatetate|yptosecuted. lbetesu|t is tbatmostso- ciopatbs ate notincatcetated. lbeyateoutbeteintbewot|dwitb youandme !ntbenextcbaptet,wewi||discusstbemanyteasonswbypeop|e · ofconscience bave so mucb difncu|g °seeing¨ and dea|ing effec- tive|y witb peop|e wbo bave no conscience. lbese teasons tange ftomtbefeattacticsusedbysociopatbs � ow maced:ense ¬ 82 ¨ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ofi|t 8utntst, |etustetutntotbebospita|oncemote,tbistime .- tosee Dt.]ackieRubenstein'smitac|e,twomitac|esinfact !tisnowfoutdaysaftetDenniswas boatdedtoa|ockedunit,a Sunday, andtbe bospita|gtounds ate empgexceptfor asma|| cat tbatttave|sup tbenattowdtive toDennis'sbui|dingandstopsbytbe ftontdoot Dt Rubensteinstepsoutanddigsinbetcoatpocketíot tbettemendous,a|uostmedieva|mastetkeytbatwi|||etbetbotbin andoutoftbetbtee-stoçstonebui|dingLvennow,afteteigbtyeats ofwotkattbebospita|, she c|utcbestbebeavypasskeyinbetband, tatbettbanputtingitbackinbetpocket,aftetsbeentetsaunit|ike tbisoneandbeatstbedoot|ockbebindbet.Sbebascometotg,one mote time, to getbettettinedpatientDennistota|ktobet.Wben shewa|ksontotbewatd itse|f-andyet anotbetmeta| dootc|oses bebindbetand|ocks-sbeseesDennissittingonagteenviny|sofa andstatingatate|evisiontbatbasnotbeentutnedonHe|ooksup, tbeiteyesmeetfotamoment,and,tobetsutptiseandte|ief,bemo- tionsfotbettocomeandsitdown lben tbe ntst mitac|e bappens. Dennis ta|ks Heta|ks and be ' ta|ks, and bete||s ]ackie Rubenstein eveçtbing Doteen Liti|ene|d saidAndtbesecondmitac|eistbat]ackiebe|ievesbim Prombometbat nigbt, sbepbones Doteenand conftonts bet Doteen denies eveçtbing, and disdainfu||y accuses bet of being dtawn into bet patient's patanoia Wben ]ackie tefuses to back down,Doteenwamsbettbatsbewi||bedamagingbetowncateetif sbegoestoanyonee|seattbebospita|witbsucbawi|dta|e.Wben sbe bangs up tbe pbone aftetta|kingwitb Doteen, ]ackie ca||s a goodftiendbackinLosAnge|esfotsuppott.Sbete||sbim,on|yba|f kidding,tbatsbetbinkssbemaybe|osingbetmind ]ackiedoesnotknowtbatDoteenisaftaud,andsoftom]ackie's petspectiv e , sbeandDoteenatepeetsattbebospita|. Pottbistea- son,]ackietea|izestbatsbewi||baveabatdtimeptessingbetpoint witbtbemoteseniotstafflbeywi||assumetbisis]ustsomekindof dispute between bet and ]ackie Atwotst, |ike Doteen, tbey may " 83 " . MART H A S T OUT suggest sbe is |etting betpatient's issues become betown. None� tbe|ess, on tbe fo||owingmotningsbe wa|ksintotbe ofnce oftbe ditectot of bet unit and te||s bim wbat bas happened. His gtay- be atdedface teddens,wbicb}a�kiennds cutiou�,sincebedoesnot seemtobeang;, eitbetatbetotatDoteen.Sbewondets,assbebas wondetedvague|ybefore,wbetbetheandDoteenbavebadanaffait Aftet be beats }ackie out, tbe ditectot does nottake quite the disdainfu|apptoachDoteendidotttbepbone, butbedoestespect- fu||ytemind]ackie€fhoweasyitistoseee|ett.ents ofctedibi|igin tbede|usions ofinte||igentpatanoids Hesaysbevepmucbdoubts tbatanytbing1eunisto|dbetactua||ybappened, andbe exptesses t bebopetbatsheand� Doteenwi||notcatgtbis disagteemeotout �ndennite|y. Sucbatiftwou|d bebadfottbeunit1dso,ina||im- pottanttespects,Doteengetsawaywitbwbatsbebasdone,asust:a| IhebappietnewsistbatDennis'stbetapywitb}ackieisnotpe tma- nent|ydistupted,andbeissoondiscbatgedftomthebospita|. lbeendofDoteenLitt|ene|d'scb�tadeeventua||ycomes,as itso · · ¸ oftendoesfotco ` etoussociopatbs,notwitb �bangbutawbimpet, audiostigated bysomeone outsideoftbesysteu !n Doteen's�ase, tbesuccessfu|»bist|e-b|owetis a consumetadvocate wbo appeats twice amontbon a |oca|te|evision sbowca||edBuyer Bewa,�. Six yeats aftet Doteens psycbo|ogica| assau|t on Dennls, tbis |oca| c�|ebtig's wife is bospita|ized fot deptession, and, comp|ete|y by �bance,DoteenisassignedasbettbetapistRank|edbe causebebe - � ' |ieves bis wifes tbetapy is somebow¸ muc�it¿up bis martiage, be usesbisexpettise:oinvestigateDt.Litt|ene|d,andteadi|ydiscovets wbat �be is-ottatbet,wbatsbeisnot Heatonce approacbestbe businessditectotoftbebospita|andexp|ainstbatiftbebosplta|wi|| × _ l ' · ¸�ick Doteenout immediate|y, nndanewtbetapistfotbiswife, and fotgivebiswife'sentitebospita|bi||,bewi||uotexpose Doteenand . bospita| onte|evision He points outquiteteasonab|ytbatfot- givi�gone bi||isa|ot|essexpensivet banpayingbacktbe¡undted� , 84 l T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R ofbi||s, otwotse, tbatwi|| be btougbt agaiosttbe bospita| sbou|d Doteen'sctedentia|s,ottbe|acktbetecf,bebtoadcasted Readingtbe n|e beissbown, tbe business ditectotisc|eat on tbe concepttigbtaway, andon bet fottietbbittbday, intbemidd|e ofeating cake at a |itt|e ofnce patg otganized by !y, Doteen is abtupt|ysummonedtotbeadministtationbui|ding. !ntbebusiness d�tectot� �fnce,tbebusinessditectot,tbemedica|ditectot, andtbe dit � ctotof�utsing(wbowantstobeptesent]ustbecausesbebates Doteensomucb,infotmDoteentbatsecutigwi||escottbettobet catand tben monitotbetto make cettain sbe |eaves tbe bospita| gtounds. Doteente||stbetbteeditectotstbattbeyatemakingabig _ _ mistak>, tbattbe consumetadvocate is |ying because be does not |ikebet,andtbatsbewi||suetbem Sbedtivesaway, andtbougbsbewastbetefotfoutteenyeats,no oneattbebospita|evetbeatsftombetagainlbebospita|adminis- ttationdoesnotputsuetbemattet,fottbeobviousteasonsofpub|ic embattassmentandmedica||iabi|ig, andtbeteisaco||ectivesigbof te|iefwbensbesimp|yvanisbes. !ntbeitptivatecvetsationsabout bet, tbe ditectot ofnutsing and ]ackie Rubenstein specu|ate tbat ´ Doteenissomewbete e|se, insome otbetstate, sti||ptacticingpsy- cbo|og Mostoftbe peop|e attbe bospita|bavevastquantities ofcon- science, and sowby, wbentbeynna||ynnd out about Doteen, do · _ tbey|etbetgowitboutangbt,most|ike|ytosttikeagainsomewbete �|se?Andwby, inapsycbiatticbospita|,�assbesobatdtoseeintbe htst p|ace? !n geneta|, bowcananyofus |ive, aswe a||do, amo�g �¸ s¿mucanc numbets ofdesttuctive |iats and conattists and fai|to conftonttbem, oteven notice tbem? Awe ate abouttosee,tbete answetstotbesectucia|questions, anda|sowayswe canbegin _ tocbangeouttesponsestotbes|ippegpbenomenonofsociopatby. - 85 " | | V | why conS C lence � S parti al ly bl ind It is easyter b l y easyto sha k e a mans f aith in hime l f To ta k e a d vantage o f that to b rea k a mans spirit U dvi l s wor k . -George Bernard Shaw Ì fsbebadtbougbtsbecou|d getawaywith it, DoteenLitt|ene|d wou|dbave tun]ackie Rubensteindownwitbbet bN tatbet tban· mete|ysabotagingbetwotkAnd-moteamazingsti||-ifs� bad ctusbedotki||ed]ackie,otanyonee|se,Doteenwou|db�veex-· petiencednogui|tottemotse,uucb|esstbebottotmostofuswou|d feelifweendedanotbetpetsons!fe Hetb|oodptessutewou|dnot bavetisenonepoint,at |eastnotftomanynegative emotionbaving to dowitbtbevictim Doteen basnosucb sense oftbings, nosev- entbsenseofbumanconnectednesstomake bet fee|sickovettbe consequencesofbetactions Potmostofus, ki||ing�omeonewou|d tesu|tinsbock, fo||owedby|ife-a|tetinganguisb, evenifwebadnot |ikedtbatpetson PotDoteen,sucbanact, ptovidedsbewasnevet caugbt, wou|dbeexpetienced as winning Tbis diffetencebetw�en notma|emotiona|functioningandsociopatbyisa|mosttoofantastic fottboseofuswitbconsciencetogtasp,ands 9 ��ª��º�'Þ� ´ e tefusetobe|ievesucbabo||ownessofemotioncanexist.Andunfot- 85 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ! ·tunate|y, outdifncu|gincteditingtbemagnitudeoftbisdi�fete�ce p|acesusinpeti| ' ` ¯ � ¯ \ Lve n witbout mutdeting anyonewitb bet cat, ot bet own two bands, Doteencausesunto|ddamagetotbepeop|eatoundbet. ln fact, diminisbingotbet|ives isbetptimaggoa|.Sinc e sbeusestbe autbotig ttappings ofan inpatient psycbotbetapist, one day, as a sideeffectoftbevengefu|campaignssbeconducts,sbemaypusba patientintosuicide,ifsbebasnotdonesoa|teadyAdyetfotfout- teenyeats, a|atgegtoupofgoodpeop|e,tbemembetsofanentite psycbiattic bospita| staff wbo wou|d spend tbeit |ast ounce of sttengtbattemptingtopteventapatient'ssuicide,ateb|indtowbat sheis,and�bentbeydiscovetbetdeception,tbeydonottrytostop bet.lbeysimp|ywatcbbetdtiveaway. Wbyate conscience-boundbumanbeingssob|ind?Andwbyate tbey so besitant to defend tbemse|ves, and tbe idea|s and peop|e tbeycateabout,ftomtbeminotigofbumanbeingswbopossessno conscienceata||?A |atgepattoftbeanswetbastodowitbtbeemo- tionsandtbougbtptocessestbatoccutinuswbenweateconftonted wtbsociopatby.Weateaftaid,andoutsenseoftea|igsuffetsWe tbinkwe ate ma�ingtbing�,ot��agge�ating,ottbatweoutse|�� =,¸~ • · .. - · · ~*¬¬ - -= -- · ··•··~ - · ·-···~ ~ � atesomebowtesponsib|efottbesociopatb'sbebaviot.8utbefotewe discuss indetai|outown]sycbo|ogica|teactionsto sbame|essness, a||owmetoputtbeseteactionsincontexbyc|eat|ydesctibingwbat we ate upagainst. Letusntsttakeacatefu||ook attbe fotmidab|e tecbniquesusedbytbesbame|esstokeepusin|ine. The Tools of the Trade lbe ntst sucb tecbnique is cbatm, and as a socia| fotce, cbatm sbou|dnotbeundetestimated. Dotee@cou|d be exteme|ycbatmingwben it suited bet put- poses.Outo|dftiendSkipusedbisconsidetab|ecbatmtoinnuence - 87 " . » MAR T HA S T OUT bisbusinessassociatesandtogteasetbefastttacktocotpotatedom- inance. � - cb ¸ ¸þ��mayseem ���µ. t:��e�is _ � te�j�j___�lbeintensecbatmofp��le wbobave noconscience, akindofinexp|icab|ecbatisma, bas been obsetved and commented on by count|ess victims, and by re- seatcbetswboattempttocata|ogtbediagnosticsignsofsociopatby. ltisapotentcbatactetisticMostoftbevictimsÌ bave known inmy wotk bave tepottedtbattbeitinitia|invo|vementwitb asociopatbic petson, and tbeit continued association even tbougb sbe ot be caused tbem pain, was a ditect tesu|t ofbow charing sbe ot be cou|dbe Count|esstimes,lhavewatcbedpeop|esbaketbeitbeads andmakestatementssucbas, °HewastbemostcbatmiqpersonÌ evetmet, ¨ot°lfe|t|ikel'dknownbetfotevet,¨ot°Hebadanenetg aboutbimtbatotbetpeop|e]ustdon'tbave ¨ Ì |ikensociopatbiccbatmtotbeanima|cbatismaofotbetmam- ma|swboateptedatotsWewatcbtbe |atgecats,fotexamp|e, and atefascinatedwitbtbeitmovements,tbeitindependence, andtbeit powet 8uttbeditectgazeofa|eopatd,sbou|donebappentobein tbewtongp|ace attbewtongtime, is inescapab|e and tetanizing, andtbefascinatingcbatmoftbeptedatotisoftentbe|asttbingtbe pteyevetexpetiences ( l speakofnob|e|eopatds, butÌ bave beatd abusedandentagedvictimsusemetapbotstbatwetedecided|ytep- ti|ian, Lnbancingtbeanima|cbatismaofsociopatbs,tbe�_uto� mi|dafnni _ fotdan_et. Conventiona|wisdombasittbat dangetous ¸e¯p|eateatttactive,andwbenweatedtawntosociçhs,we:end � toptove outtbis c|icbe. Sociopatbs ate dangetous in manyways. Oneoftbemostconspicuousistbeitpteferencefottisjsituations andcboices, andtl.eitabi|igtoconvinceotb�toì�k�nks + �btb�m ������io��-�.���� �� ¸ �.�� +" ]oyminottisksandtbti||sWew|||getoutoutwa||etsandpayfota tideonamonstetto||ercoastetwecannotimaginesut±ing, otfot aseatinamovietbeatetsbowingab|oodytbti||etweatecettainwi|| " 88 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R giveusbaddreams.Ournorma|afnnityfortbeoccasiona|tbri||can maketberisk-takingsociopatbseema||tbemorecbarming-atnrst !nitia||y, itcanbeexcitingtobeinvitedintotberisjscbeme,tobe associatedwitbtbepersonwboismakingcboicesoutsideofouror- dinaryboundaries. Letustakeyourcreditcardandí|yto!aristonigbtLetustake -¨*¯¯*"ª yoursavingsandstarttbatbusinesstbatsoundssofoo|isbbut,witb t��inds ||k������ì�¬ _� �_ Tb .� Ltu�gearriedrigbtnow. Letus |ose tbese boring friends ofyours and go oh somewbere by our- se|ves Letusbavesexintbee|evator. Letusinvestyourmoneyin tbisbottip!]ustgot Letus|augbattberu|es Letuswa|kintotbis restaurantdressedinourl-sbirtsand]eans.Letusseebowfastyour carcango Letus|ive a|ittle ·"^·º ¹³´¹~^-¹ `°� "� °" ^+. ¨ühis:h� ¡I�:i�iopatbic °spontaneig° and risktaking and°cbarm, °andtbougbwemaycbuck|eabouttbeobviouscome- ons wbenwe readtbem, tbe overa|| approacb bas metwitbnote- wortby success time and�gaa� Smeon� w� is u�t _ +by �� c�s±eu¡e|tbatour|ivesaretedious|yru|e- boundand|ack|uster,andtbatwesbou|d]oinbiminwbatisgpica||y representedasamoremeaningfu|orexbi|aratingformofexistence. 8eginningwitbLveandtbeserpent,ourbistorybooksandourc|as- sicnctionareh||edwitbta|esofpeop|ewbobavebeentakeninand sometimesdestroyedbytbes|ickta|kandmagnetismofrisktakers and evi|doers-Dickie Green|eaf and tbe ta|ented Mr. Rip|ey, SamsonandDe|i|ab,RiverCityandHaro|dHi||,lri|byandSvenga|i, NormanMai|erand]ackHengAbbott,LmpressA|exandraandtbe seeming|y immorta| Rasputin And from our own |ives, we bave memoriesofbrusbeswitbsucbpeop|etbatsend|itt|eco|d cbi||sup ourspineslbatis,ifweare|ucjwebavebadon|ybrusbes.lbeun- fortunatemust|ivewitbtbeinde|ib|ememoriesofoutrigbtpersona| catastrophestbatoccurredwbentbeyfe||victimtotbecbarmoftbe sbame|ess. $ µ MART HA S T OUT Moteovet, tbe sbame|essknowus mucb bettet tbanwe know tbe�`� _ _ dtm s e|ng��a _ �¸ � - � ce, butapetsonwbobas noconsciencecan instant|yrec- ognize someonewbo is decent and ttusting. Lven as a cbi|d, Skip knewwbicbboybecou|dta|kintoacquitingbisntewotksfotbim. A anadu|t,be immediate|ypetceivedtbat]u|iette cou|d |ive witb bim fot decades and never question bis l|otid activities Doteen Litt|ene|dsawaneasymatkin!vy, tbeteceptionist,andundetstood petfect|ywe||tbat]ackieRube n steinwasacatingpetsonwbocou|d becountedontoassumemotetbanbetfaitsbateoftesponsibi|ig Wbenasociopatbidentinessomeoneasagoodgamepiece,sbe studiesthatpetsSh���kes·bebus�:�wbo � ¡batpet- ¯ n _� i _ atedandused,and,totbisend,]ustbo _ � ¿� tcbo- § T°*'´�¯`'´ ·¬~ ·v-v ¬+ ¬ , w• w -\+ I'^-~¯^ *´'�¨" ´ª senpawncanbel|attetedandcbatmed.!naddition,sbeknowsbow toptomote a�� mLmi|i�r ¡ ¡ � � intimacybyc|aimingtbat sbe and b�rvictmare s|mi|a�:n ��� ¸ ictims onen teca||state- mentstbatahectedtbemevenaftettbesociopatbwasgone,sucbas, °Youknow, !tbinkyouand!atea|ota|ike,° ot°!tssoceartome tbat you'te my sou| mate ° !n tettospect, tbese tematks can fee| supteme|y demeaning Outtageous|y unttue, tbeybaunttbe mind nonetbe|ess Re|ated|y, peop|ewitboutconscience bave anuncannysenseof wbowi||bevu|netab|etoasexua|ovettute,andseductionisanotbet vegcommonsociopatbictecbnique.iotmostpeop|e, as�xua| |iai- soninvo|ves anemotiona|tie, evenifon|yl|eeting|y, and sucbties ate used by tbe co|d|y temotse|ess to get wbat tbeywant-a||e- giance,nnancia|suppott, infotmation,asenseof°winning, ¨otpet- haps]ustatempotagte|ationsbiptbatbastbeappeatanceofbeing notma|.lbisisaneasi|ytecognizedstog, andanotbetonetbatte- peatsitse|fofteninout|itetatuteandbistoty. 8utse|domdowetec- ognize tbe degtee ofpowetit bestows on sociopatbs, powetovet individua|s, ofcoutse, and a|so ovet gtoups ofpeop|e, and institu- tionsA sociopathwboisbidingoutinanotganizationcanbavebis " 90 " 1I · · • I T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R otbetttack s biddeniudennite|ybyJustoneottwonotma|individu- a|swbobavemadetbesing|emistakeofconsummatingtbeitatttac- tiontotbiscbatming|ydangetouspetsonDoteen,fotexamp|e,was ab|etoposeasapsycbo|ogistptimati|ybecause|ettetsottefetence wetewtitteubytwopeop|esbebadmanipu|atedsexua||y.Andwben ]ackiettiedtoexposeDoteenssociopatbicbebaviot,atbitdpetson, tbeunitditectot,tanintetfetenceptobab|yfottbesa:neteason,and ¸ ¹ tbe seductive °Dt.¨ Litt|ene|dtemainedattbebospita|fotsixaddi- tiona|yeats Andsexua|seductionison|yoneaspectoftbegame.Weatese- � = ~× ducedaswe||bytbe actingski||s of t � _� � � �incetbe scaf- ¯T�lu�� deception and i||usion, inte||igentsociopatbsoftenbecomeptoncientatacting,andevenat some oftbepatticu|attecbniquesemp|oyedbyptofessiona|actots. !atadoxica||y,tbevisib|esignsofemotionatwi||canbecomesecond natute to tbe co|d-b|ooded-tbe appeatance ofintense intetest in anotbet petsons ptob|ems ot entbusiasms, cbest-tbumping patti- otism, tigbteous indignation, b|usbing modesg, weepy sadness Ctocodi|eteatsatwi||ateasociopatbicttadematk.Makingsutetbat Iv wou|dseeandbepsycbo|ogica||yseducedbytbem, Doteenctied ctocodi|eteatsovetbetpatientDennis,andnodoubtsbectiedtbem inftontofIv again,ptofuse|y,wbensbeinevltab|ymadeuptbetet- tib|e, painfu|i||nesstbat °fotced¨bettobavebet|itt|e dogputto s|eep Ctocodi|eteatsftomtbetemotse|essateespecia||y|ike|ywbena conscience-boundpetsongetsa|itt|etooc|osetoconftontingaso- ciopatbwitbtbettutb.Psociopatbwboisabouttobecotnetedby anotbet petson»i|| tutn sudden|y into a piteous weeping ngute wbomno one, ingoodconscience, cou|d continueto ptessute Ot tbeopposite. Sometimesacotneted sociopatbwi|| adoptapostute oftigbteousindignationandangetinaoattempttoscateoffbetac- cuset,asDoteendidwitbtbebospita|ditectotswbensbewasnna||y nted. 9) MART H A S T OUT ß�ingn atut a |actots,conscience|esspeop|ecanmakefu||useof soeia|andptofessiona| to|es,wbicbconstituteexce||entteady-made maskstbatotbetpeop|eate|oatbtoJookbebindRo|esbe|pus ot- ganizeout comp|exsocie(, andtbeyatettemendous|yimpottantto us.lfwe see suspiciousbebaviot,wemay eventua||yquestionsome- oenamedDoteen1itt|ene|d,butweatequiteun|ike|ytoquestion someone ca||ed1r Doteen Litt|ene|d,no mattetbowunusua|bet bebaviot.Wete|atetotbetit|eofJcctcr wbicb bo|dsac|eatandpos- itivemeaningfot us,andwedonot tbinktoobatdabouttbebuman beingwhoca||s betse|ftbat. losomeextent,tbesameisttuefotpeo- p|�wbob�ve (|ega||y ot i||ega||y, assumed to|es and tit|es in tbe arenasoHeadetsbip,business,otganizedte|igion, education, otpat- entbo�d- • Se|dom do tbe neigbborssctutinize tbe bebaviot oftbe c�utcbdeaconottbetowse|ectmanottbebigbschoo|ptincipa|ot abusinessptodig|ikeSkip.e be|ieveptomisesftomsucbpeop|e becauseweassigntotbeind����� e as ion,wea|mostnevetcba||en�eigb�tspatentin�� tices, evenwbenwefeattbatacbi|d isbeing abused,and oftenout |ogicisnomotesubstantia|tban°H:'stbepatent. ¨ lnaddition, we ate di�ttacted ftom a petson 's actua| bebaviot wbenbeteptesents bimse|fas insomewaybenevo|ent, cteative, ot insigbtfu|.Wedonotsuspectpeop|ewboc|aimtobeanima||ovets, fot examp|e.Wegiveextta|eewaytotbosewboidentifytbemse|ves asattistsotinte||ectua|s,inpattbecauseweatttibuteanydepattutes ftom tbe notmto eccentticities we, as otdinatypeop|e, cou|d not possib|yundetstand lngeneta|,out:egatdforsucbgtoupsis acon- � ttuctive sentiment, but it does someti:nes open tbe doot fot so- copatbswbocanmimictbeotbets. '· Wotse, out tespect fot peop|e wbo appeatto be iopited and .` benevo|ent |eadets canbeabused-basbeenabusedmanytimes- tocatac|ysmicends.Witba|eadet,e�pecia||yonewboc|aimstobave ¸ Û �t:b|imemission,aswitbÛ doctototaptiestotapatent,_e tend �_ _¸¡,�tofo||owtbe - 92 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R individua|accotding|y. 8en]aminWo|man,foundetandeditotoftbe "- I nterat i on aL J ou ro f Group Tensions, wtites, °Usua||ybuman ctu- e|g incteaseswben an aggtessive sociopatb gains an uncanny, a|- mostbypnotlccontto|ovet|atge numbets ofpeop|e Histogisfu|| ofcbieftains, ptopbets, saviots, gutus, dictatots, and otbet socio- p a tbicmega|omaniacswbomanagedto obtain suppott . and in- citedpeop|etovio|ence. ¨ lnsidious|y, wbensucb8 °saviot¨abducts �benotma|popu|ationtobisputposes,beusua||ybeginswitbanap- pea|totbemas goodpeop|ewbowou|d|iketoimptovetbecondi- tion of bumanig, and tben insists tbat tbey can acbieve tbis by fo||owingbisownaggtessivep|an lnaconfusingitony, consciencecanbe tendetedpattia||yb|ind because peop|e witbout conscience use, as weapons against us, manyoftbefundamenta||ypositivetoo|sweneedtobo|dsocietyto- getbet-mpatbic emotions, sexua| bonds, socia| and ptofessiona| to|es, tegatdfottbe compassionate andtbe cteative, outdesiteto maketbewot|dabettetp|ace,andtbeotganizingtu|eofautbotity Andpeop|ewbo do bideoustbings do not|ook|ikepeop|ewbodo bideous tbingslbeteisno°faceofevi|. ¨ lfwecou|dsomebowsub- ttact a|| its botti[ing connotations, tbe actua| face of Saddam ' Hussein|ookstatbetavuncu|at,andbasoftenbeentecotdedasbav- ingabigftiend|ysmi|e Hit|etsface, bad itnotbecomeanicon of evi| becauseoftbe attocities bis |ife engendeted, migbt be consid- eteda|mostcomica|, Ch�p|inesque as itwete, initsfoo|isbexptes- siou.Lizz8otden|ooked|ikeatbeotbet|aced-upVictotian|adies inPa||Rivet,Massacbusettslame|a Smattisptetgled8undywas sobandsometbatwomensentmattiage ptoposa|sto bimondeatb tow,andfotevety|eetingCbat|esManson,tbeteistbetadiant|yin- nocentcountenanceofa}obnLeeMa|vo Wetp,conscious|yottacit|y, to]udgeapetson'scbatactetbybis otbetappeatance, buttbisbook-by-its-covetsttategisinehective inneat|ya||caseslntbetea|wot|d,tbebadguysdonot|ooktbeway tbeyatesupposedto.lbeydonottesemb|ewetewo|vesotHanniba| - µ3 MA RT H A S T OUT L�cbtetotlony!etkinsstatingatacotpseinatockingcbaitOntbe conttag,tbey|ook|ikeus Gaslight 8eingtatgetedbyasociopatbisavegftigbteningexpetience, even wbentbatsociopatb is not oftbevio|entvatieg. !n I944, Geotge Cukotditectedapsycbo|ogica|tbti||etentit|edGalight, inwbicba beautifu|youngwoman,p|ayedby!ngtid8etgman, ismadetofee| sbeisgoinginsane Hetfeattbatsbe is |osingbetmindisinllicted on bet systematica||y by Cbat|es 8oyet, wbo p|ays bet evi| but cbatming new busband. Among a numbet of otbet ditç tticks, 8oyetattangesfot8etgantobeatsoundsintbeatticwbenbe is absent, andfottbe gas|igbtto dimbyitse|f, in a menacingbouse wbetebetauntwasmystetious|ymutdetedyeatsbefote.Ofcoutse, noonebe|ieves8etgmanabouttbenoisesintbeatticottbegas|igbt otmucb ofanytbing e|se, and bet gtadua| descent intodoubting bet own tea|ig bas found its way into Lng|isb idiom as °to be gas|igbted ¨8oyetisnotvio|ent. Henevetsttikes8etgman. Mucb motesinistet-becausesbetto|osefaitbinbetownpetceptions lo suspect,andtotgtoexp|aintootbetstbatonebasbeentat- geted bya sociopatb, is to be gas|igbted ]ackie Rubensteinwas a good examp|e oftbis pbenomenon wben sbe conftonted Doteen Litt|ene|d witb tbe ctue|ty sbe bad done to Dennis. Aetwatd , ]ackiepbonedaftiendfotsuppottbecausesbefe|tsbewas |osing betmindAndwbensbettiedtote|atebetdiscovegaboutDoteen totbeunitditectot,bepo|ite|ybutc|eat|yecboedDoteen'simp|ica- tiontbat]ackie badgonea|itt|ectaza|ongwitbhetpatanoidpa- tient. Wben]ackie accused Doteenofaviciousacttowatd an unof- fendingpatient,tbe natuta|questionwas, Wbywou|dapetson|ike tbatdosucbabottib|etbing?lbisistbequestionotbetsa|waysask, 94 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ovett|yotby intimation,anditissucbabewi|deting,unanswetab|e questiontbat tbe onewbo suspects tbe sociopatb usua||y ends up ��kingit, too,on|ytonndtbatsbebasnotationa|-soundingexp|a- nation.And|iketbeinnocentnewbtideinGaslight, sbemaycometo ¸ |osefaitb,pattia||yotcomp|ete|y, inbetownpetceptions.Cettain|y �bew besitatetote||betstogagain,sincettyingtoexposetbeso- ¸ · �iopatbcastsd�ubtsonbetownctedibi|igandmaybeevenonbet ��nity. lbese doubts, outownand otbet peop|e's, ate painfu|, and y �eadi|yconvinceustokeepoutmoutbssbut.Ovettbeyeats,|isten- iugtobundtedsofpatientswbobavebeentatgetedbysociopatbs,l bave |eatned tbatwitbin an otganization ot a communig, in tbe eventtbata sociopatb is nna||ytevea|edtoa||andsundg, itisnot unusua|tonndtbatseveta|peop|esuspecteda||a|ong,eacb one in- dependent|y, eacb one in si|ence. Lacb one fe|t gas|igbted, and so eacbonekeptbetctaz�soundingsectettohetse|f. Wbywou|d a petson |iketbatdo sucb a bottib|e tbing? we ask ', outse|ves8y°apetson|iketbat, ¨we meananotma|-|ookingpetson, apetsonwbo looks]ust|ikeusWemeanapetsoninaptofessiona| to|e,otananima||ovet, otapatentotaspouse,otmaybeacbatm- l ingsomeonewebavebaddinnet,otmote,witb.Andby°sucbabot- tib|e tbing,¨ we mean a negative act tbat is inexp|icab|ybizatte, becausetbeteisnoway, basedonoutownfee|ingsandnotma|mo- tivations,tbatwe canexp|ainwbyanyonewou|devetwanttodoit intbe ntstp|ace.Wbywou|dasmatt,bandsome,ptivi|egedboy|ike Skipwanttos|augbtetsma||anima|s?!nadu|tbood,wbywou|dfab- u|ous|ysuccessfu| Skip, mattied totbe beautifu| daugbtet ofa bi|- |ionaite, tisk bis teputation bybreaking tbe atm ofan �mp|oyee? Wbywou|d Dt. Litt|ene|d, a psycbo|ogistandtbe nicest petsonin tbewot|d,sudden|ymountabtuta|psycbo|ogica|attackonatecov- eting patient, and a Vl! at tbat? Wbywou|d sbe, an estab|isbed ptofessiona| petson, knowing sbewou|d be found out, make up a meaning|esswbo|e-c|otb|ie]usttoscateayoungintem? lbese atetbe kinds ofquestionswe askoutse|veswbenwe ate ~ 95 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT exposedtosociopathicbehavot,andin mostcases,wecannotcome upwithanswetsthat sound plausible to us Speculate as we may, we �annot imagine why. Nothing sounds believable, so we think there ¬�ba ¬isu�detstanding, �tmaybe we have gteatlyexag� gerated somethinginoutobsetvations.Wethinkthiswaybecau�e the conscience-bound mind is qu�litatively diffetent ftom the conscience-ftee mind, and what sociopaths want, what motivates them,iscomple� e ly outside outexpetience. Inotdettohan amen- tally 4I petsonln�entionaäy, �s Doteen did`, otto bteaksomeone's atm,asSkip did, mostofu�wouldhaveto besetiouslythteatened bythepetsonwewetehutting,otbeundettheinßuenceofacom· pelling emotion such as tage. Petfotming such actions calmly, fot fun,has noplaceintheemotionaltepettoiteofnotmalpeople. Sociopaths,peoplewithnointetveningsenseofobligationbased inattachmentstoothets,gpicallydevotetheitlivestointetpetsol games, to¨winning,°todominati�fotthesakeofdomination.The testofus, who do possess conscience, may be able to undetstand thismotivationalschemeconceptually,butwhenweseeitintea|life, itscontoutsatesoalienthatweoftenfailto ¨see°itatall.Maµpeo- plewithout consciencewillbehave self-desttuctivelysimplyfot the ª ' *'¯ ´ ·· "¯¯ ¨ .=·- · ~~m{¸ ��¿ \ y�·· · « ·= ~, 7 putposes ofthegame. StampManspenthalfhislifein]ail fotthe · thtill,evegfew,eats,ofmakingafew postalwotketsandpoliceof- ncetsscuttyatoundfotanhoutotso.Doteengleefullyputhetown cateetatsignincanttisk]usttodamagehetcolleague'salittle.These atebehaviotswe ate notptepatedto undetstand, otevenbelieve. -= - , - - ´ Wewilldoubtoutowsnseoftealigntst. ¯"^* - · mdofteu,out se|f+oubts ateextteme.1anillusttation,thete »asthetema:kabl e pubhcteaction,whichcontinuedfotthitgyeats �ftet het death, to a cateet ctiminal named Batbata Gtaham. In I9óó,at theageofthitg-two,GtahamwasexecutedatSanQuentin fot het patt in the especially btutal mutdet of an eldetlywidow . · namedMabelMonahan. Mts.Monahan,likeIngtidBetgman'smut- " 95 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R , deredauntinGas l ig h t, badbeentumotedtokeepacacbeof]ewe|s ¹mbetbouse Gtabamandtbteeaccomp|icesentetedtbebouse,and · when no ]ewe|s wete fottbcoming, Gtabam (nicknamed °8|oody _ ßabs°bytbemedia,pisto|-wbippedtbee|det|ywoman,neat|yob|it� ,etatingbetface,andtbensuhocatedbettodeatbwitbapi||ow · · Recotded at bet execution, 8|oody 8abs's |ast wotds wete, °Good peop|e ate a|ways so sute tbeyte tigbt ° lbis assettionwas de|ivetedca|m|y, a|mostwitbanairofsympatby, andasanehective ¿as|ightingtecbnique, itwas a fait|ygood |ine ltcaused manyto doubttbeitownsenseoftea|igconcemingGtabam, and tefocused tbe pub|ic's attention on betto|e as an atttactive motbetoftbtee youngcbi|dten, tatbettbanonbetgtis|ybebaviotAftetbetdeatb, sbebecametbesub]ectofemotiona|debate,andeventoday, against tbeweightofconsidetab|e evidence, tbete atetbosewbomaintain ª tbatGtabamwasinnocentOutoftbepub|icsse|f-doubtsptangtwo n|msaboutbet, botbentit|edI Want to Live! lbe ntststattedSusan Haywatd,wbowonanOscatfotbetpetfotmance,anda I98Jte|e- visiontemakefeatutedLindsayWagnet !nbotbvetsions, Gtabam, tbesadisticmutdetess,waspotttayedasapoignant|ymisundetstood womanwbowasftamed 8atbataGtabam's|astwotds-°Goodpeop|eatea|ways sosute tbey'tetigbt°-badagas|igbtingeffectptecise|ybecausetbettutbis quitetbe opposite ln fact, one of tbemote s�tikit:g cbatactetisics ofgoodpeop|eistbattbeyatea|uostnevetcomp|ete|ysuretbeyate tigbt Good peop|e questiontbe m se|v �sconstanu, t��ive|y, and sub]ecttbeitdecisionsandactionstotbeexactingsctutioyofanin- t��ening sense ofob|igation tooted intheit attachm�nts to otber� pe o p|e lbe se|f-questioningofconscience se|d�mad�.tsabso|�t e cettainty into tbe mind, and even wben it does, cettaing fee|s tteacbetcusto us,as ifitmayttickusintopunisbingsomeoneun- ]ust|y,otpetfotmingsomeotbetunconscionab|eactLven|ega||y,we speakof °beyondateasonab|edoubt°tatbettbanofcomp|etecet- ¬ 97 ¯ MART HA S T OUT taing. ! ntbeend,8atbataGtabamundetstoodusfatbettettbanwe undetstoodbet, andbetpattingt e matkpusbedanittationa|butvety ´ sensitivepsycbo|ogica|button intbe conscience-boundpeop|ewbo sutvived bet-tbe feattbat tbeybadmade adecisionbasedontoo muc h certainty. Adding to out insecutity, most ofus comptebend instinctive|y tbat tbete ate sbades ofgood and bad, tatbet tban abso|ute cate- goties Weknowinoutbeattstbeteisnosucbtbingasapetsonwbo is I00 petcentgood,andsowe assumetbetemustbenost:cbtbing asapetsonwbois I00 petcentbad.Adpetbaps pbi|osopbica||y- and cettain|y tbeo|ogica||y-tbis is ttue. Aet a||, in tbe ]udeo- Cbtistianttadition,tbedevi|bimseIfis& fa||enange|!tobab|ytbete ate no abso|ute|y good buman beings and no uttet|y bad ones. Howevet-psycbo|ogica||yspeaking,tbetedennite|yat�peop|ewbo possess an intetvening sense ofconsttaint based in emotiona| at- tacbments,andotbetpeop|ewbobavenosucbsenseAndtofai|to undetstandtbisistop|ace peop|eofconscience, anda||tbeMabe| Monabansoftbewot|d,indanget. How Do WeKeeptbe8|indersOf Mydaugbtets nftb-gtade c|ass bad a ne|d ttip, and ! was one of tbe cbapetones. Wewentto seea p|ayca||ed Free d om Train, about Hattietlubmanandtbe Undetgtound Rai|toad Ontbe noisybus tidebacktoscboo|,oneoftbeboyswaspickingonanotbetboy,pok- ingbimandpu||ingbisbait.lbequietboybeingpokedwasdeve|- opmenta||y de|ayed, ftiend|ess, ! amto|d, and didnot bave a c|ue bowto defend bimse|f Lvenbefote one oftbe adu|ts cou|d intet- vene, a petite git| seated]ust bebind tbetwoboystappedtbe tot- mentotontbesbou|detandsaid,°lbat'stea||ymean Quitit° lbepetsonwbotecgni ts anTsia! 1v:otan3pD|ic|y " 98 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ob]ectedtoitwastenyeatso|danda||offoutfeetta||.!beboysbe badspokentostuckbistongueoutatbetand|eaptovettoanotbet bus seattobewitbone ofbis pa|s. Sbewatcbedbimgo andtben ca|m|ytesumedtbegameoftock-papet-scissotssbebadbeenp|ay- ingwitbtbe git|nexttobet. Wbatbappenstouswbi|eweategtowingup?Wbydoadu|tsstop saying°Quitit¨totbebu||ies?!begtown-upbu||iesatemotepow- etfu|,buttben,soateweWi||tbisbea|tby|itt|egit|bebavewitbtbe same kind ofdignigandse|f�assutancewben sbe istbitçyeats o|d andafootandaba|fta||et?Wi||sbebeanotbetHattiet!ubman,a|- beit witb a diffetent cause? Sad|y, given out ptesent cbi|d-teating ptactices,tbeoddsateagainstit. We taise out cbi|dten, especia||y git|s, to ignote tbeit sponta- neousteactions-weteacbtbemnottotocktbesocleta|boat-and tbuis agoodand necessaç|essonwbentbe spontaneousteaction invo|ved wou|d be to sttikeoutvio|ent|ywitbhts otwotds, otto stea|anatttactive itemftoma stote, ottoinsu|tasttangetinasu- petmatket|ine 8ut anotbet kind ofspontaneous teaction, equa||y supptessedbyoutconBict-avo:dantsockg,¡sU ¯|¯teact:on,1he ¯a:t:ta|senseO ü¬a8ymeus |suÆ`va!am |auaid¯-:Ttotespond,totocktbe boat,wben someone'sactions ate °tea||ymean¨-maybave been excised ftom betbebaviot,andpetbapsftombetveçmind !n tbeit book Womens Anger: C l inica l an d Deve l opmenta l Perspectives, gendet psycbo|ogists Debotab Cox, Sa||y Stabb,and Katin8tucknetdocumenttbewaysgit|sandwomenpetceive socia| tesponsestotbeitouttage.Cox,Stabb,and8tucknetwtitet bat°tbe ma]otigofintetactionstbey¸ git|sandwomen| desctibeinvo|vete- ]ectionofeitbettbeanget,tbegit|otwoman,otbotb.!bistakestbe fotn:ofeitbetditectattacktbtougbctiticismotdefensive tesponse, otmote passive te]ection sucb as witbdtawa| andminimizationof tbegit|'sotwoman'sconcetnsandfee|ings. ¨Andbasedonbetstud- 99 MAR T HA S T OUT iesofado|escentgit|s,educatot[Mike|8townmaintainstbatide- a|izedfemininigcandangetous|yendotse°si|enceovetoutspoken- ness. ¨ lokeeptbeb|indetsoffout|ife-enbancingseventbsense,aswitb mostimptovementsintbebumancondition,wemuststattwitbout cbi|dtenApattofbea|tbyconscienceisbeingab|etoconftontcon- science|essnessWbenyouteacbyoutdaugbtet,exp|icit|yotbypas- 'sivete]ection, tbat sbe mustignote betouttage, tbatsbe mustbe ´ · ~~ - ^ - ` kind and acceptingtotbe point ofnot defendingbetµfototbet peop|e,tb�tsb� mustnot tocktbeboatfotanyteason,youatenot sttengtbeningbetptosocia|sense,youatedamaging�t- andtbentst petsonsbewi||stopptotectingisbetse|f Cox, Stabb, and8tucknet atgueempbatica||ytbat°tbetequitementtosupptessouttageattbe otbettobstbewo m anofanoppottunigtodeve|optbiskindofau- tonomy ¨ !nstead,asLynMike|8townbassaid,weneedtosuggest °tbepossibi|ity, evenundettbemostopptessiveconditions,fotcte- ¸ ativetefusa|andtesistance ¨ Donot set bet uptobe gas|igbted Wben sbe obsetves tbat someonewboisbeingtea||ymeanisbeingtea||ymean,te||betsbe istigbtandtbatitisokaytosaysoout|oud]ackieRubensteincbose tobe|ievebetpatientDennis, andnottobe|ievebetdangetousco|- !eagueDoteenLitt|ene|d !twasagood,mota|cboice Sbesaid,ef- fective|y, °lbat's tea||y mean. Quit it, ¨tbougb saying so out |oud causedbetto beviewedasattoub|emaketbymanyoftbe |essin- sigbtfu|peop|eatoundbet A fottbe boys-in R aising C ain: Protecting , t h e Emotiona l Li f e o f Boys, |eading cbi|d psycbo|ogists Dan Kind|on and Micbae| lbompson tecotd tbeit concem about tbe ftequencywitb wbicb °vu|netab|e fatbets tutn to time-bonoted defensive tesponses to mmntaintbenc(ionu�t'Iatbetknowsbest. '¨!atents,especia||yfa- the:s�¸ ypica||y uac|¡heit sonsto obey autbotigno mattet wbat, and·given tbe wtongcu|tuta| and po|itica| citcumstances, citcum- v °; stances tbat bave occuttedwitb motbid tegu|atigtbtougbout bis- )00 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R tog,tbisisa|�ssontbatmaywe||comewitbasuicidec|ause lbat patentswisItofostetacettaintespect¡ot|egitimateautbongisun- | detstandab|e, andptobab|yimpottantfottbefunctioningofsocieg asweknowit. 8utto dti||cbi|dtenintellexive, no-questions-asked obedience is to beat a botse tbat is mote tban ba|f-dead a|teady Obediencetoappatentautbotigisaknee-]etkteactioninmostpeo- plequitewitboutttaining,andtosensitizetbistellexistomakeout cbi|dtenbypetvu|netab|etoanyaggtessiveotsociopatbic°autbotity¨ ' ¡ wbomaycomea|ong|atetintbeit|ives � lo evetyone's dettiment, obedience and tbe bigbet va|ues of pattiotism and dug can become indistinguisbab|e motivations. Lnbancedintbisway, tenexiveobediencecanconsumetbeindivid� '¡ tta|befotebeevenbasacbancetowondetwbetbetbebimse|fmigbt be tbe best autbotigwben it comes to bis own |ife and bis own countg, and|ongbefotebecanaskquestionssucbas°Do!andmy countçmentea||ywanttongbtandpetbapsdiefottbisexetna|'au- thorig's'se|f-intetest?¨ Sti||, !be|ievewemaynowbestandingattbeedgeofamodetn possibi|igtbousands ofyeats intbe making. !ntbepast, fotstatk . . . teasonsofsutviva|,bumanbeingsttu|yneededtbeitcbi|dtennotto �psetanybatd-wonapp|ecatts,nottoquestiontbingstoomucb,uot todisobeyotdets.Lifewaspbysica||ybatdandptecatious,andcbi|- dtenwbo cba||enged out autbotigmigbt a|| too easi|y end up as �eadcbi|dten.And so,unti|tecentcentutie � ,w� taisedbumansfot ¸ wbommota|outtagewasanextteme|uxug,andtowbomtbeques- ;/I1ODH1� ofautbotigfe|t|ife-tbteatening.!ntbisway, genetationaftet �enetatiou, we wete unwitting|y set up fot sociopatbic takeovets. 8utnow, fotmostofusintbedeve|opedwot|d, sutviva|conditions no|ongetbo|d.Wecanstop.Wecan|etoutcbi|dtenquestiontbings. And wben tbey ate gtown, tbey can, witboutdoubiing tbeit own s �nses, |ook tbe gtown-up b�||ies intbe eye a nd say°!bat's t�a|ly * - � � × +··º . · t' U C3D Quitit '' wbatabouttboseofuswboatea|teadygtown,wewbobave - )0) ¨ MAR T HA S T OUT baddecadesofptacticeinignotingoutowninstincts?Howcanwe avoid beinggas|igbted, anda||owoutse|vestotecognizetbe peop|e atounduswbobavenoconscience?lbisistbeconcetnaddtessedin tbenextcbaptet ltis anintetestingquestionwitbatatbetsutptis- inganswet ¯ )02 ¯ S l X how to r ecogmze the r emors e l ess In the desert, an old monk had once advised a traveler the voices of God and the Devil are scarcely distinguishable. -Loren Ei sel ey Ì n my ptactice, one oftbe questions I amasked most often is, °HowcanI te||wbomtottust?¨Sincemypatientsatesutvivotsof psycbo|ogica|ttauma,mostofwbombavebeendevastatedbyotbet bumanbeings,tbisisnotasutptisingconcemfottbemtobaveOn tbeotbetband,myfee|ingistbattbisissueisaptessingonefotmost ofus, eventbosewbobavenotendutedsevetettauma, andtbatwe . a||tgvegbatdtoassesstbe|eve|ofconsciencetbatexists,otnot, inotbetpeop|eWeateespecia||yintetestedintbeconsciencequo- tientoftbe peop|ewe bave c|osete|ationsbipswitb, andwbenw� meetanatttactivenewpetson,weofteninvestconsidetab|ementa| enetginsuspiciousness ovet, guesses about, andwisbfu|tbinking concetningtbisquestion. lbeunttustwottbydo notweatspecia|sbitts, otmatksontbeit fotebeads, andtbe facttbatwe mustonenmakectucia|decisions aboutotbetpeop|ebasedonnotmucbmotetb�nguesswotk|eads ustoittationa|sttategiestbatteadi|ybecome|ife|ongsupetstitions. 103 MA RT HA S T OUT °Dontttustanyoneovettbirç, ¨°Nevetttustaman,¨°Nevetttusta woman,¨ °Nevetttustanyone¨atetbe m o st popu|atexamp|esWe wantac|eattu|e, even asweepingone, becauseknowingwbomto bewatyofis so impottantto us,buttbesewide-btusbsttategiesate ineffective, and, wotse, tbeytendtoptoduce anxiegand unbappi- nessinout|ives Apatt ftom knowing someonewe|| fot manyyeats, tbete isno foo|ptoofdecisiontu|eot|itmustestfotttustwottbiness,anditisex- tteme|yimportanttoacknow|edgetbisfact,unnervingtbougbitmay beUncettaintyintbis tegatdis simp|ya patt oftbe bumancondi- tion,and!bavenevetknownanyonewbogotatounditcomp|ete|y, except by tbe most exttaotdinag |uck. Puttbetmote, to imagine tbete isaneffective metbod-ametbodtbatone bastbusfatbeen unab|eto hgute out-istobeatup on onese|fin awaytbatis de- meaningandunfait Wben it comes to ttustingotbetpeop|e, we a||make mistakes. Someoftbesemistakesate|atgettbanotbets. Havingsaidtbis, wben peop|e askme aboutttust, ! tep|ytbat thete is bad news and good news.!be bad news is tbattbete ttu|y ate individua|s wbo bave no conscience, and tbese individua|s ate nottobettusted ata||. !etbapsanavetageofJoutpeop|einatan- domgtoupofonebundtedate|imitedintbisway!begoodnews- tbe vety good news-is tbat at |east nineg-six peop|e out of a bundtedateboundbytbeconsttaintsofconscience,andcantbete- fotebecountedontobebaveaccotdingtoa teasonab|ybigbbase- |ineofdecencyandtesponsibi|ig-tobebave, inotbetwotds,mote ot|essaswe||asyouand! doAndtomymind,tbissecondfactis agteatdealmotecompe||ingtbantbehtst. !tmeans, astonisbing|y, tbat to a cettain standatd of ptosocia| bebaviot, out intetpetsona| wot|dsbou|dbeaboutnineg-sixpetcentsafe Andsowbydoestbewot|dseemtobesotettib|yunsafe? How doweexp|aintbesixo'c|ocknews,otevenoutownpetsona|badex- petiences?Wbatis going on bete? Cou|d it conceivab|y betbata ¬ )04 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R mete4petcentoftbepopu|a�ionistesponsib|efotneat|ya||oftbe buman disastetstbatoccutintbewot|d,andinoutindividua||ives? lbisisanattestingquestion,onetbatoffetstoovetbau|manyofout assumptions about buman socieg So ! wi|| tepeat tbattbe pbe- nomenonofconscienceisovetwbe|ming|ypowetfu|,petsistent,and ptosocia|. Un|ess undettbe spe|| ofa psy�botic de|usion, exteme tage, inescapab|edeptivation, dtugs, ota desttuctive autbotigng- ute, apetsonwboisconscience-bounddoesnot-insome sense be carrct-ki||ot tape in co|d b|ood, tottute anotbet p�tson, stea| someone's|ae savings,tticksomeoneintoa|ove|esste|ationsbipas sport, otwi||fu||yabandonbisowncbi|d. Cou|dyou? Wbenweseepeop|edoingsucbtbings, eitbetintbenewsotin ( `¸ ¸ outown|ives, wboatetbey?Ontbetateoccasion,tbeyatefotma||y insane, otundettbeptessute ofsome tadica|emotion. Sometimes tbeyatemembetsofagtouptbatisdespetate|ydeptived, ottbeyate substanceabusets,ottbefo||owetsofama|evo|ent|eadet.Butmost oftentbeyate none oftbese. Ratbet, most often, tbeyate peop|e wbobavenoconscience.lbeyatesociopatbs. Cettain|ytbeveçwotstoftbeuntbinkab|edeedsweteadabout in out newspapets andtacit|yasctibe to °buman natute°-tbougb tbe events sbockus as notma|bumanbeings-atenot tel|ective of notma|bumannatureata||, andweinsu|tanddemota|izeoutse|ves wbenwe assume so. Mainstteam buman natute, tbougb fat ftom petfect, isveç mucbgovetnedby adiscip|iningsense ofintetcon- nectedness,andtbegenuinebottotsweseeonte|evision,andsome- timesenduteinoutpetsona||ives, donottel|ect¸ica|bumankind. !ustead,tbeyatemadepossib|ebysometbingquitea|iento outna- tute�tbeco|dandcomp|eteabsenceofconscience. 1bisis,!tbink,somewbatdifncu|tfotmanypeop|etoaccept.We b�ve a batd time acknow|edging tbat patticu|at individua|s ate sbame|essbyxbeitnatute, andtbetestofusnot so, dueinpattto ltefetTO astbe°shadowtheoç°of natuteSbadowtbe- " )05 " MA RTHA STO UT oty�tbe simp|e and ptobab|y accutate notion tbat we a|| bave a °sbadow side¨ notnecessati|yappatentftomout usua| bebaviot- maintainsinitsmostexteme fotmtbatanytbingdoab|eotfee|ab|e byonebumanbeingispotentia||ydoab|eotfee|ab|ebya||.!notbet wotds,undetcettaincitcumstances (tbougbtbeyatecitcumstances weatebatd-ptessedtoimagine,anyoneata||cou|dbe,fotexamp|e, adeatb-campcommandant.!tonica||y, goodandkindbeatt�dpeop|e ate onentbemostwi||ingtosubsctibetotbistbeotyintbetadica| fotmtbatptoposes tbeycou|d, in some bizattesituation, be mass mutdetets. !t fee|s mote democtatic and |ess condemnatog (and somebow|essa|atming,tobe|ievetbatevegoneisa|itt|esbadytban toaccepttbatafewbumanbeings |iveinapetmanent andabso|u ! e mota| nigbttime lo admittbatsome peop|e |iteta||ybave no con- scienceis nottecbnica||ytbe sameas saying tbatscme bamanbe- ingsateevi|,butitisdistutbi�g|yc|oseAndgoodpeop|ewantveg mucbnottobe|ieveinthepetsonincationofevi|. Ofcoutse, tbougb not evegone cou|d bea deatb-camp com- mandant, manyifnot most peop|e ate capab|e ofovet|ookingtbe bottincactivitiesofsucbapetson, owingtotbeviscosityofpsycbo- |ogica| denia|, mota| exc|usion, and b|ind obedience to autbority Askedaboutoutsensetbatweatenotsafeinoutownwot|d,A|bett Linsteinoncesaid, °lbewot|disadangetousp|aceto |ive, notbe- cause oftbepeop|ewboate evi|, butbecauseoftbepeop|ewbo don'tdoanytbingaboutit¨ lo dosometbingaboutsbame|esspeop|e,wemustntstidentify tbem So, inoutindividua||ives,bowdowetecognizetbeonepet� son out of (mote ot |ess, twenty-nve wbo bas no conscience and who is potentia||ydangetous to out tesoutces and outwe||-being? Deciding wbetbet ot not someone is ttustwottby usua||y tequites knowingtbatpetsonwe||fota|ongtimeandintbecaseofidenti- [ingasociopatb, mucbbettetand|ongettbanonewou|dbavea|- |owedbadtbesociopa tbbeenweatingamatkonbisfotebeadattbe outsetlbisbattowingdi|emmaissimp|yapattoftbebumancon- ¬ )05 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R dition.8utevengiventbefami|iatigtequitement,tbeptessingques- l tiontemains,°Howcan!te|wbomtottust?¨-otmotetotbepoint, wbomnot tottust. Aftet|isteningfota|mosttweng-nveyeatstotbestotiesmypa- tie�tste||meaboutsociopatbswbobave invadedandin]utedtbeit |ives,wben!amasked,°Howcan!te||wbomnottottust?¨tbean- swet!giveusua||ysutptisespeop|elbenatuta|expectationistbat! wi||desctibesomesinistet-soundingdetai| ofbebaviototsnippetof body|anguageottbteateninguseof|anguagetbatistbesubt|egive- away !nstead,!takepeop|eabackbyassutingtbemtbattbetip-oh isnoneoftbesetbings,fotnoneoftbese thingsiste|iab|yptesent Ratbet,tbebes t c|ueis,ofa||tbings,tbepigp|ay1emostte|iab|e .= ' · .\.. . ×. sign,tbe mostunivetsa|bebaviotofunstupu|ous peop|e isnot di- tected,asonemigbtimagine,atoutfeatfu|ness.!tis,petvetse|y, an zppea|tooutsympatby ¸ �¯` !ntst|eatned:bi���!wassti||agtaduatestudentinpsycbo|- ogandbadtbeoppottunitytointetviewacoutt-tefettedpatienttbe systembada|teadyidentinedasa°psycbopatb. ¨ Hewasnotvio|ent, ptefettinginsteadtoswind|epeop|eoutoftbeitmoneywitbe|abo- · tateinvestment scams !nttiguedbytbisindividua|andwbatcou|d possib|ymotivate bim-!wasyoungenougbtotbinkbewas atate sottofpetson�lasked,°Wbatisimpottanttoyouinyout|ife?Wbat doyouwantmotetbananytbinge|se?¨!tbougbtbemigbtsay°get- ting money, ¨ ot °staying out of]ai|,¨ wbicbwete tbe activities to wbicbbedevotedmostofbistime!nstead,witboutamoment'sbes- itation,betep|ied, °Ob,tbatseasy.Wbat!|ikebettettbananytbing e|seiswben peop|e fee|sotgfotme lbetbing! tea||ywantmote tbananytbi�,�|��outof|ifeis peop|espity ¨ � !wasastonished,and uotetbana|itt|eput �ff. !tbink!wou|d bave|ikedbimbettetubebadsaid°stayingoutof]ai|,¨oteven°get- tingmoney. ¨A|so,!wasmystined Wbywou|dtbisman-wbywou|d anyone-wisbtobepitied, |eta|onewisbtobepitiedabovea||otbet ambitions? ! cou|dnotimagine 8utnow, aftettweng-nveyeats of - )07 MART H A S T OUT |isteningtovictims, I tea|izetbeteisanexce||entteasonfottbeso- ciopatbicfondnessfotpig.Aobviousastbenoseonone'sface,and ]ustasdifncu|ttoseewitbouttbebe|pofamittot,tbeexp|anationis tbatgoodpeop|ewi|||etpatbeticindividua|sgetbywitbmutdet,so to speak, andtbetefote any sociopatb wisbingto continuewitbbis game,wbatevet it bappens to be, sbou|d p|ay tepeated|yfotnone otbettbanpig. Mote tban admitation-mote even tban feat-pig ftom good peop|e is catteb|ancbeWbenwepity, we ate, at |e�st1ttbe mo- ment,deí�nse|ess, �nd1ikesomanyoftbeotbetessentia||ypositive buman cbatactetistics tbat bind us togetbet in gtoups-socia| and ptofessiona| to|es,sexua|bonds, tegatdfottbe compassionate and tbe cteative, tespect fot out |eadets- out emotio:i�[vu|netabi|ig wbenwepigis usedagainstusbytbo �_ b�bavenoconscience Mostof� �wou|d agr��tbatgiviagspe caldispensati�ntosomeone wboisincapab|eoffee|inggui|tisabadidea,butoften,wbenauin- dividua|ptesentsbimse|faspatbetic,wedosononetbe|ess. !ig andsympatbyatefotcesfotgoodwb�ntbeyateteactionsto desetvingpeop|ewbobavefa||enonmisfottune.8utwbentbesesen- timents·tewtestedoutofusbytbeundesetving,bypeop|ewbose " · . bebaviotisconsistent|yantisocia|,tbisisasutesigntbat somethingis wtong, a poten:ia||y usefu| danget signa| tbat we often ovet|�ok. !etbaps tbe most easi|y tecognized examp|e is tbe batteted wife wbose sociopatbicbusband beats bettoutine|yand tben sitsattbe kitcbentab|e, bead in bis bands, moaningtbat be cannot contto| bimse|fandtbatbe isa pootwtetcbwbom she mustnndit in bet beatt to fotgive. lbete ate count|ess otbet examp|es, a seeming|y end|essvatieg,someevenmotellagtanttbantbevio|entspouseand somea|mostsub|imina|Andfottboseofuswbodobaveconscience, sucbsituations,nomattetbowbtazen,seemtoptesentusemotion- a||ywit�akindofem�eddedngutepuzz|e,in�bicbtbebackgtound design(tbeappea|fotpig,continua||yovetcomesoutpetceptionsof tbemot�impottantembeddedpicttite(tbeantisocia|bebaviot, . ¯ - ¸, - . =~~- ~ , ¸. . _ ¯ 108 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R !n|ongtettospect,sociopatbicappea|sfotpigateptepostetous andcbi||ing.Skipimp|iedtbatbedesetvedypatbybecausebebad btoken someone's atm Doteen Litt|ene|d teptesented betse|fas a . " ´ ¯-«·~ poorovetwotkedsou|wbowastoosensitiveto�iu�sbetpatæuts' ¯]ain. Ftom ptis o n� a | o ve|y a nd endea � ing 8a � b�taGtah � ¬ �� - ¯p|ained to tepottets tbat sociegwas pteventing bet ftom taking ptopetcate ofbetcbi|dten And as fottbe |ikes oftbe afotemen- tioned deatb-camp ofncia|-in tbe I94ó intettogations tbat pte- cededtbeNutembetgWatCtimesltibuna|,testimonyftom actua| deatb-camp guatds inc|uded tbeit desctiptions ofbowawfu| itwas t� beincbatgeoftbectematotiums,onaccuntoftbe sme||. !nin- . tetviews bigb|igbtedby8titisbbistotianRicbatd Oveg, tbe guatds comp|ained tbat itwas difncu|t fot tbem to eat tbeit sandwicbes Sociopatbsbavenotegatdwbatsoevetfottbesocia|conttact,but tbeydoknowbowto use ittotbeitadvantage.Anda||ina||, I am sute tbat iftbe devi| existed, be wou|dwantus to fee|veg sotty fotbim * t · ··+-º^ i ' Wbendecidingwbomtottust, beatinmindtbattbe combina- tion ofconsistent|y bad ot egtegious|y iudequate bebaviot witb hequentp|aysfotyou� piµisasc|os�toawarningmatkonacon- science|ess petson's fotebead as you wi|| evet be g�ven Apetson , whose behaviot iuc|udes botboftb�sefeatutes isnotnecessati|y a massmutdetet,otevenvio|entata||,butissti||ptobab|ynotsome- oneyousbou|d c|ose|ybeftiend, take onasyoutbusiness pattnet, asktotakecateofyoutcbi|dten,Or matty Poor Luke Wbat about tbe most ptecious component oftbe socia| conttact? Wbatabout|ove? Hete isonewoman's quietca|amig, a stogtbat wi||nevetbeontbesixo'c|ocknews. " 109 · ^ �' MAR T HA S T OUT My patient Sydneywas not ptetty. At fotg-hve, sbe bad ditg b|ondbaittbatwastuminggtayandatoundmotbet|ybodytbatbad nevetbeeng|amotous8utsbeownedahneinte||ectanda|ong|ist ofacademic and ptofessiona| accomp|isbments.At a univetsig in betbomestateofP|otida, sbe badbeenptomotedto anassociate ptofessotsbipmepidemio|ogbefotesbewastbip. Sbestudiedtbe popu|ationeffectsofsubstancesusedinindigenous medicines, and befotebetmattiagesbebadttave|edextensive|yinMa|aysia,Soutb Ametica, and tbe Catibbean Wben sbe moved ftom P|otida to Massacbusetts, sbe becameaconsu|tantto anetbnopbatmaco|og gtoupbasedin Cambtidge. 8utI |ikedbetmostfotbetgent|ede- meanotandtbetbougbtfu|, inttospective apptoacbsbetooktobet |ife One oftbe tbings I temembet bestabout bet wastbe soft watmtbofbet speakingvoice dutingtbe btiefhfteentbetapyses- sionswebadtogetbet. Sydneywasdivotcedftomamannamed Luke.lbedivotcebad dtainedbet|ifesavingsandcausedbettogointodebt,becausesbe badneededtomakesutesbegotcustodyofbetson,]onatban,wbo waseigbtwbenI knewSydney, andon|yhve attbetimeoftbedi- votce.Lukebadputupanexpensivesttugg|e,votbecausebe|oved ]onatban,butbecausebewasentagedwitbSydneyfotmakingbim moveoutofbetbouse. lbebouseinSoutbP|otidabadaswimmingpoo|.Luke|ovedtbe p o o| °Lukewas|ivingintbissbabby|itt|eapattmentwbenI metbim, ¨ Sydneyto|dme°lbatsbou|d'vetaisedatedl|agfotmetigbttbete, atbitg-hve-yeat-o|dmanwbo dgonetogtaduatescboo|atP÷ cigp|anning,actua||y-|ivingintbatawfu||itt|ep|ace 8utI ignoted it. Hesaidbetea||y|ikedtbebigpoo|bisapattmentcomp|exbad SowbenbesawI badmyownpoo|,begota||bappy.WbatcanI te|| you?Mybusbandmattiedmefotmypoo|.We||,tbatsnotentite|y ttue, butintettospect,itwasdehnite|ypattofit.¨ ¯ ! !0 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R SydncyovcrlookcdLukc`slilcs¡lc,andhisattractiontohcrs,bc- causc shc thought shc had lound somcthing rarc, an cxtrcmcly intclligcnt, attractivc thirty-hvc-ycar-old man, with nowilc and no cx-wivcs, whosc intcrcsts sccmcd similar to hcrs, and who trcatcd hcrwcll. ¨Hctrcatcdmcvcqwcllathrst, I musts · ay. Hctookmcout. Hc alwaysbroughtmchowcrs. Ircmcmbcrallthoscbirds-ol-paradiscin longboxcs, all thosc orangc tÍowcrs. I had to go out and buy somc rcallytallvascs. Idon'tknow. Hcwassoh-spokcnandsortolquictly charming÷wc had grcat convcrsations. Hc was anothcr acadcmic ]pc, likc mc, or so I thought. Whc� I mct him, hc wasworking on ' a planningprojcctthrough a lricnd olhis at thc univcrsi¡. Always '' drcsscd up in suits. Actually, that's whcrc I mct him, thc univcrsi¡. Micc, upstanding placc to mcct somcbody, wouldn`t you sayî Hc toldmc hc thoughtwcwcrcalotalikc,and IgucssI bclicvcd him.¨ Asthcwccks passcd, Sydncy lcarncdthat sincc Lukchadbccn twcn¡ or so, hc had livcd with a succcssion olwomcn, always in thcirhomcs,andthathavingaplaccolhisown,cvcnanincxpcnsivc �nc, had bccn an unusual dcparturc lrom his prclcrrcd situation. Butshc ovcrlookcdthisinlormation also,bccauscshcwaslallingin lovcwith Lukc. And shc thoughthc was inlovcwith hcr, too, bc- causcthatwaswhathc toldhcr. 'Jmjusta lrumpyacadcmic. Mo onchadcvcr bccn soromantic with mc. It was a good timc-I should probably conlcss that. 1oo ' badithadtobcsoshort.Anyway . . . 1hcrcIwas,thislrumpythir¡- t¹nvc-�car-oId carccr]pc, and allolasuddcn Iwasthinking about a whitc wcdding, thc wholc ninc yards. I`d ncvcr donc that bclorc. I 1 mcan, Ialwaysthoughtitwasasillylairytalcthcytclllittlcgirls,not • ¸ DLIIIVLII LII _ I`d cvcrhavc�rwant-andthcrcIwas,wantingit,plan- ning itcvcn. ¨P lorthc lact that hc'd livcdollthosc othcrwomcn-doyou bclicvc I actuallylclt sorqlor himî I tho�ght hc was scarching lor ¨` ! ) ! ¨ MAR T HA S T OUT thc right pcrson or somcthing, andthcyusuallyjustthrcw him out altcr a whilc. Mow I undcrstand why, but I ccrtainly didn`tthcn. I thought, How1oncly, howsad. Hcsaidonc olthoscwomcnwas ac- tuallykillcd in a carcrash. Hc cricd about itwhcn hc told mcthat. I Iclt sobadlorhim. " Sixwccks altcrthcymct, Lukc movcd into Sydncy's housc, and cight months latcr thcywcrc marricd, a big church wcdding, lol- lowcdbyalormaldinncrrcccptionpaidlorbyhcrlamily. ¨Oocsn't thc bridc's lamily always pay lor thc wcddingî¨ shc askcdmcwqly. 1womonths altcrthc wcdding, Sydncydiscovcrcd shc was prcg- nant. Shc had always wantcd childrcn, buthad bclicvcd shc would ncvcrmarry. Mow hcrdrcam olmothcrhood was coming truc, and shcwas ovcqoycd. ì • ¨It sccmcd likc such a miraclc to mc, cspcciallywhcn thc baby startcdto movc. Ikcptsayingto myscll, 1hcrc's abrand-ncwpcrson inthcrc, somconcwhoncvcrwasbclorc,somconc I' mgoingto lovc lorthc rcstolmylilc. Itwas incrcdiblc. Lukcwasobviouslyalotlcss cxcitcdthan mc, butstillhc said hcwantcdthc baby, too. Hc said hcwasjustncrvous. HcthoughtIwasuglywhilcIwasprcgnant, but I hgurcd hcwasjustbcing morc honcstthanmostmcn arc aboutit. Ironic, huhî ¨IwassohappyaboutthcbabythatIdidn`tlctmyscllknowwhat I!hinkI alrcadykncw, ilthat makcs anyscnsc. I think I rcalizcdthc marriagc wasn't going to work whilc I was prcgnant. 1hc doctor told mc thc worst risk olmiscarriagc was ovcr altcr thc hrst thrcc ' months, and so ol coursc I took this litcrally, and at thc lourth month, Iwcnt out and boughtacrib.1rcmcmbcrit was onthc day thcy dclivcrcdit, Lukc camc homc and toldmchc'dquithisjob.|ust likc that. Itwas as ilhc kncvthatnowhc had mc. I was aboutto havc a baby, and so I would dchnitclytakc carc olthings. I would fakc carc olhimhnancially bccausc nowI didn'thavca choicc. Hc - ))2 T H E S O C I O PAT H . N E XT D O O R was wrongaboutthat, but I cansccwhy hcthought it. Hcmust`vc thought l` ddojust about anythingto ho|d ontothat scmb|ancc oI Iami|y. ¨ CI coursc, that was not what Lukc said to Sydncy, or to hcr Iricndsorhcr Iami|y. Hcto|dthcma||thathcwasdcprcsscd,Iartoo dcprcsscdtowork, andwhcncvcrothcrswcrc around, hc Icllsilcnt, · |ookcdhangdog, and ingcncra|p|aycdthc partoIa dcprcsscd pcr- ' son. 1o makc mattcrs cvcn morc conIusing Ior Sydncy, a numbcr oI pcop|c to|d hcr that dcprcssion among hrst-timc Iathcrs was common. ¨But I ncvcrrca|Iy thought hc was dcprcsscd,¨ Sydncyto|d mc. ¨Somcthing didn`tsccmright. l`vc bccn a li ¡ tlc dcprcsscd myse|Iat timcs, and this justwasn`t it. For onc thing, hc had way too much cncrgwhcnthcrcwassomcthinghcrcal|ywantcdtodo.Anda|so÷ this sccms likc a sma|| thing, but it madc mc prctq nuts�hc _ ¿ wou|dn`t gct hc|p. I saidwc shou|d spcnd somc moncyIor athcra- pist, or maybc somc kind oímcdication. But hc avoidcdthat idca |ikcthc p|aguc. ¨ Whcn |onathanwas born, Sydncytook a two-month matcrni[ |cavc Irom hcrtcaching,whichmcantthataUthrcc mcmbcrs oIthc g Iami|ywcrcathomctogcthcr,sinccLukcwasnotworking.ButLukc sc|dotncvcnlookcdat hisncwson, prcIcrringtorcadmagazincsby · thc poo|or to go outwithhis Iricnds.Andwhcn|onathan cricd, as ncwborns wi||, Lukc wou|d gct angq, somctimcs cnragcd, and dc- thatSydncydosomcthingaboutthc noisc. ¨Hc actcd|ikc a marqr, l think isthc bcstway to putit. Hc'd ho|dhiscarsandmakcthcsctormcntcdIaccsandpaccaround,asiI · thc baby wcrc cqingjust spccihca||yto crcatc prob|cms Iorhim. I I was supposcd to Icc| sorq j or him or somcthing. It was . I' dhad a C-scction, and I rca||ycould`vc uscd somc hclp at but I cndcd up wishing that |onathan and I cou|d just bc - 1 13 MAR T HA S T OUT 1hc samcpcop|cwhohadto|dSydncyaboutdcprcsscdhrst-timc IathcrsnowassurcdhcrthatncwdadssomctimcsIc|tuncomIortab|c around thcirncwborns and so kcptthcir distancc Iorawhi|c. 1hcy insistcdthat Lukc nccdcdsympathyandpaticncc. ¨ButLukcwasn't'kccpinghisdistancc`thcwaythcythought. Hc was tota||yob|ivious. |onathanmight aswc||havcbccnabund|c oI rags, Ior a||hc carcd÷an annoying |itt|c bund|c oIrags. Sti||,don`t youknow, Iwantcdtobc|icvcthoscpcop|c. iwantcdtobc|icvcthat somchow,somehow' iIlcou|d managc cnoughundcrstandingandpa- ticncc, cvcrythingwas goingto bcokay.Wcwcrc goingto bc arca| Iami|y, cvcntua||y÷ � wantcdsomuchto bc|icvcthat. ¨ Whcn hcr matcmiq |cavc was ovcr, Sydncywcnt backtowork andLukcstaycdbythcpoo|. Sydncycontactcd anaupair agcncyto hnddaytimcchi|d carc, bccausc itwas c|carthatLukcwas not go- ingtotakccarcoI|onathan.AcraIcwwccks, thcyoungsittcrcon- hdcdinSydncythatshcIc|t ¨wcird¨kccpingthcbabywiththcIathcr a|ways prcscntbutncvcrshowinganyintcrcst. ¨I can`t undcrstandwhyhc ncvcr cvcn |ooks at his baby. ls hc quitca||right, ma'amî¨thc sittcrcautious|yaskcd Sydncy. \singavariantoIthccxcuscLukchadprovidcd,ancmbarrasscd Sydncyto|dhcr, ¨Hc`sgoingthroughahardtimcinhis|iIcrightnow. Youcanjust kind oIprctcndhc'snotthcrc andyou'||bc hnc. ¨ Sydncy rccountcd how thc sittcr |ookcd outthrough thc g|ass doors oIthc dcn toward thc swimming poo|, prcsumab|y sccing a rc|axcd and tan Lukc sitting thcrc in thc F|orida |atc aItcmoon. Cockinghcrhcadtooncsidcincuriosiq, shcsaidsoIt|y, ¨Foorman.¨ Sydncy to|d mc, 'J|| a|ways rcmcmbcr that. 'Foor man.' Foor Lukc. ltwashowI Ic|t abouthim, too, somctimcs, dcspitcmysc|I. ¨ Butthctruthwas that thc pcrsonSydncyhad marricd was not ¨poorLukc¨ ata||, norwas hc a dcprcsscd hrst-timc Iathcr, norwas hc goingthroughahardtimc inhis|iIc. Rathcr, hcwas sociopathic. LukchadnointcrvcningscnscoIob|igationtoothcrpcop|c, andhis bchavior,thoughnotphysica||yvio|cnt,rcucctcdthisdangcrousIact. ¬¬ ! !4 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R ForLukc, socicta|ru|cs and intcrpcrsona|cxpcctations cxistcd on|y to scrvc his advantagc. Hc to|d Sydncythat hc |ovcd hcr, and thcn wcntsoIarastomarqhcr,primariþIorthcopportuniqtocnsconcc himsc|Ias akcptman inhcrhon � st|y carncd and comIortab|c |iIc. Hc uscd his wiIc`s dcarcst and most privatc drcams to manipu|atc hcr, andthcirsonwas anaggravationhc moodi|yto|cratcd on|ybc- causc thc baby sccmcd to sca| hcr acccptancc oI his prcscncc. Cthcrwisc,hc ignorcdhisownchi|d. Soonhcbcganto ignorc Sydncyaswc||. ¨ItwaskindoI|ikchavingaboardcr,aboardcryoudon`t|ikcvcry J _ muchandwho docsn`t payrcnt. Hcwasjustkind oIthcrc. Forthc mostpart,wc |ivcd thcsc para||c| |ivcs. 1hcrcvas|onathanandmc, a|ways togcthcr, andthcnthcrcwasLukc. I rca||ydon`tknowwhat hc did most oIthc timc. Somctimcs hc`d |cavc Ior a day ortwo. I _ don'tknowwhcrchcwcnt-Istoppcdcaringaboutit.Crsomctimcs hc'dhavcaIricndovcrIordrinks,a|waysunannounccd,whichcou|d bckindoIaprob|cmattimcs. And hc`d rackupbigphonc bi||s. But most|yhcjustsataroundbythcpoo|, orwhcnthcwcathcrwasbad, hc'd comc in and watch T or p|ay computcr gamcs. You know, ¸thosccomputcrgamcsthirtccn-ycar-o|d boys p|ay. ¨Lh, and I ncarly Iorgot÷Ior a coup|c oImonths, hc co||cctcd |ithographs. I don`tknowwhatputhimontothat ¸ buthcwas rca|ly ' cxcitcd about itIorawhi|c. Hc` dbuy3 ncwonc÷thcywcrc cxpcn- sivc, |ct mc tc||you÷andhc`dcomc bringingit mto show mc, |ikc ¸ a kid, |ikc nothingwas wrongbctwccnus and hc wantcd mc to scc í , thc ncwadditionto his art co||cction. Hc must`vc co||cctcd about thirp oI thcm÷ncvcr Iramcd thcm÷and thcn onc day hc just �roppcdthcwho|cbusincss.Momorc intcrcstin|ithographs. Cvcr. ¨ º \ Sociopaths somctimcs cxhibit bricI, intcnsc cnthusiasms~hob- bics, projccts, invo|vcmcntswithpcop|c÷that arcwithoutcommit- mcntorIo||ow-up.1hcsc intcrcsts appcarto bcgin abrupt|yandIor rcason, and to cnd thc samcway. ¨Ihad a ncw husband anda ncw baby. It shou|d`vc bccnonc oI 115 MAR T HA S T OUT thc happicsttimcs oImy |iIc, anditwas onc oIthc worst. I'dcomc homc Iromwork, rca||ytircd, andthc sittcrwou|d|ctmcknowt _ at Lukchadn`tsomuch asg|anccdat|onathana||day, and ahcrawhi|c myown husband bcganto disgustmc so muchthat I cou|dn`t cvcn s|ccp inthcbcdroom. I`mashamcdtotc||youthis, but I s|cptinmy own gucstroomforaycar. ¨ Cvcra||,thcgrcatcstdiIhcu|tySydncyhadintc||ingmc hcrstory washcrpainIu|cmbarrassmcntaboutwhathadhappcncdtohcr|iIc. ^shcputit, ¨Youcan'timaginchowhumi|iatingitistoadmit, cvcn just to admit to yoursc|I, that you actua||y marricd somcbody |ikc that. AndIwasn`takidwhcnI did it, cithcr. Iwasthir[-hvca|rcady, not'o mcntion I`dbccnaround thc wor|d scvcra|timcs. I shou|d'vc knownbcttcr.ButIjustdidn`tscc it. I didn`tsccitata||, and,togivc , nysc|I a |itt|c brcak, I don`t think anyonc c|sc who was around at thc timc saw it, cithcr. 1hcse days, cvcqbody tc||s mc thcy ncvcr drcamcdhc`dcndupactingthatway. AndcvcrybodyhasadiIIcrcnt thcoi¸about `what`swrongwithLukc. ' IIitwcrcn`t socmbarrassing, itwou|dbcIunny. OiûcrcntIricndshavcdccidcdit`scvcqthingIrom schizophrcniato � omcthing |ikc attcntion dchcitdisordcr. Canyou imagincî¨ !nsurprising|y, notasing|cpcrsongucsscdthatLukcsimp|yhad noconscicnccandthatthiswaswhyhcignorcdhisob|igationstohis wiIc��nd his chi|d. Lukc`s pattcm did not ht anyonc`s imagcs oI �o- ciopathy, cvcn nonvio|cnt sociopathy, bccausc Lukc,thoughhchad a high IQ, was csscntia||y passivc. Hc did not go about cutting throats,cithcr|itcra||yorhgurativc|y, inanattcmpttoachicvcpowcr orwca|th. Hcwas no corporatc shark, andccrtain|ynoIast-ta|king, high-octanc Skip. Hcdidnothavc cnoughvita|i|cvcnto bcanor- dinaq con man, or cnough physica| couragc to robbanks ¦or post oIhccs) . Hcwasnotamovcr. Hcwas,incûcct,Û nonmovcr. Hisprc- dominantambitionwastobcincrt,toavoidwork, andtohavcsomc� onc c|scprovidca comIortab|c |iIcs[|c, andhc cxcrtcdhimsc|Ijust ¯...,- .. rcachthis midd|inggoa|. ) ) 5 ·· T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R And sohowdidSydncyhna||yrccognizc his rcmorsc|cssncssîIt wasthcpiqp|ay. ¨Evcn aItcr that rca||y ug|y divorcc, hc sti|| hung around thc housc, and I domcanncar|ycvcqday. Hc gotanothcrcrummy|it- t|c apartmcnt, and hc a|ways s|cpt thcrc, but during thc day hc'd hangoutatmyhousc.IknownowthatIshou|dn`thavc|cthim, but IIc|tsorqIorhim, anda|sohcwas payinga|itt|cmorc aucntionto | onathan. Whcn he'd comc homc Irom kindcrgartcn, somctimcs Lukc wou|d cvcn mccthim atthc bus,wa|k him homc, givc him a |itt|c swimming |csson or somcthing. I Ic|t nothingIorthc man. I rca||y ncvcrwantcd to scc him again, but I wasn't going out with anyonc�|ikc I`mgoing to trust anothcr man, rightî÷and Ithought itwasagoodthingiI|onathan cou|d gcttoknowhisIathcr, gcta|it- t|cattcntionIromhim. Ihgurcditwasworththc nuisancc iImychi|d cou|d havc at |castpartoIadad. - · r =¬- · ~* ¨Wc||,thatwas a mistakc. Mysistcrwas thc oncwho ca||cdthc shot. Shc said, ' Lukc docsn`thavc arc|ationshipwith|onathan. Hc ' has arc|ationshipwithyourhousc. ` And oh boy, was shccvcrright. Butthcn I cou|dn'tgct rid oIhim ¸ 1hings gotrca||yawIu| andcom- p|icatcdand . . . crccpy. Itwasrca||ycreep. " Shc shuddcrcd,thcntookadccpbrcath andwcnton. ¨Whcnhc÷|onathan÷was inthchrst gradc, I rca|izcd I hadto gct Lukc out oIour|ivcsoncc andIora||.¸1hcrc wasjustno pcacc, no . . . wc||, Iwanttosayjoy.Whcnsomconcdocsn`tcarcaboutyou at a|| |ikc that, having him aroundyou so much rca||ysucks outthc pcacc and thc joy Irom your |iIc. Hc kcpt just showing up. Hc'd �omc in, orgoouttothc poo| and makc himsc|IcomIortab|c, just |ikchcsti|||ivcdthcrc, and I`dgctrca||ymorosc, rca||ytcnsc. I' dstay ª thchouscwiththc shadcsdrawnjustsohcwou|dn`tbcinmy|inc sight. Itwas crazy. 1hcnI rca|izcd-|onathan'sspiritswcrc going own, too. Hcdidn`trca||ywantLukc around, cithcr . ¨So I startcd asking him to |cavc. Mow, iI I wcrc ovcr at somc- c|sc`s housc andthcy askcd mc to |cavc, I`d |cavc÷wou|dn't ! ! 7 MAR T HA S T OUT youî~iIon|yIormyowndigniq. MotLuk-Hc actcd|ikc hchadn't cvcnhcardmc,whichwas Iair|ycrccpya||(o|cavc _ r z,andt _ c _ hc � ac _ _ |ikcnothinghadhappcncd.So I' d gct rca||y angq, and instcad oI just asking him to |cavc, I'd scrcamathimtogct out, or I' dthrcatcntoca||thc po|icc. Anddo youknowwhathcdidî¨ ¨Hcuscd|onathan, ¨I said. ¨1hat's right. Howdidyouknowî Hcuscd|onathan. Forcxam- p|c, wcwcrcoutbythcpoo|, a||thrcc oIus, andLukc stancdtocq. Actua|tear camcoutoIthcman'scycs. 1hcnI rcmcmbcrhcpickcd upthc nctwc uscdto skim thc poo| andstartcd skimming, |ikc hc was a suIIcring marqrwhoonlywantcd to hc|p, and thcn|on got tcarIu|, too, and hc said~and I'||rcmcmbcrthis Ior thc rcst oImy |iIc÷|onathan said, 'Ch no. Foor Oaddy. Oo wc havc to makc him |cavcî' ¨Andthcn Lukc |ookcdatmc, |ookcdmc right inthc cycs, and itwas asiII' dncvcr mct himbcIorc inmy|iIc. Hc|ookcdthatdiI- Icrcnt. 1hosc wcrc thc crccpicst cycs I`vc cvcr sccn, |ikc bcams oI icc÷it'src ¿ ||yhardtocxp|ain.AndI rca|izcd, a|| oIasuddcn,thatin Lukc's gthis was a||somc kind oIa_contro| § amc¸_ Itwa � somc kindoIa gamc, and I had|ost, big-timc. Iwas stunncd. ¨ y ithinaycaraItcrthissccncbythcpoo|,Sydncy|cItF|oridaand hcrunivcrsiqpositionthcrcandmovcdwith|onathantothcBoston arcato bc c|oscrto hcrsistcr, and hItccnhundrcd mi|cs away Irom Lukc. A Icwmonths|atcr, shc startcda bricIthcrapywith mc. Shc nccdcdtoworkthrough somc oIthc issucs |chovcr Irom hcrmar- riagc,cspccia||yhcrsc|I-b|amcthatshchadmarricdLukcinthc hrst p|acc�si|icntpcrson,andIhavccvcqrcason tothinkhcr |iIc is happicrnow. Shcwou|dsomctimcsjokc that, in thc casc oI hcr prob|cmwith Lukc, thc Iamous ¨gcographic curc¨ just mightwork, a|though shckncwthatthc |ongcrjoumcyoIscII-' Iorgivcncsswou|d bcmorc comp|icatcd. Sydncy was ab|c to gain a ccrtain undcrstanding oI hcr cx- ¬ ! !8 ¯ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR husband`s |ack oIconscicncc, and this ncw pcrspcctivc was hc|pIu| to hcr. Hcr grcatcst rcmaining conccrn was thc cmotiona|vu|ncra- bi|iqoIhcrcight-ycar-o|dson, |onathan.1hc|asttimcÍ sawSydncy, shc to|d mc that shc and |onathan wcrc sti|| having tcarIu| discus- sionsaboutF|oridaand howmuchhc Ic|t sorqIorOaddy. ) ) 9 ¯ S | V | h the eti ology of gui ltless ness : what causes sociopathy? Since adolescence Î have wondered why so many people take pleasure in humiliating others. Clearly the fact that some are sensitive to the sufering of others prves that the destructive ure to hurt is not a universal aspect of human nature. -Alice Mi ller Ì nmany ways, Lukc,Oorccn,andSkiparcvcrydiIIcrcntIromonc anothcr. Lukc Iavors incrtia. Hc |ikcs to |oungc, and to |ct rc- sponsib|c ¨Iricnds¨ andIami|ymcmbcrstakccarcoIcvcqthingc|sc. Oorccniscnvious,andachronicma|contcnt.Shccxcrtsagrcatdca| oIcncrgtryingtomakc othcr pcop|c looksma||crso that shccan Icc|biggcr.AndSkipwou|d|ikctorunthcwor|d, Iorhisownbcnc- ht, oIcoursc, andas a grandiosc Iorm oIcntcrtainmcnt. B � twhat thcsc thrcc divcrsc|y motivatcd human bcings havc in common is that, inthcintcrcstoIthcirindividua|ambitions,they can do �pj |^8 at u �ous|cn+cu|i� �, � ��i :|cmdcsircs w " ¯¯ ¯¯ ¯¯¯" �¨ . somcthing diIIcrcnt, butthcy a|| gct whatthcywant in cxact|ythc samcIashion,whichistosay,comp|ctc|ywithoutshamc.Skipbrcaks thc |aw and ruins carccrs and |ivcs, and hc Icc|s nothing. Oorccn makcs hcrwho|c |iIc into a |ic, and tormcnts thc hc|p|css Iorthc thri||oImakinghcrco||cagucs|ookbad, anda||withoutthcs|ightcst !20 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R b|ip oIcmbarrassmcnt or accountabi|iq. Forsomconc to takc carc oIhim, arcnt-Ircchousc,andaswimmingpoo|, Lukc|ovc|css|ymar- rics a dcccnt woman who wants to havc a Iami|y, and thcn stca|s somc oIthcjoyIrom his son`s chi|dhood inanattcmptto rctainhis own chi|d|ikc dcpcndcncy. And hc makcs such dccisions without thinking¬icc,|ctaloncbcingassai|cdbygui|t. Monc oIthcsc pcop|c has an intcrvcningscvcnthscnsc oIob|i- gation bascd in cmotiona|attachmcnts. Whilc, sad|y, this common- a|iqamongthcm docsnotmakcthcmcxtrcmclyrarc, it docsmakc thcmproIound|ydiIIcrcnt Irom al| pcop|c who dohavc conscicncc. AI|thrccarcmcmbcrs oIagroupapart, ahumancatcgoqinwhich thc distinguishingIcaturc÷thc abscncc oIconscicncc÷cuts across a||othcrpcrsonaliqIcaturcs andcvcngcndcrintcrmsoIhowindi- | vidua|spcrccivcthcirsurroundingsandgoaboutthcir|ivcs. Oorccn is morc|ikcLukcand Skipthanshc is likcanywoman inthcwor|d whohasconscicncc, and |aconic LukcanddrivcnSkiparcmorc likc cach othcrthan any conscicncc-bound man orwoman oIanytcm- pcramcntwhatsocvcr. What carvcs this dccp and yct strangc|y invisib|c dividing |inc ^ acrossthchumanraccîWhydosomcpcop|cnothavc aconscicnccî Whatcauscs sociopathyî Likc so many human charactcristics, both physical and psycho- |ogica|, thc primaryqucstion isthat oInaturcvcrsus nurturc. Is thc charactcristicborn inthcb|ood,orisit crcatcdbythc cnvironmcntî Formostcomp|cxpsycho|ogica|Icaturcs,thc answcris,vcqproba- b|y, both. lnothcrwords, a prcdisposition Ior thc charactcristic is prcscnt at conccption, but thc cnvironmcnt rcgu|atcs how it is cx- prcsscd. 1his is truc both Ior traits wc considcr ncgativc and Ior thosc wc think oI as positivc. For cxamplc, |cvc| oI intcl|igcncc wou|d appcar to bc strong|y dctcrmincd by gcnctic makcup but ¸ part|y shapcd by an c|aboratc too|box oIcnvironmcnta| Iactors as . wc||, such as prcnata| carc, car|y stimu|ation, nutrition, and cvcn )2! MA RTHA S T OUT b.:tb�:1e:.��t � � � j � �����þ��µ¿at.vecba:ac- ���� c ������ b ��¸ esea:cb.a1.catestbatbetaatu:eaa1au:tu:ea:e.ave|ve1 ��Pw� eq k tht¬(� sucbasext:ave:s.eaaa1aeu:et.c.sa,a:e.aílueace1teseae1e¿:ee by¿eaet.c íacte:s. mucb eítbe sc.eat.hc ev.1eaceíe:tb.s .s µ:e- v.1e1bystu1.es ceaµa:.a¿aeaezy¿et.c ( .1eat.ca|, aa1 c.z¿et.c (í:atema|,tv.as 1be ua1e:|y.a¿ µ:ea.se .a sucb :esea:cb .s tbat .1eat.ca|tv.assba:eaaeav.:eaaeataa1a||eítbe.:¿eaes, vbe:eas í:atema| tnsba:e aa eav.:eaaeat but oa|yabeut ba|íeítbe.: ¿eaes. te:aay¿.veat:a.t,sc.eat.sts assaaetbat.ítbece::e|at.ea (e:|.leaess, íe:¿eaet.ca||y.1eat.ca|tv.as .s s.¿a.ûcaat|y ¿:eate: tbaatbece::e|at.eaíe:¿eaet.ca||y1.ss.r.|a:tv.as,tbe:e.sat|east seae¿eaet|c.aílueaceíe:tbatt:a.t kesea:cbe:suseaauabe:tbat.s1eub|etbe1.ûe:eacebetveea tbe.1eat.ca|tv.ace::e|at.eaaa1tbeí:ate:aa|tv.ace::e|at.eate.a· . 1.catetbe aaeuateíva:.at.eatbeu¿btte be acceuate1íe:by¿e- aet.cíacte:s1b.s auabe:.s:eíe::e1teastbet:a.ts be:.tab.|.µ, aa1 stu1.es eat«.asbavesbevatbat µe:seaa|.µíeatu:es 1ete:- a.ae1byçuest.eaaa.:es(sucbasext:ave:s.ea,neu:et.c.sa, autbe:- .ta:.aa.sa,eaµatby, aa1seíe:tb,baveabe:.ta b.|.µeíbetveeaJó aa1 ó0 µe:ceat la e�be: ve:1s, tv.a stu1.es .a1.cate tbat aest aeasu:ab|easµectseíeu:µe:seaa|.t.esa:eJóteó0µe:ceat.aaate � ··���¬ � c.eµatby.Aauabe:eísucbstu1.esbave.ac|u1e1tbe°!sycbeµatb.c Lev.ate( !1,sca|eeítbeMinnesota Mu l tip h asic Persona l ity Inventor (tbeMMPl ) . 1be!1sca|eeítbeMMPI ceas.stseíau|t.µ|e-cbe.ce çuest.eastbatbavebeeastat.st.ca||yíe:au|ate1tese:teutµeeµ|e v.tbsec.eµatb.cµe:seaa|.µt:a.tsí:eaetbe:¿:euµseíµeeµ|e.1be .aveate:y.ac|u1esseve:a|va|.1.µaeasu:esasve||, .ac|u1.a¿a°L.e sca|e°teexµeseatteaµtstebeattbetestCve:a||.atbesestu1.es, .1eat.ca|tv.asa:et«|cee:ae:eas|.le|ytebaves.a.|a:sce:esea )22 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R tbe!1sca|easa:eí:ate:aa|tv.as,st:ea¿|ysu¿¿est.a¿at|eastseae ¿eaet.c:e|e|atbe°!sycbeµatb.cLev.ate°µattem. la I++ã, aaa]e:|ea¿.tu1.aa|stu1yvasµub|.sbe1tbat.avest.- ¿ate1 sec.eµatb.c t:a.ts aa1 tbe.: abseace .a 1, 22õ µa.:s eíaa|e tv.as |ecate1tb:eu¿ba :e¿.ste: eíµeeµ|e vbe ba1 se:»e1 .a tbe Ua.te1statesa:ae1se:».ces1u:.a¿tbeV.etaaawa:ßytbesaae aatbeaat.ca|ae1e|,e.¿btsec.eµatb.cs,aµteasaa1tbe.:abseace ve:e íeua1 te be s.,.ûcaat|y be:.tab|e. 1beya:e, .a1esc�a1.a¿ e:1e:eítbee:et.ca|be:.tab.|.µ.°ía.|ste ceaíe:atesec.a|�e:as " °a¿¿:ess.ve, °°:ecl|ess, ° °.aµu|s.ve, ° °ía.|stebeae: ûaaac.a|eb|.¿a- t.eas, °°.aceas.steatwe:l, °°aeve:aeae¿aaeus, °aa1°|acls:eae:se ° st.||ethe:stu1.esbave íeua1tbatsec.eµatbsbave |ev°a¿:eeab|e- tess,° |ev °ceasc.eat.eusaess, ° aa1 |ev °ba:a ave.1aace, ° a|| eí vb.cbµe:seaa|.µ1.aeas.easbavea¿eaet.cceaµeaeat. 1be1exasA1eµt.ea!:e]ect,vb.cbbasaevbeea.aµ:e¿:essíe: eve: tb.:tyyea:s, .s a b.¿b|y :e¿a:1e1 |ea¿.tu1.aa| stu1y eíae:e tbaaûvebua1:e1a1eµte1cb.|1:ea1bestu1y|eelsattbeacçu.s.- t.ea et.ate||.¿eace aa1va:.eusµe:seaa|.µíeatu:es, .ac|u1.a¿tbe °!sycbeµatb.c Lev.ate° µatte:a, by ceaµa:.a¿ a1eµte1 cb.|1:ea, aev ¿:eva, v.tbbetb tbe.: b.e|e¿.ca| aa1 a1eµt.ve µa:eats 1be 1exasA1eµt.ea!:e]ect:eµe:tstbat,vbe:esce:eseatbe !1 sca|e a:eceace:ae � ��,; � e� � � � çetbe� vbeatbey baveaeve:aet,s.¿a.ûcaat|ye tbaatbey1etbea1eµt.veµa:eats vbe :a.se1 tbea l:ea tb.s :esea:cb, a be:.tab.|. est.aate eí ã« µe:ceat caa be 1e:.ve1, aa1 .ate:��°!s.c Lev.ate° û¿u:e .s ceas.steatv.tbtbe be:.tab.|.µ est.aates-1ã te ¸ãcµe:ceat-¿eae:a||y íeua1 .a stu1.eseíetbe:, ae:eaeut:a|µe:- seaa|.µ�ba:acte:.st.cs(ext:ave:s.ea,eaµatby,aa1seíe:tb, . Cve: aa1 a¿a.a, be:.tab.|.µ stu1.es ceae uµ v.tb a stat.st.ca| ûa1.a¿ tbat bas eaet.eaa||y cba:¿e1 sec.a| aa1 µe|.t.ca| .aµ|.ca- t.eas-tbat .a1ee1 a µe:seas tea1eacy te µessess ce:ta.a sec.e- patb.c�|�u|cs.sa:t.:aÍ uµe:baµs¯�b '¿_, .,.¿,,,,¸«·~¯^~ ^"' ¯'¯" -·-� =w� ___ ¿• _ ~ )23 ~ MAR T HA S T OUT as50µe:ceatse.1eb:.a¿beaetbeµ:evecat.veaatu:eeítb.s:e· a1.cate,íe:exaaµ|e,tbatbeíe:etbeyve:eevea be:a, at tbeve;aeaeat eíceaceµt.ea, µeeµ|e sucb as Le:eea, Lule,aa1sl.µve:ea|:ea1yseaevbatµ:e1.sµese1tebeceae1e- ce.tíu|,:ecl|ess,ía.tb|ess,aa1:eae:se|esswbeaveaalebe:.tab.|- .tystateaeatsabeutatb|et.cab.|.tye:.at:eve:s.ea,e:eveab.µe|a: 1.se:1e:se:scb.zeµb:ea.a,seaebevtbe.aíe:aat.ea1eesaetseea sesbecl.a¿.ßuttesayseabeutaat.sec|a|tea1eac.esíee|sesµec.a||y ¿:.a,tbeu¿btbesaae stat.st.ca|aµµ:eacbesa:euse1. |t.s.aµe:matteµe.ateuttbatsucbext:eae|yceaµ|excba:ac- te:.st.csa:eua|.le|ytebe1ete:a|ae1byas.a¿|e¿eae, buta:e a|- aestce�a.aJyJ¡ ÷-.¬¡.}� t|¿eae¸� act.a¿ `^'¯¨ ` ¯´¯`´ ~`¨• �´' � � te¿etbe:.Aa1tbe exactvay.avb.cItbese ¿e abeut sbaµ- � .a¿b:a.aíuact|eaaa1tbea bebav.e:.scu::eat|yualaevaCett.a¿ í:eaaµe:seasLNAteaaaay·|aye:e1bebav|e:a|ceaceµtsucbas °ía.|stebeae:haaac.a|eb|.¿at.eas.sa|ea¿,|aby:.atb.aeb.ecbea- .ca|, aeu:e|e¿.ca|, aa1 µsycbe|e¿.ca| t:.µ, aa1 .s ce::esµea1.a¿|y 1auat.a¿testu1y. ßut:esea:cbbas a|:ea1yµ:ev.1e1us v.tb aíevµe.ate1b.ats. Cae.aµe:taat|.al.atbeaeu:eb.e|e¿.ca|·bebav.e:a|se¿aeateítbe cba.aaayceas.stee:e1íuact.eam¿.atbece:eb:a|ce:texeítbe sec.eµatb seae tbe�×st+�� g1n atio ´ab� t� _ a| ´´û n¿.asec.eµa·by:eaeste ustb:eu¿bstu1.es eíbewbu- aaabe.a¿sµ:ecess|aa¿ua¿e.A .ttu:aseut, eveaattbe |eve|eí e|ect:.ca| act.v.µ .a tbe b:a.a, ae:aa| µeeµ|e :eact te eaet.eaa| ve:1s(sucbas l ove, h ate, cozy, pain, h appy, mot h er ) ae:e:aµ.1|yaa1 ae:e.atease|ytbaate:e|at.ve|yaeut:a|ve:1s (ta b l e, c h air f i f teen, l ater etc. , |í|aa¿.veatbetasleí1ec.1.a¿betveeave:1saa1aea- ve:ds,|v.||:ece¿a.zeteror eve: l ister aucbíaste:, .ate:aseía.- c:esecea1s,tbaa|v.||cbeesebetveeawin d ow aa1en d oc k , aa1ay eabaace1:eact.eatetbe eaet.eaa|ve:1terror caabe aeasu:e1by :ece:1.a¿at.aye|ect:.ca|:eact|ea, ca||e1aa °evele1µeteat|a|, .a ayce:eb:a|ce:tex sucbstu1.es.a1|catetbattbe b:a.aseíae:aa| !24 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R µeeµ|eattea1te,:eaeabe:,aa1:ece¿a.zeve:1stbat:eíe:teeae- t.eaa lexµe:.eacesµ:eíe:eat.a||yteeaet.ea-aeut:a|ve:1sLove v.|| be:ece¿a.ze1asave:1íaste:tbaa l oo k w be,aa1a¿:eate:evele1 µeteat.a|v.||:esu|tmtbeb:a.a,ve;aucbas.í l ove ve:eaae:eµ:.- aa|aa1aeaa.a¿íu|µ.eceeí.aíe:aat.eatbaa l oo k . Net se íe: sec.eµatb.c sub]ects vbe bave beea teste1 us.a¿ |aa¿ua¿e-µ:ecess.a¿ tasls late:as eí :eact.ea t.ae aa1 evele1 µeteat.a|s .atbe ce:tex, sec.eµatb.c sub]ects .a tbese exµe:.aeats '���''³�² a ³� .e �ª || ` c lª � �� 1 ·� :1s a� � .û � :eat|�í:ea: a�u; :a| ve:1s lasec.eµatbs,tbeevele1µeteat.a|íe:so b e: k iss |sae|a:¿e: �eeaeíe:sat e: l ist, ve;aucbas.íeaet.eaa|ve:1sve:eae __ ae:e aeaa.a¿íu|,e:1eeµ|ycece1 bytbe.:b:a.as, tbaa aayetbe: ve:1s. la:e|ate1 :esea:cb us.a¿s.a¿|e-µbeteaea.ss.ea-ceaµute1te- ae¿aµby( b:a.a-.aa¿.a¿tecbae|eg, ,sec.eµatb.csub]ectssbeve1 .uc:ease1b|ee1í|evtetbeteaµe:a||ebes,:e|at.veteetbe:sub]ects, vbeatbeyve:e¿.veaa1ec.s.eatasltbat.ave|ve1eaet.eaa|ve:1s 1e eaab|e eu: ceaceat:at.ea, yeu e: l a.¿btexb.b.t sucb aa .a- c:ease1ce:eb:a|b|ee1ûev.íveve:easle1tese|ve aa.|1|ycba|- |ea¿.a¿ .ate||ectua| µ:eb|ea la etbe: ve:1s, sec.eµatbs t:y.a¿te ceaµ|ete aa ass.¿aaeat base1 ea eaet.eaa| ve:1s, a tasl tbat veu|1bea|aestneu:e|e¿.ca||y.astaataaeeusíe:ae:aa|µeeµ|e,:e- acte1µbys.e|e¿.ca||yae:ee:|essas.ítbeyba1beeaasle1teve:l eut�ça|¿eb:a¸eb|ea ¨' ª~^� ¨¯¬¬·~-~-¯ ` .~ ` ~ª "¬ ` - ¨ ¯ ` ` ``` ¨` » v. 1aleate¿etbe:,sucbstu1.es.a1.catetbatsec.eµatby.ave|vesaa a|te:e1 µ:ecess.a¿eíeaet.eaa|st.au|.attbe|eve|eítbe ce:eb:a| ���� � � �� ¸ce:tex.wbytb.sa|te:e1µ:ecess.a¿eccu:s.saetyetlaeva,but.t.s "¬ |.le|ytebetbe:esu|teíabe:.tab|eaeu:e1eve|eµaeata|1.ííe:eace tbatcaabee.tbe:s|.¿bt|yceaµeasate1íe:,e:aa1eaucbve:se,by cb.|1-:ea:.a¿ e: cu|tu:a| íacte:s. 1b.s aeu:e1eve|eµaeata| 1.st.ac- t.�a.sat|eastµa:t.a||y:esµeas.b|eíe:tbest.||-uaíatbeae1µsycbe- |e¿.ca|1.ííe:eacebetveeasec.eµatbs aa1a||etbe:µeeµ|e, aa1 .ts .aµ|.cat.easa:esta:t|.a¿ sec.eµatby.s ae:etbaa]usttbeabseace - )25 ~ MAR T HA S TOUT eíceasc.eace,vb.cb a|eaevea|1 bet:a¿.c eaea¿b sec.eµatµ.s tbe.aab.||µteµ:ecesseaet.eaa|exµe:.eace,.ac|ac.a¿leveaa1ca:- .a¿,exc�µtvbeasacbexµe:.eacecaabe ca|ca|ate1asace|d|y.a- te||ectaaltasl. | astas ceasc.eace .s aetae:e|ytbe µ:eseace eí¿a.|taa1 :e- ae:se, bat.sbase1m ea:caµac.µteexµe:.eaceeaet.eaaa1tbe attacbaeatstbat:esa|tí:eaea:íee|.a¿s,sec.eµatby.saet]asttbe abseaceeí¿a.|taa1:eae:se.sec.eµat|y.saaabe::at.ea.atbeab.|- .µtebaveaa1teaµµ:ec.ate ���l(ae.��|cu|ate)e�et.eaa|eµe- :.��, aa1 tbe:ete:e teceaaect v.tb etbe: µeepl� w|tb.n:ea| (��� a|c�lat�1,:e|at.eas�.µsJOstatetbe s.taat:oa ���|y ¬1 aaybea|.tt|eteec|ea:|yíe:ceaíe:t. Nettebaveaae:a|seaseûa¿s aaevea ae:eµ:eíeaa1 cea1.t.ea, as 1ees tbe µessess.eaeícea· sc.eace,becaaseceasc.eaceaeve:ex.stsv.tbeattbeab.|.µte|eve, . ~~ aa1sec.eµatbyu a|t.aate|ybase1.a|eve|essaess. 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Cve:a||.atbesee:µbaaa¿es,tbe:at.eeíe:µbaastestaûvasabeut íe:µteeaeCea1.t.easve:e¿:etesçue|yuasaa.ta:y,aa1exceµtíe: be.a¿¿.veaeaeu¿bíee1teleeµaesteítbeaa|.ve,tbebab.esaa1 cb.|c:eave:e.¿ae:e1 1be l.a1est se|ut.ea seeae1 te be íe: aulueat íe:e.¿ae:s te a1eµtasaaayeítbesecb.|1:eaasµess.b|e.we||·aeaa.a¿westem Lu:eµeaas aac Ne:tb Aae:.caas b:eu¿bt keaaa.aa bab.es .ate tbe.: beaes aa1|ev|a¿|yt:.e1teau:setbeatebea|tbAa1tbeaa ceuµ|e .a !a:.s veu|1 1.sceve:tbattbe.: beaut.íu| tea·aeatb·e|1 keaaa.aa 1au¿bte: vas .acease|ab|e, aa1 ea|y sc:eaae1 |eu1e: vbeatbeyt:.e1tebe|1be: C:aceuµ|e.aVaaceuve:veu|1va|l .ate tbe.: tb:ee·yea:·e|1 sea's be1:eea, te ha1 tbat be ba1 ]ust bu:|e1t|eaevl.tteaeuttbev.a1ev C:µa:eats.a1exasveu|1h- aa||ybave te a1a.tte tbease|ves tbat tbey ceu|1 aet leeµ tbe.: a1eµt.vehve·yea:·e|1seaí:easµea1.a¿b.s 1ayssta:.a¿.ateace:· ae:,aa1tbatbeseaet.aesv.c.eus|yattacle1tbe.:etbe:cb.|1:ea.a tbe a.11|e eítbea.¿btas tbeys|eµt.weste:a Lu:eµe aa1 Ne:tb Aae:.caba1.aµe:te1aaattacbaeat1.so:1e:a.¿btaa:e c:eate1by asa1.st.ckeaaa.aasec.eµatbvbevasae|ea¿e:eveaa|.veHav.a¿ beea ceaµ|ete|y1eµ:.ve1eíattacbaeat.a.aíaacy, aaayeítbese :escue1cb.|1:eave:e|eve|ess. laJuae200I , tbeaev|ea1e:sb.µeíkeaaa.ae:1e:e1abaaea íe:e.¿aa1ept.eas,aeteuteíbuaaa.ta:.aaceace:a,butíe:µe|.t.ca| a uc ûaaac.a| :easeas. 1be Lu:eµeaa Ua.ea ba1]ustµ:eaeuace1 tbat .aµeve:.sbe1 keaaa.a, v.tb.ts eutílev eíe:µbaas, ba1 be- ceaeÛ aa:letµ|aceíe:cb.|1:ea, aa1veu|1beua|.le|yteacb.eve aeabe:sb.µ.atbeµ:esµe:eusûueea·aat.eaua.eaua|esstbeµ�|.t- .ca||y .ace::ect eut-eí·ceuatça1eµt.eas ve:e te:a.aate1 At tb.s v:.t.a¿, ae:etbaaíe:µtbeusaa1 cb.|1:ea-a saa||c.µsve:tb- - )j2 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R |.ve.a.ast.tut.eas.atbekeµub|.ceíkeaaa.a,vb.cb |saa¿|.a¿ E\aeabe:sb.µ.a2007. Lsµec.a||ys.acetbeexµesu:eeítbekeaaa.aae:µbaac:.s.s,psy· ¯ ·:OtOgtm> bave vea1e:e1 vbetbe:attacbaeat 1.se:1e: a.¿btbe eav:eaaeata|:eeteísec.eµatby 1be s.a.|a:.t.es a:e ebv.eas vbe suûe: í:ea attacbaeat 1.se:1e:a:e .aµu|s.ve aa1 eaot.eaa||y ce|1, aa1 a:e seaet.aes 1aa¿e:eus|yv.e|eatteva:1 µateats,s.b|.a¿s,µ|ayaates,aa1µets1beytea1testea|,vaa- g o�:.�s, aa1sta:tû:es,aa1tbeyeíteasµea1t.ae.a1eteat.eaíac.|.- t|esvbeatbeya:eyeua¿aa1.a]a.|vbeatbeybeceaea1u|ts,]ust sec.eµatbsAa1cb.|1:eav.tbseve:eattacbaeat1.se:1e:sa:e _ tbeea|ycb.|1:envbea:e a|aest as íua1aaeata||y sca:yte us as sec.eµatbs a:e 1bese·.a.|a:.t.esbavebeeaaet.ce1.anaayµa:tseítbeve:|1 scaa1.aav.aa cb.|1 µsyc.at;, íe: exaaµ|e, a cea1.t.ea ca||e1 · . 'ea:|yeaet.eaa|í:ust:at.ea.stbeu¿bttebecause1bya|acleímu- oe·.c.:·, b�tveeaaetb�:aadcb.|1,aa1ínScand|aav|a,tb.s1.· a¿nest.c te:a ( ear l y em ; tiona l f strat i� n ) .s use1 te íla¿ a cb.|1s ¿:eate:tbaaave:a¿e cbaace eí1eve|eµ.a¿a sec.eµatb.ccba:acte: 1.se:1e: by a1u|tbee1 La:|y eaet.eaa| í:ust:at.ea .s stat.st.ca||y ,l.ale1teíacte:stbataayaaleaetbe:·.aíaatattacbaeatae:e1.í- ûcu|t,sucbasµ:ete:ab.:tb,ext:eae|y|evb.:tbve.¿bt,aa1aate:· aa|substaace abuse1u:.a¿µ:e¿aaacy 1be:ea:eseaea.ae:1es.¿aµ:eb|eas.atb.sl.a1eí:esea:cb Ie:.astaace, ce:ta.aíacte:s,sucbasaatema|substaaceabuse cu:� |a¿ µ:e¿aaacy, ceu|1 eas.|y .aµ|.cate sec.eµatb.c aetbe:s, aa+ ·_ tbe:eíe:ea:etu:atetbe¿e�et.cexµ|aaat.eaßuttbeaa]e:µ:eb|ea v.tb tbe eçuat.ea eíattacbaeat 1.s � r�e: aa1 sec.eµatby, cesµ.te tbesc.eat.ûca||yteaµt.a¿ceaaeaa|.t.esetbetve,.stbe.:µetsis- teataa1uacealab|e c.ss.¬:|omy v.tb ���¡ect tetbe·:�1eaa:líe�· tareses.eµat;Qu.te �a|.l� sec.eµtbs �|i|d:ea ar1 ada Awatt��laeat 1.se:+e:s a:e s e |1e� cba:a.a¿ �: .�e:· ' # . )33 ~~ ± MARTHA S TOUT petsonallyclevet. Ontheconttag,theseunfottunateindividualsate � _ atOT-putting,notdotheymakeanygteateffottsto ¨fake° being notmal. Manyate isolates. Theit emotionalptesenta- tion isfIatand uninviting, ot sometimes ditectly hostile, andthey tendto swingbetweenthe distinctlynonseductive exttemesofbel- l ¹ · ¸ hgetentindiffetenceandunmeetableneediness.Noneofthisallows in anywayfotthe chameleonlike manipulations an� c�n games of thesociopath,withbissmilingdeceptionsanddisatmingchatisma, otfottheintetmittentsuccessinthematetialwotldthatthetathet sociablesociopathoftenachieves Manycliniciansandpatentshavetepottedthatsociopathicchil- dtentefusetofotmwatm telationships withfamilymeubets.They tend:oçuäwayboth ��dyhysically. And, of coutse, sodochildtenwithattachmentdisotdets Butvetyunlikethesitua- tionwiththesadattachmentdisotdetchild, detachmentftomfam- ¸ þ '�"� c l ¹¯"� �~�l(¤l¹h youngsociopath� ) �of beinginthewotldthanitistobethecauseofit `¯¯so,su�g � e ¿ � �_� · j¿¸ aof�hatoneoftheun- detlying neutobioloical dencits in sociopathy may be. The so- ~ º´´¯`´¨`¯¨`�'^ ciopathswho have been studied teveal a si p iÞ - � º'. � � 9· �± � ����l¹'9P²³ ³���'9'�' i 9^�¹¸ t ����'�!�� bt ¶ Andftomexamininghetitabilitystudies, wecanspecu- latethatthe neutobiologicalundetpinningsofthe cote petsonali t y featutesofsociopathyateasmuchasó0 petcenthetitableThe te- maining causes, the othet ó0 petcent, ate much foggiet. Neithet childhoodmaltreatmentnotattachmentdisotd�tstoaccount fottheenvitonmentalconttibutiontotheloveless,manipulative,and guiltless existence that psychologists call sociopathy How non- genetic factots affectthe developmentofthis ptofound condition, andtheyalmostcettainlydohaveaneffect, isstillmainlyapuzzle ThequestiontemainsOnceachildisbomwiththislimitingneuto- logical glitch, what ate the envitonmental factots that detetmine - )34 - T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R ½IICLI CI e:aetbev.||¿eeate1.sµ|aytbeíu||·í|e1¿e1s,aµteaseí Aa1atµ:eseat,ves.aµ|y1eaetlaev Culture .seat.:e|yµess.b|etbattbeeav.:eaaeata|.aílueaceseasec.eµa- a:eae:e:e|.ab|y|.ale1v.tbb:ea1cu|tu:a|c|a:acte:.st.cstbaa aayµa:t.cu|a:cb.|1·:ea:.a¿íacte:sla1ee1,:e|at.a¿tbeeccu:- eísec.eµatby te cultu:es bas se ía: beea ae:e í:u.tíu| íe: tbaa|eel.a¿íe:tbeaasve:.asµec.ûccb.|1·:ea:.a¿va:.� ��t�o. lastea1 eíbe.a¿tbeµ:e1ucteícb.|1bee1abusev.tb.atbe e:eíattacbaeat 1.se:1e:, aaybe sec.eµatby.ave|vesseae LCÏÕLLLLÏ betveeatbe.aaateaeu:e|e¿.ca|v.:.a¿eí.a1.v.1ua|saa1 |a:¿e:sec.eµ.avb.cbtbeyea1uµsµea1.a¿tbe.:|.ves 1b.sbyµetbes.s.sbeua1tebe1.saµµe.at.a¿teseaeµeeµ|e.be- �ausetbeu¿ba|te:.a¿tbe cea1.t.eas eíµ:e¿aaacy, cb.l1b.:tb, aa1 t:eataeateaaaass.vesca|eveu|1beaesaa||µ:e]ect,c|aa¿- ia¿tbeva|uesaa1bel.eísysteaseíaaeat.:ecu|tu:e.saaeveaae:e ¿�@ II tCua1e:tal.a¿,v.tbat.aebe:.zeatbatseeas1.staataa11.s- wea.¿btíee|a|.tt|e|ess1auate1.íveve:ete.1eat.( seteícb.|1-:ea:.a¿µ:act.cestbatveceu|1t;tece::ect.aeu:|.íe- ßutµe:baµssec.eµ.stbet:ue µa:eateíce:ta.atb.a¿s, aad v.||eveatua||yûa1tbat, asw.|l.aaka|µb la¿e sa.1 .atbeea:ly +eat.�t|ceatu:y, °1beµ:eµe:t.aete.aûueacetbecba:acte:eía cb.|1.sabeutI00yea:sbeíe:ebe.sbe:a. t:earece:1e1ebse:vat.eas,ve1elaevtbatsec.eµatbs,byva:- ieus aaaes, bave ex.ste1 .a a|| l.a1s eísec.et.es, ve:|1v.1e aa1 tb:eu¿beut b.ste:y. A aa .|lust:at.ea, µsycb.at:.c aatb:eµe|e¿.st Jaae m. mu:µby1esc:.bes tbe lau.tceaceµteíso»|:»¸:::, vb.cb , :eíe:steaµe:seavbese °a.a1laevsvbatte1ebut 1ees aet1e .t ma:µbyv:.testbat.aae:tbvestAlasla, so»|:»¸::: °a.¿btbe " !j5 " . ·· · · . MAR T HA S T OUT aµµ|.e1te a aaavbe, íe:exaaµ|e, :eµeate1|y|.esaa1cbeatsaa1 stea|stb.a¿saa11eesaet¿ebunt.a¿,aa1,vbe ¸ tbeetbe:meaa:e eut eítbe v.||a¿e, tales sexua| a1vaata¿e eí :naay veaea 1be lau.ts tac.t|y assuae tba¡ k un l angeta .s .::eae1.ab|e A1 se, ac· ce:1.a¿temu:µ¦,tbet:a1.t.eaa|lau.taµµ:eacbtesucbaaaavas te.as.sttbatbe¿ebuat.a¿,aa1tbea, .atbeabseaceeív.taesses, µusbb.aeíítbee1¿eeítbe .ce 1beu¿bsec.eµatbyseeastebeua.ve:sa|aa1t.ae|ess,tbe:e.s ,re1.b|eev.1eacetbatseaecu|tu:esceata.aíeve:sec.eµatbstbaa 1eetbe:cu|tu:es lat:.¿u.a¿|y, sec.eµatbyveu|1aµµea:tebe:e|a· t.ve|y :a:e.ace:ta.aLastAs.aaceuat:.es,aetab|yJaµaaaa1 Cb.aa stu1.es ceaducte1 .a betb :u:a| aa1u:baaa:eas eí1a.vaaave W ¬ ^ ' íeua1a:eaa:lab|y|evµ:eva|eaceeíaat.sec.a|µe:seaa|.µ1.se:1e:, :aa¿.a¿í:e�0.0J µe:�eatte0. I4 µ�:ceat,vb.cb.s aetaeaebut .s.aµ:ess.ve|y|esstbaatbewestemve:|1saµµ:ex.aateave:a¿eeí 4 µe:ceat,vb.cbt:aas|ateste eae .a tveaµ·hve µeeµ|e. Aa1 1.s- tu:b.a¿|y, tbe µ:eva|eace eísec.eµatby.atbe Ua.te1states seeas te be .ac:eas.a¿ 1beI99I Lµ.1ea.ele¸.c CatcbaeatA:ea stu1y, sµease:e1bytbeNat.eaa|last.tuteeímeata|Hea|tb,:eµene1tbat .atbehíteeayea:sµ:ece1.a¿tbestu1y,tbeµ:eva|eaceeíaat.sec.a| µeneaa|.µ 1.se:1e: ba1 aea:|y 1eub|e1 aaea¿ tbe yeua¿ .� Ame:.ca |tveu|1be1.íhcu|t� c|es.a¿.aea.aµess|b|e, :e�xµ|a� :ucba1:�aat.ca||y:aµ.1sb.ít.ate:aseí¿eaet.cse:aeu:eb.e|og Aµµa:eat|y, cu|tu:a| .aílueacesµ|ay ave:y.aµe:taat:e|e.atbe1e- ve|eµaeat( e:aet,eísec.eµatby.aaay¿.veaµeµu|at.ea» • ^ tevµeeµ|eveu|11.sa¿:eetbat,í:eatbew.|1westeítbeµast tetbece:µe:ateeut|avseítbeµ:eseat,Aae:.caasec.eµsee:::ste a||evaa1eveaeaceu:a¿eae·h:statt.tu1es´1evete1te �beµa:su.t eí1ea.aat.ea. kebe:t Ha:ev:.testbatbe be|.eves °eu: sec.eµ.s aev.a¿.atbe1.:ect.eaeíµe:a.tt.a¿, :e.aíe:c.a¿, aa1.aseae .a- staaces actua||yva|u.a¿seaeeítbet:a.ts |.ste1 .atbePsyc h opat h y C h ec kl ist-traits sucb as .aµu|s.v.µ, . sµas.b.|.p |acl eí :e· ¾ ¬¤ ¯ ¯ ¯¯´` ae:s� ¯|atb.seµ.a.eabe.s,e.ae1bytbee:.stsvbeµ:eµesetbat - !j5 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Aae:.caa cu|tu:e, v|.c| |e|1s .a1.v.1ua|.sa as a ceatu| va|ue, tea1s te leste:t|e 1eve|eµaeat eíaat.sec.a| be�av.e:, aa1 te1.s¿u.se.tl�et|e:ve:ds,.aAae:.ca,t|e¿u.|t|ess aaa.µu� etet|e:µeeµ|e b|ea1s°v.t|sec.a|exµectat.easte a auc| 1e¿:eet|aa.tveu|1.aC|.aae:et|e:ae:e¿:euµ-ceate:e1 lbe|.evet|e:e.sas|.a.e:s.1eeít|.sce.a,tee,eaet|atbe¿st|e eív|ycena.acu|tu:es seeate eaceu:a¿e µ:esec.a| be- seauc|a¿a.astt|ee11s,|ev.s.tt|atseaesec.et.es|ave apes.t.ve .aµactea.ac.µ.eatsec.eµat|s,v|ea:e be:av.t|aa.a· � ' teµ:ecess.ate:µe:seaa|eaet.eas.at|eusua|vay:l� tesu¿¿estt|att|eeve::.1.a¿be|.eísysteaseíce:ta.acu|tu:es g ·¸c11 �LOIo_� be:asec.eµat|steceaµeasatece¿a.t.ve|yíe:v|att|ey aiss.a¿eaet.eaa||y. laceat:astv.t|eu:ext:eaeeaµ|as.se� .a1.v.1ua|.sa aa1 µe:�e�a|ceat:e|, ce:ta.a cu|tu:es,aaay.a Last As.a.1ve||t|ee|e¿.ca||yeat|e.ate::e|ate1aesseía|||.v.a¿t|.a¿s !ate:est.a¿|y,t|.sva|ue.sa|set|ebas.seíceasc.eace,v|.c|.saa.a- teoea.a¿seaseet ob||¿at.ea:eet�1.aaseaseetceaaecte1aess.lí �a.a1.v.1�.| d�esaet,e:.íaeu:e|e¿.ca||y|ecaaaet,exµe:|e�ce|.s coaaect.eateet|e:s.aaaeaet.eaa|vay,µe:|aµsacu|tu:et|at.a- s|stseaceaaecte1aessasaaatte:eíbe|.eícaa.ast.||ast:.ct|y ce¿� _ a.t.veua1e:staa1.a�eí.ate:µe:seaa|eb|.¿a � . �� ¿ . · P .ate||ectua|¿:asµeteaes1ut.esteet|e:s.saett|esaaeat· t:.buteast|eµeve:íu||y1.:ect.ve eaet.eaveca||ceasc.eace, but µe:|aµs.t.seaeu¿|toex:actµ:esec.a|behavor í:eaat|eastseae ia1.v.cua|sv|eveu|1|avebe|ave1ea(.aaat.sec.a�vays|a1t|ey beea|.v.a¿.aasec.eµt|ateaµ|asoe1.a1.v.1ua|.sa:at|e: t|aa.n- te::e|ate1aess 1|eu¿|t|ey|aclaa .ate:aa| aec|aa.sa t|atte||s • t|eat|eya:eceaaecte1teet|e:s,t|e|a:¿e:cu|tu:e.as.ststet|ea t|att|eya:e seceaaecte1~ as eµµese1 teeu:cu|tu:e, v|.c| .a- t|ea:eseua1.a¿|yt|att|e.:ab.|.µte act¿u.|t|ess|yeat|e.: be|a|í.s t|e u|t.aate a1vaata¿e 1|.s veu|c exµ|a.av|y a weste:aíaa.|yby.tse|ícaaaet:e1eeaabe:asec.eµat|1|e:ea:e !j7 · ` MAR T HA S T OUT tee aaay etbe:ve.ces .a tbe |a:¿e: sec.eµ .aµ|y.a¿tbat b.s aµ- µ:eacbtetbeve:|1.sce::ect. A a t.ay exaaµ|e, ba1 sl.µ tbe Aae:.caa beea be:a .ate a st:ea¿|yßa11b.stca|ta:e,e:sb.ate,vea|1bebavel.||e1a||tbese í:e¿s:!e:baµs,e:µe:baµsaet.H.sb:a.avea|1bavebeeatbesaae, bata||tbeµeeµ|ea:eaa1b.awea|1bave aa.ata.ae1tbat:esµect íe:|.íevasaecessa:y. Lve;eae.ab.sve:|1vea|1bavebeeaeítbe saae a.a1, .ac|a1.a¿ b.s vea|tby µa:eats, b.s teacbe:s, b.s µ|ay- aates, aa1 aaybeeveatbe ce|eb:.t.es be saweate|ev.s.ea sl.µ vea|1 st.||bave beea sl|µ Hevea|1bave íe|t ae beae:íe:tbe í:e¿s, ae¿a.|t.íbe aa:1e:e1 tbea, ae:eµa¿aaace, batbea.¿bt bave:eí:a.ae1í:ea1e.a¿ sebecaaseb.sca|ta:eba1aaaa.aeas|y taa¿btb.aa|essea, seaetb.a¿eatbe e:1e:eíµ:eµe:tab|eaaa- ae:s, abeatbevteût.a-a|esseatbatb.sµe:íect|y¿ee1.ate||ect ba1aaste:e1.sec.eµatbs1eaetca:eabeattbe.:sec.a|ve:|1,bat tbey1evaat,aa1aee1,teb|ea1.av.tb.t. Cícea:se, I aa.aµ|y.a¿tbat ea:evaca|ta:evea|1 teacb a cb.|1|.lesl.jtbatbecea|1te:ta:esaa||aa.aa|saa1st.||beµass- ab|y1.s¿a.se1aaea¿as,aa1:e¿:etía||y,Itb.altb.s:eûectsaía.:as· sessaeateiea:ca::eat¡|.¿bt Warriors �` • !` ^ î· 4 ¹ w.tb.atbeceatexteíbaaaasec.eµasavbe|e,ac:essa||ca|ta:es, .stbe:e aa,tb.a¿abeattbe|acleíca:.a¿aa1tbe abseaceeícea- sc.eacetbatcea|1 be ceas.1e:e1 µes.t.ve, e:at |eastaseía|:A .t baµµeas, í:ea a ce:ta.a µe.at eí v.ev, tbe:e .s eae sacb tb.a¿ wbetbe:tbev.ct.abeaí:e¿e:aµe:sea,sec.eµatbscaal.||v.tbeat exµe:.eac.a¿aa¿a.sb, tbas, µeeµ|evbe bave ae ceasc.eace aale exce||eat,aaaab.va|eatva::.e:s.Aa1aea:|ya||soc.et.es-ßa11b.st, sb.ate,Cb:.st.aa,e:µa:e|ycaµ.ta|.st-aaleva:. 1eseae exteat,vecaatb.aleísec.eµatbsasbeia¿sbaµe1aa1 " !38 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R aa.ata.aecbysec.eµbecauseaat.easseeítea:equ.:ece|1·b|ee1e1 ll||e:s, í:ea aaeayaeus íeet se|1.e:ste tbeceaçue:e:svbebave aa1e,aa1ceat.aueteaale,buaaab.steç. Sec.eµatbsa:eíea:|ess a�1suµe:.e:va::.e:s, sa.µe:s, ua1e:ceve:assass.as, sµec.a| eµe:a- t.ves,v.¿.|aates, aa1baa1·te-baa1sµec.a|.sts, becausetbeyexµe:.- eaceaebe::e:vb.|el.||.a¿ (e:vb.|ee:1e:.a¿l.||.a¿, aa1ae¿u.|t aíte:tbe1ee1.s1eaeßyía:aestµeeµ|e-tbebu|leíeu:a:a.es- caaaetbeseeaet.ea|ess,aa1.ítbeya:eaetca:eíu||ycea1.t.eae1, aestae:aa|µeep|eaaleíeu:tb·:atel.||e:satbest,eveavbeatal- .a¿tbe|.veseíetbe:µeeµ|e.s1eeae1tebeaecessaç.Aµe:seavbe caa|eela�etbe:µe:sea.atb� e y-a, a|�|ysb�etb.a+ e�1.s u�· usua|,aa1Í va:,va|uab|e ¯ 1 ' · e St:aa¿e|y,seaeactsa:eseeaet.eaa||ybaal:uµttbattbeyrequire tbeabseaceeíceas¬eace,]ustasast:eµbys.cs:eç � .:es.ate||.¿eace aa1a:t:eçu.:esta|eat. Cíva::.e:svbecaaeµe:atev.tbeut cea- sc.eace, L. Ce| Lave C:essaaav:.tes, .a ©» k.||.»¸, wbetbe: ca||e1 sec.eµatbs, sbeeµ1e¿s, va::.e:s, e: be:ees, tbey a:e tbe:e, tbeya:ea1.st.acta.ae:.µ, aa1.at.aeset1aa¿e:aaat.eaaee1s tbea1esµe:ate|y ° ßuttbesesaaeaat.easµayaceacea|e1µ:.cev.tb.atbe.:be:- ce:síe:tbe¿|eçtbeybesteveat|e.:stee|·ce|1l.||e:s.atbeûe|1. 1beµatbtesucb¿|eç1eesaet¿e uaaet.ce1byetbe:síe:vbea ¿u.|t|essl.||.a¿.sasµec.a|aµt.tu1e,etbe:svbev.||aeve:ûa1tbea- se|vesve:l.a¿beb.a1 eaeay |.aes 1be se|í·aµµe.ate1 :eaa.a at beae, aaea¿tbe:esteíus, aa1aa.a|y.av.s.b|e t:ea kaabete ßa¿b1a1,tbe¿|e:.ûcat.eaeíl.||.a¿-tbe¿|aae:.z.a¿eítbe1eeµest .aí:act.eaeíae:aa|ceasc.eace-bas beeaa|ast.a¿íeatu:eeíeu: ,aa.ast:eaacu|tu:e, aa1aayve||betbe aestµem.c.euseav.:ea- aeata|.aílueace eía||eatbe vu|ae:ab|e soc.eµatb.c a.a1s .aeu: a.1st.1beevae:eísucbaa.a11eesaetaecessa:.|yl.||,butasve a:eabeutteûa1.atbeaextcbaµte:,vbeabe1ees,be.saeta|vays tbeµe:seaeaeveu|1bavesusµecte1 - !j9 ¯ c l u d 1 the sociopath next door It may be that we are puppets-puppets controlled by the strings of society. But at least we are puppets with perception, with awareness. And perhaps our awareness is the first step to our liberation. �Stanley Mi lgram Ì wantedtota|ktosoæeone,andItb|nk|t'sbecauseæyfatbets|n pt|son ¨ Hannab,tbeptetg,tb|n-||ppedtwenty-two-yeat-o|dwbo wasæynewpat|ent,d|tectedtb|sbatelyaud|b|eteæatktobett|gbt, towatdone ofæyboo�be|ves. Ateta æoæent, sbe|ookedatæe d|tect|y, sby|y, andtepeatedbetse|f ¨I needsoæeonetota|kto. my fatbets|npt|son ° Sbeæadeat|nygasp,as|ftbeeffottoftb|sæucbspeecbbadex- baustedbet|ungs,andtbensbewass||ent Lspec|a||ywbenpeop|eateveçft|gbtened,acetta|naæ� f do|ngtbetapy|ss|æp|y|now|ngbo�toatapbtas�tbec��entsof t|e¡e�s���eated b�!o�eyouw|t�����d|n]�c���| ~pa- tromz|ngl 1en�tds||gbt|y, æyhng ets|���dat � undæy| andtt|edtotecaptuteHannabsgaze,wb|cbbadnowdtoppedtotbe tust-co|otedOt|enta|tug betw��noutcba|ts. ´ ¡ ª ¸¡ �_ I sa|dqu|et|y, °Youtfatbets|npt|son?° °Yes Sbe |ooked up s|ow|y wben sbe answeted, a|æost sut- - !40 " ¬ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R pt|sed,asu!badg|eanedtb|s|nfotæat|onte|epatb|ca||y. °Hek|||ed aæan. !æean,bed|dn'tæeanto, butbek|||edaman. ¨ °Andnowbes|npt|son?¨ °Yes.Yes, be|s. ¨ Sbeb|usbed,andbeteyesh||ed. ! aæa|ways |æptessedbytbefacttba��ventbet|n|estaæount ofbe|ng||stenedto, tbebatestsuggest|onoftbeposs|b|||gofk|nd tteatæent,canbt|ngsucban|ææed|atetushofeæot|on.¸!tb|nkth|s .|s because we ate a|uost nevet tea|1y ||stenedto. !næy wotk as a ¸ psycbo|og|st, ! aæ teæ|ndedeveçdayofbow|nftequent|ywe ate beatd, anyofus, otoutact|ons evenæatg|na||yundetstood. And \ \ \ . ·one oftbe |too|es ofmy ¨ ||sten|ngptofess|on |s |ts |essontbat |n æanyways, �� cbofusu|t|mate|yteæa|nsaæystetytoevetyonee|se. °How|ongbasyoutfatbetbeen|npt|son?¨!asked. °Aboutfotg-onedays.1betewasatea|ly|ongtt|a|.1beyd|dn't keepb|æ|npt|sondut|ngtbett|a|¨ °Andyoufe|ttbatyouneededtota|ktosoæeone?¨ °Yes.!can't. . . !t's]ustso. . Deptessed.!tb|nk!'ægett|ngde- ptessed.!bavetostattæedscboo|. ¨ °medscboo|?Youæean|nSepteæbet?¨ !twas]u|y. °Yes.!w|sb!d|dn'tbaveto.¨ 1beteatscaæe,sound|essones,noweep|ngno|ses,as|ftbetest ofbetweteunawatesbewascty|ng.Stteaæsfe||ftoæbeteyesand to||ed downonto bet wb|te s||k sb|tt, æak|ngttans|ucent sta|ns. Apattftoætb|s,betdeæeanotteæa|neduncbanged,sto|c.Hetface d|dnotfa|| ! aæ a|ways æoved bysto|c|sæ. Hannab's was exteæe. ! was booked. Us|ngbotb fotehngets, sbe sboved betstta|gbtb|ackba|t |nto subæ|ss|on beb|nd bet eats. Het ba|t was so sb|ny |t |ooked as |f soæeone bad po||sbed |t. Sbe gazed past æe, attbe w|ndow, and asked,°Doyouknowwbat|t's||kefotyoutfatbettobe|nptison?¨ ~ )4) ¯ t ' ¯ , [ MAR T HA S T OUT °No,ldon't,°lsa|d.°maybeyou'||te||æe. ° AndsoHannabto|dæebetstoty,ottb|spattof|t. Hetfatbetbadbeentbept|nc|pa|oftbepub||cb|gbscboo||otbe æ|dd|ec|asssubutbwbeteHannabwasta|sed,|nad|ffetentstate,a tbousandæ||eswestofßoston.Accotd|ngtoHannab,bewasanex- tteæe|y||kab|eæanwbonatuta||ydtewpeop|etob|æ~a°stat, °as Hannabput|t~andwasæucb|ovedbytbestudents,tbeteacbets, and neat|y eveçone e|se |ntbe sæa||coææun|gtbatsuttounded tbeb|gbscboo|.Hewasa|waysattbecbeet|ead|ngptact|cesandtbe footba||gaæes,andwbetbetotnottbeboæeteamwonwaspetson- a||y|æpottanttob|æ. ßotnandta|sed|ntbetuta|m|dwest,bebad°sttongconsetva- t|veva|ues, ° Hannabsa|d. He be||eved|npatt|ot|sæand aæ|gbt||y defendedcountç, anda|soeducat|onandse|f-bettetæent. Hannab was b|s on|ycb||d, andfotas|ongassbecou|d teæeæbet, be bad to|dbettbat,eventbougbsbewasnotaboy, sbecou|dbewbatevet sbewantedtobe.G|t|s cou|dbewbatevettbeywantedtobe.G|t|s cou|dbedoctots. Hannabcou|dbeadoctot. Hannab|ovedbetfatbetdeat|y. °Hestbesweetest, æostæota| æan|ntbewot|d. Hetea||yis, " sbeto|dæe. °Yousbou|dbave seen a||tbepeop|ewbocaæetotbett|al1bey]ustsattbeteandct|edfot - . · �· b|æ,ct|edandct|ed.1beyfe|tsosotçfotb|æ,buttbetewasnotb- |ngtbeycou|d do.Youknow?Notb|ngtbeycou|ddo. ° 1bek||||ngtookp|aceonamatcbn|gbtwbenHannab,aco||ege sopboæote attbe t|æe, bappenedto beboæeonspt|ngbteak. ln tbeweebouts,sbebadbeenwakenedbyavety|oudno|seouts|de betpatentsbouse. °ld|dntknow|twasagununt|||atet, °sbeto|dæe. Sbegotups|eep||yto|ookatound,andfoundbetæotbetstaud- |ng]ust|ns|detbeopenftontdootoftbebouse,weep|ngandwt|ng- |ngbetbands.1be matcba|twastusb|ng|n °You know, |tstbewe|tdesttb|ng. lcanst|||c|oseæyeyes and " 142 " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR seebetstand|ngtbete||ketbat-tbew|ndwasb|ow|ngbetbatbtobe atound-and |t was ||ke ! knew eveçtb|ng, eveçtb|ng tbat bap- pened, t|gbtattbatæoæent, befote ! evenknewanytb|ng. !knew wbatbadbappened. !knewæyfatbetwou|dbeattested. !saw|ta||. We||,tbats||keap|ctuteftoæ an|gbtæate,t|gbt?1bewbo|etb|ng was||kean|gbtæate.Youcan'tbe||eve|tsbappen|ng|ntea|||fe,and youkeeptb|nk|ngyou||wakeup Soæet|æes!st|||tb|nk! æJustgo· |ngtowakeup,andeveçtb|ngwasJustsoæek|ndofbott|b|edteaæ. ßutbowd|d!knoweve:ytb|ngbefote !evenknewanytb|ng? !saw æy æoæ stand|ngtbete ||ke. . ||ke |twas bappen|ng |ntbe past, ||kede]aN otsoæetb|ng.!twaswe|td.Otæaybenot.maybe|tJust seeæstbatwaynow,wben!teæeæbet|t.!don'tknow. ° AsoonassbesawHannab,betæotbetgtabbedbet,as|fpu|||ng betdaugbtetoutoftbewayofanoncom|ngtta|n,andscteaæedat bet, °Don't go out tbete' Don't go outtbete' ° Hannab æade no æovetowatdtbeouts|de,notd|dsbeptessbetæotbetfotanexp|a· nat|on. SbeJuststoodtbete|nbettett|nedæotbet'seæbtace. °!d nevetseenbet||ketbatbefote, ° Hannab sa|d. °St|||,||ke! keepwant|ngtosay, |twasa|æostas|f! dbeentbtougb|ta|teady. ! knew! dbettetstay|ns|de. ' Atsoæepo|nt~Hannab|snotsutebow|ongth|stook-betIa- tbetcaæe|nbytbew|de-openftontdoot,totbep|acewbetesbeand betæotbet stoodc|utcb|ngeacbotbet. °Hed|dntbavetbegun|nb|sband.Hedtopped|touttbete|n tbeyatdsoæewbete. ° Weat|ngon|ypaJaæapants,bestoodbefoteb|s||tt|efaæ||y. °He|ookednne. Hewas sott of pant|ng, but! æeanbe d|dn't |ookftigbtenedotanyb|ng,andfotJustasecond,Justaboutba|fa second, !tbougbt æaybeeveçtb|ngwasgo|ngtobeokay ° A sbeto|dæetb|s,Hannabsteatscaæeaga|n °ßut!wastooscatedtoaskb|æwbatbappened.Atetawb||e, moæ|etgoofæe. Sbewentandsbeca||edtbepo||ce !teæeæbet ~ !4j ~ MAR T HA S T OUT sbeaskedb|æ,' lsbe butt?'Andbesa|d, l tb|nkso. ltb|nkl butt b|æ tea||ybad Andtbensbewent|ntotbe k|tcben andsbe ca||ed tbepo||ce.1bat'swbatyoutesupposedtodo,t|gbt?¨ °k|gt,¨lsa|dltbadnotbeenatbetot|ca|quest|on. lnb|tsandp|eces, Hannab|eatnedwbatbadbappened. Lat||et dut|ngtbatawfu|n|gbt,Hannab'sæotbet,a|waysa||gbts|eepet,bad beatdno|sescoæ|ngftoætbe||v|ngtooæ,sounds||kebteak|ngg|ass, andbadtousedbets|eep|ngbusband1beteweteæoteno|ses. 1be æanoftbehousebecaæeconv|ncedtbetewasan|nttudettobedea|t w|tb,andgotoutofbedtoptepate.Catefu||y(accotd|ngtob|sw|fe, |atet,~byon|ytbed|æ|||uæ|nat|onofat|nybook||gbt~betookout tbe gun boxtbat be kept |ntbe bedtooæ c|oset, un|ocked |t, and |oadedtbegun.H|sw|fep|eadedw|tbb|æs|æp|ytoca||tbepo||ce. Heneveteventep||edtotb|sentteag. Heb|ssedatbetcoææand- |ng|y,°Staybete' ¨Andst||||nneatdatkness,be|ehfottbe||v|ngtooæ See|ng b|æ, ot, æote ||ke|y, beat|ng b|æ, tbe ptow|etí|ed tbe bouse by tbe ftont doot. Hannab's fatbet gave cbase, sbot at tbe æan,and°bysbeetb||nd|uck,¨asoneofb|sattotneyswou|dput|t |atet,b|tb|æ|ntbebackoftbebead,k||||ngb|æ|nstant|y.A|thap- pened, tbe|nttudetfe||ontbes|dewa|kbetweentbe |awn andtbe cutb.1b|sæeant,tecbn|ca||y,tbatHannab'sfatbetbadsbotanun- atæedæanontbestteet. Sttange|y, |ncted|b|y, none|gbbotscaæeoutoftbe|tbouses °Lveçtb|ngwassoqu|etaftet. Soveç,veçqu|et,¨Hannabsa|d toæetbete|næyofnce. 1bepo||ceatt|ved qu|ck|y aftet Hannabs æotbetca||edtbeæ, fo||owedbyafewæotepeop|eandas||entaæbu|ance.Lventua||y, betfatbetandbetæotbetwetetakenawayto tbepo||cestat|on. °Myæotbetca||edbets|stetandæyunc|etocoæestayw|tbæe fottbetestoftben|gbt,]ust||kelwassudden|ya||u|eg|t|a||ovet aga|n.1beyweten'tanybe|p.1beyweteptettybystet|ca|. ltb|nkl ]ustfe|ttea||ynuæb ¨ 1benextday, and|ntbefo||ow|ngweeks,tbes|tuat|onoccup|ed ¬ 144 " T H E S OC [ O PATH N E XT D O O R tbe |oca|æed|a's|ntetest. 1be sboot|ngbadtaken p|ace|naqu|et æ.dd|e-c|asssuburb.1besbootetwasanotd|naçæ.dd|e-c|assæan w|tbnoknownbistotyoív|o|ence.Hebadnotbeendtunk,notbad be beenus|ngdtugs.1be deadæanwasaknowníe|on, adtug�d- d|ct, and ]ust beíote be was sbot, be bad btoken |ntotbe bouse tbtougbaw|ndowNooneexcepttbe ptosecut|ngattomeyd|sputed tbatbewasatobbet,ottbatHannab'síatbetbadputsuedandsbot b|æbecausebebadbeenan|nttudet|ntbebouse 1b|swasav|ct|æ'st|gbtscase. 1b|swasa,un-contto|case 1b|s was a get-tougb-on-ct|æe case. !tc|eat|y|||usttatedtbe dangets oí be|ngav|g||ante.Otæaybe.tdeæonsttatedconc|us|ve|ytbatbom ownets ougbt to bave |ncteased t|gbts 1beACL\ got æad,tbe NkAevenæoteso. 1betewasa|ongtt|a|, asHannabbadsa|d,andtbeoanappea| andanotbet|ongtt|a|.!ntbeend,Hannab'síatbetwasconv|ctedoí vo|untaçæans|augbtetandsentencedtoaæax|æuæoítenyeats|n pt|son 1be attotneys sa|d |t was æote |.ke|yto be °on|y°two or tbtee 1be news oía b|gb scboo|pt|nc|pa| sentencedtotenyeats |n pt|soníotsboot|ngabutg|atonb|sítont|awnatousedsttongemo- t|ons1beteweteptotestsona||s|des.1bedec|s|onwasunconst|tu- t|ona| ltdehed coææonsense andnatuta||aw1beconv|ctedæan was a dangetous se|í-appo|ntee and a t|gbts v|o|atot. He wasan Amet|canbeto and aíaæ||y-ptotectot. Hewas av|o|entæadæan. Hewas8 æatgttotbecause,toanynuæbetoícaases. 1btougb a|| oítb|s, |æposs|b|y, Hannabwasgo|ngto co||ege, æak|ngA's,andapp|y|ngtoæed|ca|scboo|s,act|v|t|esdogat|ca||y |ns|steduponbybeteæbau|edíathet. °He]ustwou|dn'ta||owæy||íetobetu|nedbya||the 'stup|d|g. ' 1bat'swbatbesa|d.° AndHannabgot|ntoneatlyeve;æed|ca|scboo|sbeapp||edto, desp|tebetíatbet'spted|caæent. Sbeto|dæetbat°|íanyth|ng,tbe wbo|etb|ngptobab|ybe|pedæeget|n. Hewasacause. ° !45 MAR T HA S T OUT !|n|sbedw|tb betnattat|ve, Hannab seatcbedtbtougb a sæa|| |eatbetbandbag, found& t|ssue, andbegantob|otbetcbeeksand dabattbestteaksonbetsb|tt.1b|ssbed|deventbougbtbetewasa fu||boxoft|ssuesmp|a|ns|gbtona||tt|etab|e]ustatbet|efte|bow. °So you see, I dont tea||y need tbetapy' exact|y. ßut I tea||y wou|d ||ke to ta|k to soæeone. I tea||y don't want to be tb|s de- ptessedwbenIstattæedscboo|.Idon'tknow.Doyoutb|nk|twou|d bea||t|gbtfotæetoseeyou?° : ¹ Hannabbadaffectedæew|tbbetstoç,andw|tbbetdeæeanot. I fe|ttteæendoussyæpatbyfotbet, and I to|dbetso.1o�yse||, I wondetedbowæucbbe|psbewou|dactua||ybeab|etoacceptftoæ æe,tbepsycbo|og|ca|ttauæatbetap|stsbe bad ca||edbecausesbe badseenæynaæe |n anewspapetatt|c|e. Out |oud,weagteedto �eetonceaweekíotawb||e,soHannabcou|dbavesoæeonetota|k to.1beæed|ca|scboo|sbebadnna||ycbosenwas|nßoston, andat . betæotbetsutg|ngsbebadæovedeastt|gbtaftetbetco||egegtad- uat|on, sosbecou|dbe°sett|ed |n¨befotec|assesstatted,andaway ftoætbectaz|nessbackboæe.Hetæotbetfe|ttbes|tuat|onw|tbbet busbandwas°negat|ve° fot bet daugbtet. I tbougbt Î bad se|doæ beatdsucbanundetstateæent, and I assutedHannabtbat,yes, |t wou|dbea||t|gbtfotbettoseeæe. Aftetsbe|eft,Ipacedatoundæyofncefotaæ|nuteottwo,stat- |ngouttbeta|�w|ndowsontoßoston'sßackßay,wa|k|ngovettot|f- 0e papets ontbe w|de, c|utteted desk, and tben tetum|ngtotbe w|ndows,asl oftendoaftetasess|on|nwb|cbsoæeonebasto|dæe agteatdea|, butnotneat|yevetytb|ng.A I paced, Iwas|ntetested notsoæucbmtbe|ega|andpo||t|ca|quest|onsofwbo,wbat,wben, andwbete,buttatbet|npsycbo|ogspetenn|a|quest|on o fwby. Hannabbadnotaskedwby-as|n "Why d|dæyfatbetsboottbat gun?Why d|dntbe]ust|ettbeæango?°Iteflectedtbat,eæot|ona||y, sbecou|dnotaffotdto askwby, as tbeanswetæ|gbtbetoounset- t||ng. 1be ent|te te|at|onsb|p w|tb bet fatbet was at stake. And æaybe tb|s was tbe teason sbe needed æe, to be|p bet nav|gate ¬ 145 ¬ T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR tbtougbtbe conce|vab|eanswetstotb|s pet||ousquest|on. letbaps betfatbetbadbeencaugbtup|ntbeftenzyoftbeæoæentandbad _ sbottbeguna|æostacc|denta||y, b|tt|ngtbe|nttudet|etba||y|ntbe bead°bysbeetb||nd|uck, °astbeattomeybadsa|d. Otpetbapsbet fatbetbadgenu|ne|ybe||evedb|sfaæ||ywas|ndanget,andb|spto- tect|ve|nst|nctsbadtakenb|æovet.OtpetbapsHannabsfatbet,tbe faæ||yæan,tb|s otd|naçæ|dd|e-c|ass b|gb-scboo|pt|nc|pa|,was a k|||er ln subsequent sess|ons, dut|ngtbat suææet anc |ntbe fa|| as Hannabbeganæed|ca|scboo|, sbeto|dæeæoteaboutbetfatbet. lntbek|ndofwotkldo,loftenbeataboutbebav|otsandeventstbat tbepat|entbetse|f, ovetbet ||fei|æe, bas gtownusedto andtb|nks ofasnotæa|,buttbatto æe sound d|st|nct|yabnotæa| andsoæe- ¡¯ t|æesa|atæ|ng.1b|sk|ndoftepott|swbatlsoonbegantogetftoæ HannabA sbedescr|bedbetfatbet,tbougbsbeobv|ous|ybe||eved sbewastecount|ngunteæatkab|estot|es, lp|ecedtogetbettbep|c- tute ofaoeæot|ona||y:o|�|nd|v|dua|wboseæeanandcontto|||ng act|ons æade æe ct|�g�. A|so, l Becaæe faæ|||atw|tb tbe undet- standab|ebazeæy|nte|||gentyoungpat|entwas|ost|nwben|tcaæe ~-.. .~- · ¡ ] · - . tosee|ngbetíatbetfotwbatbewas · ¹ ld|scovetedtbatHannabsfatbetdea|tw|tbb|sptetgw|fe and b|sb|gb-acb|ev|ngdaugbtetæote||kettopb|estbanbuæanbe|ngs, usua||y|gnot|ngtbeæcoæp|ete|ywbentbeywetes|ckotbav|nga d|fhcu|tt|æefotsoæeotbetteason. 8ut, |ov|ng|y, Hannabte|ntet- ¸. • r ptetedbetfatbetsca||oustteatæentofbet. � ´ ¸ .¸ _ * ¹ ·¯ ' ¡ °He'srea||ypt�JoIæe, °sbesa|d,°otso lvea|waystbougbt~ ,andsobecan'tstand|twbenlæakeæ|sta|es.Oncewbenlwas|n tbe fouttbgtade,æyteacbetsent anote boæe tbatlwasn'tdo|ng æyboæewotk. Dadd|dntspeaktoæefottwoweeksaftettbat l know|twastwoweeksbecauselbadtb|s||tt|eca|endat~lst|||bave |tsoæewbete~and l æatked offtbe days, one byone lt»as as|f suddeu|yld|dn'tevenex|st.ltwasawfu|. Ob, andanotbetgoodex- aæp|e, æote tecent. lwas |nb|gbscboo|a|teady~|isb|gb scboo|, " )47 " MA RT H A S T OUT youknow?~and !gottb|stea||ybuge,ug|yb|em|sbonæycbeek. ° Sbepo|ntedtoaneæptyspaceonbet|ove|ycoæp|ex|on.°Hed|dnt sayawotdtoæe~wou|dnteven|ookatæe~íottbteedays. Hes sucb a petíect|on|st ! guess be wants tosbowæe oíí, andwben soæetb|ngs wtong, be tea||y cant do tbat. !t æakes æe íee|bad aboutæyse|ísoæet|æes,but!suppose!canundetstand|t,æoteot |ess ° Hannabdesct|bedat|æe|nbetcb||dboodwbenbetæotbetbad beenct|t|ca||y|||and|ntbebosp|ta|íotneat|ytbteeweeks.Hannab be||evedbetæotbetbadconttactedpneuæon|a,butsbesa|d, °!was tea||ytooyoungto teæeæbetæucb about |t.° Hannab's auntbad takenbettoseebetæotbetdut|ngtb|st|æe.ßutbetíatbetbadnot v|s|ted b|s w|íe oncewb||e sbewas bosp|ta||zed, andwbenme te- tumedboæe,bewasangçandag|tated, concemedtbatb|spa|e�nq ·· · weakenedw|íe°æ|gbtnotgetbetbeau;back,°asHannabphtased|t. A íotHannabspteµæotbet,°1betetea||y|sn'tæucbtote||, ° Hannabto|dæe°Sbessweetandgent|eSbea|waystookgoodcate o íæe,espec|a||ywbenÌwas||tt|eSbe||kes togatden,andsbedoes a|otoícbat|t|es andsucb Sbes]ustatea||yn|ce|ady. Ob,andsbe wastbeboæecoæ|ngqueenwbensbewas|nb|gbscboo| Dad||kes tote||peop|etbat ° Wben !ptessedHannababoutbetæotbetsteact|ontobetía· tbet's neg|�ctíu| bebav|ots, sbe sa|d, °! don'tknow. Ì æean, to be bonest,tbetewetetb|ngstbatwou|dveæadeæetea||yangç|í!'d beenmoæ,butsbenevetsa|danytb|ng Sbe]ustk|nd oígoesbet ownway.L|ke!sa|d,sbesasweet,gent|e|ady-tbat'sptobab|ywbat you dbeat|íyouasked soæeonewboknows bet~and !guesswbat goes a|ongw|tb tbat |s sbe nevet tea||y stands up íot betse|íveç æuch. Sbecetta|n|ynevetconítonts Dad. ! æean, !tb|nk!d ía|nt deadaway|ísbeevetd|dtbat Sbe'stbepetíect|adyHeton|y||tt|e ûaw,|íyoucou|devenca|||ttbat, |sbetvan|gSbestea||ybeaut|íu|, and!tb|nksbeknows|t,andsbespendsa|otoít|æewotk|ngonbet ¯ !48 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R ba|:andbe:bodyandsucb ltb|n|sbeseestbatasbe:on|ypowe: |ntbewo:|d,|ftbatæa|esanysense ¨ Hannab|oo|edatæequest|on|ng|y, andlnoddedtbatlunde:- stoodwbatsbeæeant. °Andtog|veb|æb|sdue,Dad's:ea||ygoodtobe:abouttbat.He sendsbe:í|owe:swbenbesgone,andbea|wayste||sbe:bowbeau- t|fu|s!e|sltb|n|tbat||ndoftb|ngæust:ea||yæeana|ottobe:.¨ °Hesendsbe:ûowenwbenbe'sgone?¨las|ed''Wbe:edoesbego?¨ Wben l as|ed tbatquest|on~°Wbe:e does be go?¨~Hannabs coæposu:e |ost a ||tt|e g:ound. Sbe sb|fted |n be: cba|: and sa|d notb|ng fo: aæoæent !|na||y sbe :ep||ed, °l don't:ea||ykow. l |notbat æust sound so:t of|aæe, but l don't. Soæet|æes be'd coæe|n:ea||y|ateatn|gbt, o:bedevenbegonefo:awbo|ewee|- end. momwou|dgetí|owe:s~læean,:ea||y, |twasbetweentbetwo oftbeæ. ltwasJusttoowe|:d,so lt:|edto|gno:e|t¨ °H|sabsenceswe:ewe|:d?¨ °Yes, we||. . . 1bat'stbewaylfe|t.ldon't|nowbowmoæfee|s °Anyguessesaboutwbe:ebewent?¨lp:essedbe:,p:obab|ya||t- . t|etooba:d,but|tseeæedan|æpottantpo|nt. °No.la|wayst:|edto|gno:e|t,¨sbe:epeated.1bensbebeganto studyæyboo|sbe|vesaga|n. 1be nex wee|, l as|ed Hannab tbe consp|cuous quest|on of _¸ wbetbe:be:f�tbe:badeve:beenpbys|ca||yv|o|entw|tbbe:o:be: æotbe:. Hadbeeve:b|ttbeæ? Sþb:|gbtened�ndanswe:edeage:|y. °Obno. Hesneve:done �anytb|ng|||etbat.lcan'teven�g|ne|t.lnfact,|fanyonee|seeve: bu:tæeo:moæ, ltb|n|bed||||tbeæ. ¨ Iwa|tedan|nstantfo:tbe|æpactofbe:wo:dstost:||ebe:,but sbe appea:ed unaffected. Sbe sb|fted be: pos|t|on aga|n and :e|n- fo:cedbe:answe:, say|ng, °No. He neve:b|t us. Notb|ng|||etbat - )49 ~ M AR T HA S T OUT She was unaccounfably pleased fo answer me lnfhls way, and somehow I was lncllned fo belleve her, fhaf her fafher had never beenphyslcallyvlolenflnfheconfexfofhlsfamlly. ßufafferfwenfy- nve years of freaflng frauma sutvlvors, I have learnedfhaf geftlng hlf u acfually one offhe more bearableways a person can be as- saulfed. Ifrledadlfferenffack. I sald,¨Iknowyouloveyourfafher, and youneedfoholdonflghffofhafloverlghfnow. ßufallrelaflonshlps havefhelrdlfnculfles.There'snofhlngaboufhlmfhafyou'dchange lfyoucould?¨ ¨Yes, fhaf's absolufely rlghf. I do needfo hold onfo hlm.And he reallydeservesfo havehugesympafhyfrom everyone, especlally now . . . . . Shepaused, andcranedherneckfolookbehlndheraffhedou- bledoorsfo myofnce.Thenshefurnedbackand lookedafmefor a longmomenf, as lfappralslngmymoflves, and nnallysald, ¨ßuf slnceyou wanf fo knowwhaf I'dchange, fhere ls somefhlng, acfu- ally. ¨ ' Ì She made a llffle humorless laugh and blushed scarlef fo fhe roofsofhershlmmerlngblackhalr. ¨Whatsfhaf?¨I asked, asmaffer-of-facflyasIcould. ¨If'saslllyfhlng,really. If's,well. . Someflmesheillrfswlfhmy frlends,sorfof, andlfreallybofhers me.Acfually, nowfhafI saylf oufloud,lfsoundsevenmorerldlculous.I guessifshouldn'fbofher meso much. ßuflfreallydoes. ¨ ¨HeÐlrfswlfhyourfrlends? Howdoyoumean?¨ ¨Slnce]unlorhlghschool, mote orless. . . Some ofmyfrlends arereallyg orgeous,youknow?There'sfhlsonelnparflcular, named Georgla. . . . Wellanyway, heillrfswlfhfhem.Hewlnksaffhemand klndofgrabsfhemandflcklesfhem.Andsomeflmeshemakeswhaf Ifhlnkarereallysuggesflveremarks-llkehe'llsay,'Golngbralessfo- day, Georgla?' or somefhlng-buf I guess I'm mlslnferpreflng. Oh !50 ¯¨¯ ¯ · . t T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R . I ' : ¦ man, nowfhaf I'm fa|klng abouffhls ouf |oud, lf's |lke ü|et-dumb, don'fyoufhlnk?Ifptobablyshouldn'fbofhetmeafall.¨ Isald,¨IfIwete lnyoutplace,Ifhlnklfwouldbofhetme,a|of.¨ ¹ ¨You do?¨ She looked encoutaged fot a momenf, and fhen sagged. ¨Youknow, affhehlghschoolDadtuns-fhehlghschoolI wenffo patenfshaveacfuallyclalmedfhaf hewas 'lnapptoptlafe' wlfhfheltklds.Thetewetefhteeflmes, Ifhlnk, otafleasffhoseate fheonesfhaf Iheatdabouf. Itemembetoneflmefhepatenfswete ' teally sfeamed. They acfually fook fhelt kld ouf of fhe school. Evetybodycamefo hls tescueaffetfhaf.Theyfhoughflfwasteally sadfhesedaysfhafsuchagood,klndmancouldbeaccusedofsome petvetsefhlng]usf because he gave one ofhls sfudenfs a hug, ot whafevet.¨ ¨Andwhafdoyoufhlnk?¨ ¨I don'fknow. I' l|ptobablybutnlnhellotsomefhlngfotadmlf- flng fhls, buffhe ftufh ls fhaf I don'f know-I guess because I've seenhlmdo somuch sfufffhaf people couldmlstead teal|yeaslly. You know? I mean, lfyou'te fhe ptlnclpalandyou walkup behlnd somehof-looklngslxfeen-year-o|dlnfhehallandyougtabhetbyfhe wa�, you've goffo expecfhetpatenfsfo gef allffleflcked lffhey heatabouf lf. I don'fknowwhyhe doesn'fundetsfandfhaf. ¨ Thlsflme, Hannahdldnofaskmefoconntmhetoplnlon. She sfatedaffhebookshelvessomemote,andwassllenf. Flnally, lnallffleÐoodoftushedwords,shesald, ¨Andyouknow whafelse? I've nevetfold fhls fo anyone, and I hope you'te nofgo- lngfofhlnk |ess ofmebecauseI' mfelllngyou, bufoneflmefhls gltl ² I know-I dldn'f know het vety well, buf she wenf fo fhe hlgh school-she came up and saf!eslde me lnfhe llbtag and sfatfed wtlflng nofes. She was smlllng and she wtofe, 'Do youknowwhaf youtfafhetfoldmeaboufCenftal Hlgh?'andshepassedlffome. I wtote, 'Iglveup.Whaf?'andshewtofe, 'HefoldmeCenftalwasIlke asexualcafefetla. ' Shepufsexualcafefetlalnblgquofes. Iwassofu- ¯ !5! ¯ MART H A S T OUT rlous Ialmosfcouldn'fkeepfromcglng,bufIgofoufoffhere,and fhenIdldn'fknowwhaffodowlfhfhepleceofpaper,soIcru�pled lfupandIpuflflnmypockef,andwhenIgofhome, Igofmafches andIburnedlflnfheslnk.¨ The rush ofwords over, she looked down affhe rusf-colored carpef. I' msosorg, Hannah.Youfrulydldn'fdeservefohavefhafhap- penfoyou.Youmusf've beensoembarrassed, and sohearfbroken. ßufwhydldyou�maglneI'dfhlnklessofyouforfelllngme?'' In a volce muchyounger fhan her fwenp-fwo years, she an- swered, ¨Ishould'vekepflfasecref. If'sdlsloyal. ¨ HannahandIconflnuedoursesslonsfogefher.Affhebeglnnlng ofmanyofherappolnfmenfs,shewouldfellmeaboufsfrangephone messageshermofherwasrecelvlngbackhome. ¨Afferfhenlghf offheburglag,weprefpmuchsfopped belng ablefoanswerfhephone.Thereweresomanyso-calledreporfers, andsomanycranks.Affhlspolnf,Momalways]usflefsfhemachlne answer,andlflfssomebodyshewanfsfofalkfo,shecanplckup. If's okay, I guess. She]usf erasesfhe cranks. ßuflaf � ly she's beengef- ting fhese welrd druggle messages. They really upsef her. They're frea|-Imean,evenfreaklerfhanfhe usualfreaks. ¨ ¨Hasshefoldyouwhaffheysay?¨Iasked. ¨Sortof.Shegefssoupsef,lf'sallfflehardfomakesenseofwhaf she'ssaylngfomeonfhephone,bufIfhlnkfhebaslcldealsfhey're accuslngDad ofdeallngdrugs orsomefhlng.Rldlculous sfuff-buf lf really gets fo Mom. She sald fheywere demandlngfo gef some klndof'lnformaflonfromfhehouse,orfheyweregolngfohurthlm. I guessfheykepfsaylngsomefhlngabouf lnformatlon, ' andfhlngs abouf hurtlng hlm. ßuffhere's nofhlng ln fhe house, and, I mean, Dad'snoffhere.He'slnprlson. ¨ ¨Hasyourmofhernoflnedfhepollceabouffhemessages?¨ ¨No. She'safraldfhafshe'llgefDadlnfrouble. ¨ Foramomenf, Icouldnoffhlnkofanapproprlafereplyfofhls !52 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R lasf remark, and when I was sl|enf, Hannah nlled ln She sald, ¨I know, Iknow. If'sllloglcal ¨ ßyfheendofHannah'snrsfyearlnmedlcalschool,hermofher hadrecelvedadozenorsooffhese lncomprehenslbleandfrlghfen- lng messages, and sflllnelfhermofher nor daughfer had reporfed fhemfofhepollce. InMay, HannahdecldedshewanfedfoÐyoufandvislfherlm- prlsoned fafher Wefalked abouf how emoflonally palnfu| such a vlsltwouldbeforher,bufshewasdefermlnedfogoWe hadseveral / conversaflonsaboufherupcomlngfrlp,fglngfoprepareherforfhe varlousslfuaflonsshemlghfneedfohandle,andforfhefeellngsshe mlghfhave when she saw her fafh�r ln prlson. ßuf noìhlng could havepreparedelfher Hannah orme forwhafdld¿appen. Inrefro- specf, Ibelleve hemusfhavereachedfhepolnfofwanflnganaudl- enceforhlsgamesmanshlp, aframe ofmlndslmllarfo Sklp'swhen he � f� � e�hls|lffleslsferfofhelakeslde Icannoffhlnkofanyofher llkely reason fhaf Hannah's fafher would suddenly have been so forfhcomlngwlfhhlsdaughferAforHannah,shehadnoffoldme ¸ she lnfendedfo be blunfwlfhherfafher. Perhapsshe dldnofeven . knowfhls herselfbeforehand. To mymlnd, herbehavlorwhen she vlslfedfheprlsonlsoneoffh � �esf]usfglo�Ihave everencoun- feredofhowmuchapersoncanknowaboufanofherpersonwlfhouf o�.�louslyknowlngfh� shekno�� lf. - w��she ,:baH±��ion, thls �whaf she fold me abouf f�lrconversaflon.Ilmaglnefhafmorewassald,buffhefollowlngls allfhafHannahsharedwlfh me.Shebegansomewhaffearfully, de- scrlblng fhe harrowlng and undlgnlned process of gefflng lnfo a µrlsonfovlslfa nlnmafe.Thenherfearsclearedcomplefelyandshe foldmefheresfcalmly, wlfhacenalnlnfellecfualdefachmenf She sald, ¨I wasferrlned he'dlookpafheflcand beafen, bufhe dldn't look:hafwayaf all He looked nne He looked. . . I don'f know-a|ìvelswhafIwanffosay Hlseyesweresparkllng I'veseen hlmllkefhafbefore,bufIreallydldn'fexpecffoseehlmfhafwayln !5j . MAR T HA S TOUT prlson.Heseemedgladfoseeme-heaskedmeaboufmygrades.I fhoughfhe'd askme abouf Mom, bufhe dldn'f.And so Ï fhoughf, WhypuflfoúSoIaskedhlm. ¨ ShemadefhlssfafemenfaslfIknewwhafshemeanf,andIdld nof. Isald,¨Youaskedhlmwhaf?¨ ¨Iaskedhlm,'Whafwasfhafmanlooklngforlnfhehouse, Dad?' Hesald,'Whafman?'BufI'msureheknewwhafIwasfalklngabouf. Hedldn'flookashamedorembarrassedoranyoffhaf. I sald, 'The manyoushof. 'Hedldn'fevenbllnk.He]usfsald,'Oh,fhafman. He waslooklngforsome names. Bufhe dldn'fnndfhem. Icanassure youoffhaf.' ¨ Hannah had been speaklngwlfhouf looklng af me. Now she madeeyeconfacf,andsald, ¨Dr.Sfouf,hlsexpresslon. . . Helooked llke we were falklng abouf somefhlng fhaf was reallyfn fo falk abouf. Iwanfedforunoufoffhere, bufIdldn'f. ¨ ¨Idldn'fknowyouweregolngfodofhls.You'reamazlng. ¨ ¨Ifwasawful,¨sheconflnuedwlfhoufseemlngfohearfhafÌwas marvellngafheracflons.¨Isald, 'Soyouknewhlm?'Andhesald,'Of courseIknewhlm.WhywouldIklllaperfecfsfranger?'Andfhenhe laughed.Helaughed, Dr.Sfouf. ¨ Sflllspeaklngdlrecflyfome,fhoughwlfhconslderableemoflonal dlsfancefromfhesub]ecfmaffer,shewenfon.¨AndfhenIsald,'Are youlnvolvedwlfhheroln?'He dldn'freallyanswerfhafone. He]usf fold mefhaf Iwas smarf. Canyou belleve fhaf? He fold mefhaf I wassmarf.¨ Sheshookherheadlndlsbellefandwassllenfforawhlle. Flnally, I prom ¹ fed her. I sald, ¨Dld you ask ofher quesflons, Hannah?¨ - / ·´ , ) , ' • ¨Yes. Yes, Ì dldaskhlm.Isald,' Haveyoueverkllledanyoneelse?' Anddoyouknowwhafhesald?¨ Thenshewassllenfagaln. Afferamomenf, Ì replled, ¨No,Idon'f.Whafdldhesay?¨ !54 ¬ W T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR ¨Hesald, IpleadfheFlffh. ' ¨ OnlyfhendldHannahcgagaln,fhlsflmewlfhoufresfralnf. Her sudden, wrenchlnggrlef, forfhe fafhershehadfhoughfwasfhere, remlndedmeofaquofaflonfromEmerson,who · sald�hafofallfhe waysfoloseaperson,deafhlsfheklndesf. Shew�,ff � r�gflme,bufIwa�relle�edfonndfhafwhenher fearswerennallyspenf,shewasablefofurnherfhoughfsfoherown safep. Wlplng her facewlfh a handful offlssues fromfhe box, she lookedafmeandsaldlnasfeadyvolce,¨Thelawyersaregolngfogef hlmouf,youknow.WhafamIgolngfo do?¨ AndIheardmyselfanswerlng,wlfhdecldedlymoredlrecflvema- femal feroclpfhan I am accusfomed fo uslng lnfherapysesslons, ¨You'regolngfoprofecfyourself, Hannah.' What Can the Conscience-Bound Do Aout the Guiltless? Soclopafhsarenoffewandfa�befween.Onfheconfrag,fheymake upaslgnlncanfporflonofourpopulaflon.ThoughHannah'sexperl- encewasespeclallyupcloseandpersonalfor anylndlvldualllvlngln fheWesfernworldfogefallfhewayfhroughllfewlfhoufknowlngaf leasfonesuch person, lnsomecapaclporofher, ls vlrfuallylmpos- slble. People wlfhouf con�lence experlence emoflons veg dlffer- enfly from you and me, and fheydo nof experlence love af all, or anyofher klnd ofposlflve affachmenffofhelrfellowhumanbelngs. Thlsdenclf,whlchlshardevenfoponder,reducesllfefoanendless game ofauempfed domlnaflonover ofherpe ople. S� � tlmes so� clopafhsarephyslcallyvlolenf, as Ha�nah's i�fher �as. Offenfhey arenof, preferrlngfo''wln¨overofhersbyraldlngfhebuslnessworld, orfheprofesslons,orgovemmenf-orslmplybyexplolflngoneper- !55 ¨ . ~~ / \ · ¹ _¸ , ¸ · . - ·:'¯`´ MART HA S T OUT son af a flme ln paraslflc relaflohlps, as Sydney's nonhusband, ¯ ¯dlu. · * * v n~ Afpresenf, soclopafhyls¨lncurable¨ , furfhermore,soclopafhsal- mosfneverwls|� ! ·: ¬�fls - [¡¿� ly:|f, ¿ ulldln,n !neuroblologlcalconnguraflonofsoclopafhy, cerfalnculfures, no- fablyourWesfem one, acflvelyencourageanflsoclalbehavlors, ln- cludlngvlolence,murder, andwarmongerlng. Thesefacfs aredlfnculfformosfpeoplefo accepf. Theyare of- fenslve, nonegallfatlan, and frlghfenlng ßufundersfandlngand ac- cepflngfhemasarealaspecfofourworldlsru|enumberoneoffhe ¨ThlrfeenRulesforDeallngwlfhSoclopafhslnEvegdayLlfe¨fhafI fellfopaflenfsllkeHannah,andfoofherpeoplewhoarelnferesfed lnprofecflngfhemselvesandfhepeoplefheylove Herearefhefhlrfeenrules. 1mÏb¯ÏÏP VLLÏbÏLVLÏ^LÏPLYϯm bLLÏLÏTmb ÏP ÏNÏVÀL1À LÏÏÏ· I. T e f rst r l e invo l ve t h e b itter pi ll o f accepting at some peo- p l e l itera ll y h ave no ccmscience, ' ThesepeopledonofoffenlookllkeCharles Mansonor a Ferenglbarfender.Theylookllke us. 2. In a contest b etween your instincts an d w h at is imp l ie d b y t h e r l e a person h as ta k en' on-e d ucator d octor, l ea d er anima l l � er h umanist, parent€ wit h your _� Whefheryouwanffo be ornof,you are aconsfanfob- serverofhumanbehavlor,andyourunnlferedlmpresslons, fhoughalarmlngandseemlnglyouflandlsh,maywellhelp you ouf lfyouwlll lef fhem. Your besf selfundersf � nds, + . · · é � ~º ^ *":¹"¹''�"� "` ®º wlfhoufbelngfold,fhaflmpresslveandmoral-soundlngla- - )55 " Il T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R belsdonofbesfowconsclenceonanyonewhodldnofhave lffobeglnwlfh. Õ. W h en consi d ering a new re l ations h ip o f any k in d , practice t h e �o f T rees _ar d i � g t h e c l aims an d promises a peron ma k es, an d t h e responsi b i l ities h e or s h e h as. Ma k e t h e R u l e o f T h rees your persona l po l icy. One lle, one broken promlse, ora slngle neglecfed re- sponslblllfymaybeamlsundersfandlnglnsfead.Two may lnvolveaserlousmlsfake. ßuft h ree lles saysyou'redeallng wlfhallar, anddecelflsfhellnchplnofconsclencelessbe- havlor. Cufyour losses and gef ouf as soon asyou can. Leavlng,fhoughlfmaybe hard, wlll be easler nowfhan lafer,and|esscosfly. Do nof glve your money, your work, your secrefs, or youraffecflonfo afhree-flmer. Yourvaluable glffs wlllbe wasfed. � Once agaln-frusf your own lnsflncfs and anxlefles, especlallyfhose�concernlngpeop!ewTo Hfhafdo�l- . (ûng ofters, vlolence, war, or some ofIervoIaflon o your consclence ls fhe grand soluflon fo some problem. Do fhls evenwhen, or especlallywhen, evegone around you±comp1efeysp,�¡ufhclfe� uyour¯wTaf3fanley Mllgræ�faughfus abo � f obe- dlence. Af !¸easf slx ouf offen people wlll bllndly obey fo fhe [ lffer eg � olaJ-JooJng auf£orlp ln fheIr ¸ f. Te¿oodnewslsfhafhavlngsoclalsupporfmakespeo- plesomewhafmorellkelyfo challenge aufhorlp. Encour- agefhosearoundyoufoquesflon,foo. - )57 ¯ MA RT HA S T OUT D. Suspect f l attery. Compllmenfs are lovely, especlally when fhey are sln- cere. In confrasf, f l atter ls exfreme and appeals fo our egos ln unreallsflc ways. If ls fhe maferlal ofcounferfelf charm, andnearlyalwayslnvolvesanln�enffomanlpulafe. Manlpulaflon fhrough ilaffeg ls someflmes lnnocuous andsomeflmesslnlsfer. Peekoveryourmassagedegoand rememberfosuspecfÐaffeg. Thls ¨ilaffety rule¨ applles on an lndlvldual basls, and a|so af fhe |evel of groups and even whole naflons. Throughouf all ofhuman hlsfogand fo fhe presenf, fhe callfowarhaslncludedfhei|afferlngclalmfhafone'sown forces are abouffo accompllshavlcfogfhafwlll change fheworldforfhebeffer,afrlumphfhaflsmorallylaudable, ]usflned by lfs humane oufcome, unlque ln human endeavor, rlghfeous, and worthy of enormous graflfude. Slncewe�eganfo recordfhehumansfog, allofourma- ]orwarshave beenframed lnfhlsway, ona|lsldesoffhe conÐlcf, and lnalllanguagesfhe ad]ecflvemosfoffen ap- plledfo fhewordwar ls h o l y. P argumenf can easl|ybe madefhafhumanlpwll|havepeacewhennaflonsofpeo- pleareaflasfablefoseefhroughfhlsmasferfulilaffeg. ]usfasanlndlvldualpumpeduponthei|affegofama- nlpulafor ls llkelyfo behave ln foollshways, exaggerafed pafrloflsmfhaflsÐaffeg-fueledlsadangerousfhlng. Ö. I f necessar, re d e f ne your concept o f respect. ' Too offen, we mlsfake fear for respecf, and fhe more fearfulweareofsomeone,fhemorewevlewhlmorheras deservlngofourrespecf. I have a spoffed ßengal caf who was named Musc|e Man by my daughfer when she was a foddler, because ~ !58 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R even as a klffen he looked llke a professlonal wresfler. Grownnow, he ls much largerfhan mosfofher domesflc cafs. Hls formldable claws resemble fhose of hls Aslan leopard-caf ancesfors, buf by femperamenf, he ls genfle andpeace-lovlng. Mynelghborhasallffle callcowhovls- lfs. Evldenuy, fhecallco'spredaforycharlsma ls huge, and she ls brllllanf af dlrecflng fhe evll eye af ofher cafs. Whenevershe lswlfhlnnfµfeef, Muscle Man, allnffeen pounds ofhlmfo herseven, crlngesandcroucheslnfear andfellnedeference. MuscleManls a splendldcaf Helswarm andlovlng, and he lsclosefomyhearf. Nonefheless, l wouldllkefo bellevefhafsomeofhlsreacflonsaremoreprlmlflvefhan mlne. Ihopeldonofmlsfakefearforrespecf, becausefo = +^'"¯"¹^"¯` dosowouldbefoensuremyownvlcflmlzaflon.Lefususe ourbi g h�nbrai� � ��nlmalfendencyfo bowfopredafors,sowe candlsenfanglefhereilexlvecon- i�uio1anxleµ � d - aw e. l na perfecfworld, humanre- specfwould be anaufomaflcreacflononlyfo fhosewho aresfrong, klnd, andmorallycourageous.Thepersonwho pronfsfromfrlghfenlngyoulsnofllkelyfo · b��nyoffhese. . ¨e`resohe ¡okeeprespe�f s�p��afe fromfe _ r · l � _¸� n -· morecruclalforgroups and naflons. The pollflclan, small orloffy, whomenacesfhepeoplewlfhfrequenfremlnders offheposslblllµofcrlme,vlolence,orferrorlsm,andwho fhen uses fhelrmagnlnedfearfo galn alleglance, lsmore llkelyfobeasuccessfulconarflsffhanaleglflmafeleader. Thlsfoohasbeenfruefhroughoufhumanhlsfog 7. Do not join the game. Infrlgue ls a soclopafh's fool. - Reslsffhe feq fo compefewlfhaseducflvesoclopafh,fooufsmarfhlm,psy- ...- - !59 ¬ , ! MAR T HA S TOUT ¸ · ¸ ( · ;¯ choanalyze,orevenbanferwlfhhlm.Inaddlflonforeduc- lngyourselffohlslevel, y�uwouldbedlsfracflngyourself fromwhaflsreallylmporfanf,whlchlsfoprofecfyotirself. Û. T e b est way to protect yourse l f f rom a sociopat h is�to � Vi� - � ) to re f use any k in d o f contact or communication. -- --- , ¯ !sych�|��|�ts do nof�uall� ||k� t � :�c��end avold- ance, buflnfhls case, Imakeaverydellberafeexcepflon. Theonlyfru[effecflvemefhodfordeallngwlfhasoclopafh youhaveldenflnedl � | � �d��ah� , �l� o�l¡e� lr�myrllfe alfogefher. Soclopafhsllve complefelyoufsldeoffhesoclal o t �ndfhereforefolncludefhemlnrelaflonshlpsot ofhersoclalarrangemenfs lsperllous �eglnfhls excluslon offhemlnfheconfexfofy�tro� relaflonshlpsandsoclal llfe.Youwlllnofhurlanyone'sfeellngs.Sfrangeaslfseems, andfhouµ fheymayfgfoprefendof|�seyclopaths d�nofha\� �psuchfeellngs1ohurt. - Y -ayneverb« �blef� �keyourfamllyandfrlends undersfand whyyou are avoldlnga parflcular lndlvldual. Soclopafhylssurprlslng|ydlfnculffosee,andevenharder foexplaln.Avoldhlmanyway. Iffofalavoldance ls lmposslble, ¿ akeplans focome a� closeasyoucanfofh�goaloffofalavoldance.[ Û. Question your ten d ency to pity too easi l y. Respecfshouldbereservedforfheklndandfhemorally courageous.Pity lsanofhersoclallyvaluableresponse, �nd lfshouldbe reservedforlnnocenlpeoplewho �r� lngen- ulnepalnorwhoh�� fallenonmlsforfune.If,lnsfead, you Jndyourse|foffenplpl ng������e �h��o�slsfenflyhurfs ¸youorofherpeople, andwhoacflvelycampalgnsforyour sympafhy, fhe chances are close fo I00 percenf fhafyou aredeallngwlfhasoclopafh. ) 50 T H E S O C I O P ATH N E XT D O O R Relafed fo fhls�I recommend fhaf you severely ch�l- lengeyourneedfobepo l ite lnabsolufel ¸ a|l s ¡ f��� � o� ¯ normal adulfs ln our culfure, belng whaf we fhlnk ofas ¨clvlllzed¨ ls|lke arellex, andoffenwe nndourselvesbe- lng aufomaflcally decorous even when someone has en- rag�,repeafedlylledfous,o�nguraflvelysfabbe _� fh back. Soclopafhs fake huge advanfage of fhls aufo- maflccourfesylnexplolflve slfuaflons. Do nof be afrald fo be unsmlllng and calmly fo fhe polnf. I0. Do not tr to re d eem t h e unre d eema b l e. Second¦fhlrd,fourfh,andnffh)chancesareforpeople whopossess consclence. Ifyouare deallngwlfh a person whohasnoconsclence,knowhowfos�allowhardandcuf yourlosses. Afsomepolnf,mosfofusneedfo leamfhe lmportanf, lfdlsappolnflng, llfe |essonfhaf, nomafferhowgoodour lnfenflons,we cannofconfrolfhe behavlor-let·ln¯efhe chara ¿ fet:fmcfures-ofofhe� peop!en fhls facf of humanllfe,andavoldfhron_¯ungcaughfuplnfhe sameamblflonhe has-foco�;� . _ 1you¯nof _ lre � o:ntro , uf lnsfead wanf fo h e l p people,fhenhel g lyose ¸� nf�be elped. Iftl¯youwl¯hndfhls doesnoflncludefheperso _ · �h� has noconsclence. The soclopafh's behavlor ls nofyour faulf, nof ln any waywIa so ev«r.Ifís aÌsO nofyourmlsslon.Your �ls�lon¯ you�ownllfe� II. Never agree, out o f pity or f or any ot h er, reason, to h e l p a so- cTO P at h �;The;� e ' c h ar � c t; ;--' - ¨Pleasedon'ffell, ¨ offenspokenfearfulIyandwlfhgreaf ª " )5) ' · + ' | _ ~~� MARTHA S TOUT gnashlng offeefh, ls fhe frademarkpleaoffhleves, chlld abusers-andsoclopafhs. Donof|lsfenfofhlsslrensong. Ofherpeopledesenefo bewamedmorefhansoclopafhs deservefohaveyoukeepul�se cr�ts. . Ifsomeone w fho�f ��±�l�� · c-í�slsfs fhafyou ¨owe¨ hlm orher, recal|whafyou are abouffo read here ¨You oweme¨��b-e�fhesfa�da�d llne�ís�clopafhs.�rf|�u- · sands ofyears, qtilfe llferally, and ls sflll so. If ls whaf Raspuflnfoldfhe empressofRussla. If lswhaf Hannahs fafher lmplled fo her affer her eye-openlng conversaflon wlfhhlmaffheprlson. \ We fendfo experlence ¨You owe me'' as a compelllng¸ ¸ c|alm, buflflsslmply �otfru�.Donofllsfen�Als�,lgnore + ~�v?· ¹ ¬ fhe+n�fhafgoes, ¨Youare]usfllkeme. ¨You arenof. I2. De f en d your psyc h e, Do nof allow someone wlfhouf consclence, or even a sfrlngofsuchpeople, foconvlnceyoufhafh�manlµls a fallure. Mosfhum�nþelngs d poss�ss consclence. Mosf - . - º� -,w humanbelngsare ablefolove. ´ ì3. Living we ll u t h e b est revenge. `` Epioge IsflllmeefwlfhHannahoccaslonally. Herfafherwasparoledfromprlson,bufshehasnofseeuhlm,or evenspokenwlfhhlm,lnfhelasfslxyears.;ls|oss,andfhereasons forlf,remalnasourceoffremendoussadnessforher. · · ·` ´´ Hermofher·ndfathe: · �reno«dlvorc�a, d����f · fo hls�lenf crlmlnal acflvlfles, whlch Hannah's mofher andfhe resf ofsoclep ·· · �� ' ¯ ) 52 ¯ T HE S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R stlllrefusetoacknowledge,buttothefactthatshefoundhlmlnbed wlthanlneteen-year-oldformerstudent. În testlmonyto her lntelllgence and her strength, Hannah nn- ishedmedlcalschoolwlthhonors. ßutshesoondlscoveredtheobvl- t . ous�thatbelngadoctorhadbeenherfather'sambltlonforher,not her own. He hadconslderedthlstobethehelghtofprestlge. Agalnsttheodds, Hannahhasheldontoherablllptofeelclose t 9 peoplewhoarelovlngandtrustworlhy, andalsoontoadrysense ofhumor.Whenshelehmedlclne,forexample,shetoldmeshehad /realizedthatthemedlcaloath,¨Flrst,donoharm, ¨ slmplydldnotnt hetfatheral all. Sh · e applled1o and was accepted by several law schools. She cho � etoaltendonethatoffers aspecla|lzatlonlnadvocacyandhu- manrlghts. )5j h | h L the ongms of conS C lence Why should any animal, of on its own, specifed and labeled by all sorts of signals as its individual self choose to give up its life in aid of someone else? -Lewis Thomas b lncewehavelfonexcellenfaufhorlfyfhafnafurelsredlnfoofh andclaw,whyare al|humanbelngsnofkll|ers |lke Hannah'sfa- fher?Whydomosfofus, mosfoffheflme, operafe accordlngfo a sevenfhsensefhafdlrecfs usnoffo kl|l, evenwhenwe mlghfpronf lnsomewayfromdolng so?Andlesserfransgresslons, foo.Whydo weusuallyfee|gul|pwhenwesfea|,or|le,orhurtofherpeople? Yc have a|readydlscussedwhaf causes soclopafhy, and so lf ls only falr fo address fhe fwln quesfion. Whaf causes consclence? Fromacertalnpolnfofvlew, fhlslnqulglsnofnere|yparal|e|, lfls acfual|yfhebefferandmorebaßllngquesflon. Slnce Darwln pub- llshedTe Origin of Species, lnI8ó9, muchofsclenflncfheorlzlnghas consldered fhaf all llvlng fhlngs, lncludlng human belngs, have evolved accordlngfofhe lawofnafural selecflon.Accordlngfofhls |aw,knownmorepopularlyas¨fhelawoffhe]ungle, ¨anycharacfer- lsflcfhafenhancessunlva|andreproducflon¦andfhereforefhecon- flnuance oflfsowngeneflccomponenfs)wlllfendfo remalnlnfhe ¯ ) 54 ¯ T H E S OC, l O PAT H N E XT' D O O.R populaflon. Ifaphyslcalfralf orabehavloralfendencybesfowsfhls fellclfoussunlvaladvanfageonlndlvldualsforcounflessgeneraflons, lnmanyslfuaflonsandacrosshabltafs, lfmay, lncremenfallyand ln fhecourseoftlmelmmemorlal, becomepartoffhesfandardgeneflc blueprlnfforfhespecles. Accordlng fo fhe law of nafural selecflon, flgers have claws, chameleons change colors, rafs avold open spaces, possums play dead, and apes have blgbralns because flgerswlfhclaws, camou- ilagedllzards,secreflverodenfs, playacflngpossums, andvegsmart prlmafes fend fo sutvlve longer and so make more bables fhan fhelr peers do. ln furn, fhese bables sutvlve beffer and reproduce more offen fhan fhelr less fortunafe playmafes who are nof ge- neflcally endowed wlfh nafural weapons, camouilage fechnlques, survlval-promoflnganxlefy,fheafrlcalablllp, orsuperlorlnfelllgence. ßuf accordlngfo fhls ufferly amorallawoffhe]ungle, ofwhaf posslble use fo fhe lndlvldualmembers ofa predafogspecles-for humanbelngs are fechnlcallypredafors-arefhe llmlfaflons and ln- ferrupflonsofapowerfulmoralsense?lmaglne,forexample,agreaf whlfesharkwlfhademandlngconsclence.Howlongwouldshellve? Whaf, fhen, canconcelvably befhe evoluflonaryorlglns ofhuman consclence? Lefuspuffhlsexraordlnagquesflonanofherway. Plcfurepeo- plesfrandedonasmall,remofelslandwlfhllmlfedresources.lnfhe longrun,�hafklndoflndlvlduallsmorellkelyfo sutvlve�anhon- esf, moral person, or someone rufhless llke Sklp? The klnd and empafhlc]ackle Rubensfeln, or Doreen Llffleneld? Sydney, orfhe unremlfflngly seh-lnvolved Luke? Hannah, or Hannah's fafher? If fherewereafew ofhers onfhelslandforfhesurvlvorsfomakeba- bleswlfh-and glvenfhafsoclopafhyls afleasfparflallygeneflcally defermlned-over a greaf manygeneraflons, mlghfwe nof end up wlfhan lslandpopulafedmalnlybypeoplewhopossessed no con - sclence?Thenwouldnoffhlspopulaflonofsoclopafhsproceedwlfh- ouf a second fhoughf fo deplefe fhe lsland's resources complefely, - )55 ~ . +· MAR T HA S T OUT andalldle?Andlf,fofheconfrag,peoplewlfhconsclenceweresflll fo be found on fhe lsland, wh�r � llfe was fraglle and rufhlessness paldoff, whaf lnfhenafuralworldcouldposslblyhave beenfosfer- lngfhelrmoralsense? Preclsely on accounf offhls seemlng| lmposslble challenge fo evoluflonag fheog, nafurallsfs, socloblologlsfs, comparaflve psy- chologlsfs,andphllosophershavelongbeenlnferesfedlnfheorlglns ofunselnshnesslnhumansandlnofheranlmals.Wheneverwecare- fullyobservefhe acflons offhe so-called hlgheranlmals,we see an apparenflylrreconcllabledlchofomybefweenselnshsurvlvallsmand lnfense soclal lnferesf. And of course, nowhere ls fhls dlchofomy more exfremefhan lnfhe human specles.We compefe feroclously, andwefeachourchlldrenfocompefe.We nnancewarsandweapons ofmass desfrucflon And we alsofund foundaflons, soclal welfare programs, and homeless shelfers, and fg fo feach our chlldren~ fhosevegsamechlldren-fobe klnd. Our specles has produced bofh a Napoléon and a Mofher Teresa.ßufaccordlngfofundamenfallsfevoluflonagfheog,Mofher Teresa shouldneverhave been bom, because nelfhercharlpnora senseofgoodandevllwouldseemfohaveanythlngafallfodowlfh fhelawoffhe]ungle. Sowhafls golngonhere?As Davld Paplneau askedlnhlsNew Yor k Tmes revlewofMaffRldley'sbook T e Origins o f Vrtue, ¨Ifnlce guys always nnlshedlasf when our ancesforswere scrabbllngaroundforfoodonfheArlcansavanna,whydoesmoral- lpcomesonafurallyfousnow?¨ And humans are hardlyfheonlyanlmalswho canbe unselnsh. Thomson's gazelles¨sfof¨ ¦ leapupanddownconsplcuously) when fhey see a predafor, decreaslngfhelrchances of lndlvldual survlval buflncreaslngfhechancesfhaffheherdwlllgefaway. Chlmpanzees share fhelr meaf, and someflmes even fhelr mosf valued frulf. AccordlngfopsychoblologlsfFransdeWaal,aravenwlllcommunl- cafefhepreclousdlscovegofacarcasswlfhloudcallsfofheßock, maklnglfselfasfandouffowolves. ) 55 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R Whenltcomesto survlvlng, clearlythere ls acertalnconi|lctof lnterestbetweenthe lndlvldual andthe herd/communlpnlock, and argumentsconcemlngtheorlglnofwhaievolutlonappsychologlsts call ¨altrulstlcbehavlors¨ have generallycentered aroundthe unit o f se l ection lnevolutlon. Doesnaturalselectlon ¨choose¨ onlylndlvldu- als for survlval, or can selectlon perhaps operate at tIe level of groups,thusfavorlngthesurvlvalofwholepopulatlonsoverothers? If¨survlvalofthenttest¨appllesonlytothelndlvldualastheunlt ofselectlon, the evolutlon ofunselnshness ls almost lmposslble to explaln,forthe same reasonthatcutthroatSklp,Doreen,Luke,and Hannah'sfather, as lndlvlduals,wouldlndeedbemorellkelytoout- lasttherestofusonadesertlsland.ßutlftheunltofselectlonlsthe group as a whole, then a cenaln am � smcaT ex- µlned.Qµ, _ ��uçc � ¡se � ��s¬o·� ¯ _ kecareofoneanotherlsmuchmorellkelytosurvlve as a group thanacollectlve oflndlvldualswho canonlycompetewlthor lgnoreoneanother. Intermsofsurvlval,thesuccessfulgroupwlllbe theonethatlsoperatlngtosomeextenta�anentlp, ratherthanthe grouplnwhlcheveryslnglelndlvlduallslooklngoutfornumberone, totheexcluslonofeveponee|se. Group selectlon, andalllt lmplles about ourtrue nature, has beenanextremelycontroverslalldeaamongevolutlonlsts,reÐectlng thefactthatthetheopofevolutlonltselflsstlllevolvlng. Earlythe- orles of group selectlon assumed the posslblllp that, ln the be- glnnlng, there had been coheslve group� of altrulstlc lndlvlduals ¦ mammals thatemlttedwarnlngbehavlors, blrdsthatwould slgnal food to the ilock, prlmates who were generous, and so fonh) for group selectlontofavor lnthe nrstplace. Thls poorly explalnedas- sumptlon-aggregatlonsofaltrulstsfromtheclearblues|-was lr- rltatlngtomanyscholars,whobestowedonltthe damnlng labelof weaksclence. In I966, GeorgeC.WllllamsottheUnlversltyofChlcagopub- llshedanow-classlctexentltledA d aptation an d Natura l Se l ection, ln )57 MAR T HA S T OUT whlchheatguedlhalallhoughgtoupselecllonwaslheotellcallypos- slble, llwasunllkelylooccutlnnalute.Wllllamswtolelhalnellhet lhegtoupnor lhelndlvldualwaslhefundamenlalunllofnalutalse- lecllon, malnlalnlnglhallheltue unll ofselecllonwaslhe gene ll- self. Fotctealuteslhalteptoducesexually, asopposedlootganlsms lhalgenetaleclones,lhe genelslheonlyunlllhalself-tepllcalesex- aclly¦ mote otl�ss)lhtough llme. Chlldten ate nolexaclcoples of lheltpatenls,bulgenesare faltlypteclsetepllcasoflhemselves.And so, Wllllamslnslsled,lhegenemuslbelheonlyunlllhatnalutalse� lecllon can efnclenlly use. ln olhet wotds, ¨sutvlval oflhe nllesl¨ meanlsutvlvaloflhenlleslgenes¦ ottalhet,lhelnfotmalloncoded lnlhem) , nolnecessatllylhesutvlvaloflhenllesllndlvldualanlmals otgtoups. FotWllllams, lndlvlduals andgtoupswetelheteonlylo setveaslempotagenvltonmenlsfotgenellclnfotmallon. \ And lenyeats lalet, ln I976, ln a sllll-populat book called T e Se l f s h Gene, Rlchatd Dawklns extended Wl|llams's gene-cenleted lheogandblologlslY D. Hamlllon'snollonof k in se l ection, whlch patadoxlcally teexplalns lhe evolullon ofunselnshbehavlotsal lhe leveloflhelndlvldua|bylnvoklnglheldeaof¨selnshness¨allhelevel oflhe gene. Thls lsa talhetsltange nollon, and desetves some ex- planallon. Klnselectlonmeanslhalpleces oflhelndlvldual'sgenellcblue- ptlnl ¦lhe only blologlcal aspecl of lhe lndlvldual lhal slands a chance ofbelng¨lmmotlal, ¨solo speak) wlllfate betletlflhe lndl- vldualguatds nolonlyhls own sutvlval and teptoducllon odds bul also lhose of olhet lndlvlduals who shate some of hls genellc makeup Ifhebehavesgenetous|yandptolecllvelylowatdhlsblood tclallves, lheltenhancedsutvlvalandteptoducllontalewllllnctease lhe numbets ofhlsowngenes lnfulute genetallons, slnce hlstela- llvesandhehavemanygeneslncommon. Ofcoutse,lheexptesslon¨selnshgene¨lsnollnlendedlolmply lhalDNAlsalhlnklng,feellnglhlngwllhllsown desltes. Dawklns uses ¨selnshgene¨ asamelaphot. He meanslhal lhechatacletlsllcs - !58 T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D OOR ofaspeclesaredefermlnedbygenesfhafcauselndlvldualsfofhlnk, feel,andbehavelnwaysfhafmaxlmlzefheexlsfenceoffhosesame genes ln fhe gene pool, regardlessoffhe eûecfs offhosefhoughfs, feellngs, andbehavlorsonfhe lndlvldualsfhemselves. Forexamp|e, lf mybralnallows mefo formemoflonalaffachmenfs, and Ifeelso warmlyfoardmycouslnsfhafIsharemyfrulfwlfhalloffhem,my lndlvldua|llfe may be shorfened, buf on average,fhe oddsfhafmy geneswlllconflnue lnfhe populaflonhaveacfuallybeenmulflplled, becausemygenesaresharedlnparfbyeachofmycouslns.Andfhe genes fhatIhave donafedfofhegene poo| bylengfhenlngfhe|lves ofmycou�lnsmaywelllncludefhegenesfhafcause mefofeelemo- flonal affachmenfs. Inofherwords,fhegenesforemoflonalaffachmenfare ¨selnsh¨ lnfhe sensefhaffheyexlsffo enhancefhelrownprollferaflon,and fheydofhlswlfhoufregardfofhewe|l-belngorevenfheconflnued exlsfenceoffhe lndlvldualcreafure.A lnfhefamousquofaflonby Samuelßufler, ¨Achlckenls an egg'swayofmaklnganofheregg. ¨ Accordlngfo manyevoluflonlsfs, becausewe sharefhe greafesf percenfage ofour geneflc complemenf»lfh our parenfs, our slb- llngs, andourchlldren, klnselecflonaccounfs forfhe facffhafwe fend fo be more seliIess toward ourparenfs, slbllngs, andchlldren fhanfowa ' d moredlsfanfrelaflves andsfrangers. Furfhermore, kln selecflonexplalnswhywe nurfure and profecfourchlldrendesplfe fhefacffhafdolngso lessens ourownenergles and our lndlvldua| survlvalresources. Fromfhlsvanfagepolnf, conscience lsfhegenefl- callyprogrammedmechanlsmfhafmakessurewedonoflgnorefhe exfrallffle packages ofour geneflc maferlalfhaf]usf happen fo be walklngaroundonfeefofherfhanours. A forourgeneflcallydeslgned sense ofconsclencefoward fhe aforemenfloned dlsfanf relaflvesa�dsfrangers-gene-cenferedevo- luflonlsfsproposefhaffhelrverslon ofnafural se|ecflonwouldhave favoredgenesfhafresulfedlnºreclprocalalfrulsm, ¨ornon-zero-sum ¦wln-wln)behavlorssuchasfhedlvlslonof|abor,frlendseeklng, co- - !59 MAR T HA S T OUT operaflon, andfhe avoldanceofconÐlcf. Thesebehavlorswouldbe medlafed by emoflons such as graflfude, compasslon, and con- sclence,andsoemoflonssuchasfhesewouldhavehadanadvanfage wherefhenafuralselecflonofgeneswasconcerned. ßuflnarevlvaloffheldeaofgroupselecflon,ofherevoluflonary fheorlsfs, amongfhemDavldSloanWllsonandSfephen]ayGould, have lmplored bofhfhe blologlcal and fhe behavloral sclences fo conslderfhafevoluflonmaylnfacfhavefakenplaceonmorelevels fhan]usffhe gene-cenfered one. Nafurallsf Gould reexamlnes fhe evldencefrompaleonfologandmalnfalnsfhafnafuralselecflonop- erafes onuulflple |evels, from fhe gene fo fhe lndlvldual fo fhe group, andeven-orespeclally-fhe specles. In addlflon, hemakes fhe case fhaf forces operaflng ln a much less lncremenfal fashlon fhannafuralselecflon,andfarmorerapldlyfhanflmelmmemorlal~ evenfsfhaflncludeglobalornear-globalcafasfrophes÷-have slgnln- canflyaûecfedfhecourseofevoluflonandmaydosoagaln. Thevarlouslevels ofnafuralselecflonarellkelyafoddswlfhone anofher, parflcularly wlfh respecffo alfrulsflc behavlors and emo- flonssuchasconsclence.Affheleveloffhegeneandalsoaffhelevel offhegroup, consclencelsadapflve,andnafuralselecflonwouldfa- vorlf. ßufaffheleveloffhelndlvldualcreafure,fheabsence ofcon- sclencemaysomeflmes beevenmore adapflve for survlval. Infhls way, nafurewouldconsfanflybefosferlngconsclencelnmosfofus, whlle, afa dlfferenflevel,conflnuallysupporflngasmallerpercenf- ageoflndlvldualswhofhrlvewlfhouffheneuroblologlcalunderpln- nlngsofemoflonalaffachmenfandconsclence. A evoluflonlsf Davld Sloan Wllson has sald, ¨There are com- pelllnglnfellecfualandpracflcalreasonsfo dlsflngulshbefweenbe- havlorsfhafsucceedbyconfrlbuflngfogroup-levelorganlzaflonand behavlorsfhafsucceedbydlsrupflnggroup-levelorganlzaflon.Thaf lswhaffhewords 'se|nsh' and 'unselnsh, ' 'moral' and ' lmmoral' are allabouflnevegdaylanguage. ¨ WhafWllsondescrlbeslnthlswayls fhe same bewllderlngand all-foo-famlllardlchofomy. fhe ma]orlp, - ! 70 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R who fhlnk and feel ln ferms ofmlnlmlzlng conÐlcf, sharlngwhen necessag,andllvlngouffhelrllveswlfhfhepeoplefheylove,andfhe mlnorlp, who prosperfrom conÐlcf, andforwhomllfe ls nomore andnolessfhanaconsfanfcompeflflonfordomlnance. Sowenndfhafevenonfhemosfreducflonlsflcblologlcallevel, fhesfrugglebefweengoodandevlllsmoreanclenffhanhumanklnd. However,fheconfesflsllkelyforeachlfsconcluslonwlfhus,andlfs ulflmafe resoluflonwlll depend onfhewayswe meeffhe fowerlng challengeshumanklndhasbroughflnfofheworld, amongfhemfhe problemofsoclopafhy. Inwaysweare]usfbeglnnlngfoundersfand, nafuralselecflonhasfavoredacertalnamounfofalfrulsmlnfhehu- manpopulaflonandhashelpedfoshapeahumanspeclesendowed wlfhfhecapaclfyfoloveandbondfogefherlnposlflve lnfenflonby fhesflllsmallvolceofconsclence.Afleasf96percenfofusarefun- damenfallyfhus.Whafwewlllendupdolngwlfhfhespeclessurvlval problemscreafedbyfheofher4percenfls, afpresenf,unknowable. Hein's Dilemma Turnlng now from evoluflonag psycholog fo developmenfal psy- cholog,we comefofhelnferesflngquestlonofhowconsclencede- velops ln human chlldren. Does consclence flower nafurally ln chlldren's mlnds asfhelrofhermenfal ablllfles lncrease,ordo chll- dren acqulre and ad]usf fhelr moral sense asfhey experlence llfe, from lessonsfaughfbyfamlly, soclep, andculfure? Consclenceasanemoflonhasnofbeensfudledlnfhlsway, buf wecanlearnmuchfromwhaflsknownabouflfslnfellecfualparfner, mora l reasoning. Moralreasonlnglsfhefhoughfprocessfhafaffends consclenceandhelpslfdecldewhaffodo.Ifwefry,wecanexpress ourmoralreasonlnglnwords, concepfs ,andprlnclples. ]oe was engaged ln moral reasoning as he drove along ln hls Audl, alongwlfhhls formenfed consclence, andfrledfo ngure ouf !7! MART HA S TOUT whefher he should go fo an lmporfanf meeflng af workor refum homefofeedhlsdog, Reebok. C onscience, asweknow,was]oe's ln- fervenlng sense ofobllgaflon based lnhls emoflonalaffachmenffo hls dog.Mora l reasoning wasfheprocessbywhlchhedefermlned]usf whaffhafobllgaflonconslsfedof,andhowfoaccompllshlf.¦ Exacfly how hunggwlllfhe dog be?Could he dle offhlrsf?Whlch lsmore lmporfanf,fhemeeflngorReebok?Whaflsfherlghffhlngfodo?) Where does lf come from, fhls nearly unlversal ablllfy fo ask moral and efhlca|quesflons of ourselves, abouf everyfhlng from whefherornof fofeedfhedogfowhefherornofLolaunchanuc|ear mlsslle? Thesysfemaflcsfudyofmoralreasonlngbeganlnfhe I930s wlfh Swlsspsychologlsf]eanPlagef. In one ofhls mosflniluenflalworks, T e Mora l Ju d gment o f t h e C h i l d , Plagefanalyedchlldren'sperspec- flvesonaufhorlfy, |ylng,sfeallng,andfheconcepfof]usflce. Hebe- ganbyrecordlngdefalledobservaflons ofhowchlldrenafdlfferenf ages concelved ofru|es and p|ayed games, and ofhow fhey lnfer- prefedmoraldllemmas. Plagef'sapproachwas ¨sfrucfura|, ¨meanlng fhafhebellevedhumanbelngsdevelopedpsychologlcallyandphl|o- sophlcally ln a progresslve fashlon, each cognlflve-developmenfal sfepbulldlngonfheprevlousone,andfhaffhecourseoffhlsdevel- opmenfproceeded lnfhesameorderforallchlldren. Pla gefdescrlbedfwogeneralsfagesofmoraldevelopmenf. The nrsfsfagelsfhe¨morallpofconsfralnf, ¨ or¨moralreallsm, ¨lnwhlch chlldrenobeyrulesbecauserulesareregardedaslnalferable.Affhls b|ack-and-whlfe sfage of reasonlng, young chlldren belleve fhaf a parflculardeedlselfherabso|ufelyrlghforabsolufelywrongandfhaf peoplewl|llnevlfab|ybepunlshedforwrongbehavlorfhaflsdlscov- ered, an expecfaflon Plagef ca||ed ¨lmmlnenf]usfice. ¨The second Plag�flansfagelsfhe¨morallfyofcooperaflon, ¨or¨reclproclp. ¨Af fhlssfage,chlldrenvlewrulesasrelaflveandsub]ecffoalferaflonun- dercerfalnclrcumsfances,andfhelrconcepfof]usflceglvesconsld- ¬ !72 ¯ T H E S OC I OP AT H N E XT D O O R etaflon fo people's lnfenflons. Oldet chlldten can ¨decenfet¨ fhelt ' l , polnfofvlew ¦make lf l�ss egocenftlc) , and motal tules ate undet- � sfoodaslmpotfanffofhefuncflonlngofsoclep, tafhetfhanonlyas waysfoavoldlndlvldualbadoufcomes. ConflnulnglnfhePlageflanftadlflon,andlnfluencedalsobyfhe wotkoffheAmetlcanphllosophet]ohnDewey,psychologlsfanded- \ ucafotLawtenceKohlbetgbeganhlswotkonmotal]udgmenflnfhe |afe I960s, af Hatvatd Unlvetslp's Cenfet fot Motal Educaflon. Kohlbetg'samblflonwasfodlscovetwhefhetotnoffheteftulywete unlvetsalsfages ofmotaldevelopmenf. Kohlbetgs fheoty ls based on lnfetvlewswlfhboys, ages slxfo slxfeen, ln fhe Unlfed Sfafes, Talwan, Mexlco, Tutkey, and fhe Yucafin. Dutlngfhese lnfetvlews, fhe chlldten llsfen�dfo fensfo- tles,eachlnvolvlngamotaldllemmaofsomeklnd.Thebesfknown offhesesfotles,allffle vlgneffe composedneatlyfotpyeats ago, ls sftlklnglyevocaflve offhecuttenfconftovetsysuttoundlngphatma- ceuflcalcotpotaflonsandfhe cosfofptesctlpflonmedlcaflons. Ifls Helnz'sdllemma,whlch, lnpataphtase,lsfhls. Helnz'swlfe ls dylng ftom atate fotm ofcancet.Accotdlngfo fhe doctots,fhetels one dtugfhafcouldsavehet,atadlumcom- poundfhafadtugglsf ln Helnz'sfownhas tecenflydlscoveted. 1helngtedlenfsfotfhedtugateexpenslvefobeglnwlfh,andfhe dtugglsf ls chatglng fen flmes whaf lf cosfs hlm fo make fhe medlclne.1bedtugglsfpaysfwo hundteddollats fotfhetadlum andchatgeshlscusfometsfwofhousanddo|latsfotasmalldose. Helnz goes fo evegone he can fhlnk of and asks fo bottow money. Sflll, he ends upwlfh on|yabouf one fhousand do||ats. Helnzexp|alnsfofhedtugglsffhafhlswlfewl||dlewlfhouffhe dtug, and asks hlmfo se||fhe medlclneafacheapetptlceotfo fake paymenf |afet. ßuffhe dtugglsf tep|les, ¨No, l dlscoveted fhedtug,andI'mgolngfomakemoneyftomlf. ¨Helnzbecomes ) 73 MAR T HA S T OUT desperafe.Hebreaksinfofhedrugglsf'ssforeandsfealsfhedrug forhlswlfe. ShouldHelnzhavedonefhaf? Kohlbergwasprlmarllylnferesfednoflnfhechlldren'syesorno answersfo ¨Shou|dHelnzhave donefhaf?¨buflnfhereasonlngbe- hlndfhelrresponses,whlch he recorded. ßased on hlsmanylnfer- vlews, he proposed fhaf chlldren foI¡ow a unlversal course from self-lnferesffoprlnclpledbehavlorfhafcanbedescrlbedbyafhree- levelschemeof moraldevelopmenf.Thefhreelevelsofmoraldevel- opmenfrequlrelncreaslnglycomplexandabsfracffhoughfpafferns, each level dlsplaclngfhe prevlous one as fhe chlld mafures cognl- flvely. Accordlngfo Kohlberg'sfheopof moraldevelopmenf, seven- fo fen-year-oldchlldrenreasononfhe ¨preconvenflonal level,¨afwhlch fheydeferfo adulfaufhorlpand obeyrules based onlyonexpecfa- flons ofpunlshmenfandreward. Kohlbergconslderedfhaffhe pre- convenflonalreasonlngofyoungchl|drenwasessenflally¨premoral. ¨ Themosfpplcal¨premoral¨responsefoHelnz'sdllemmawouldbe, ¨No, Helnzshouldn'fhavedonefhaf,becausenowhe'llbepunlshed. ¨ ßeglnnlngafaboufagefen, chlldrenmovefofhe ¨convenflonal level¨ofmoralreasonlng¦convenflonallnfhesoclefalsense) , when fhelrbehavlorlsguldedbyfheoplnlonsofofherpeopleandadeslre foconform.Affhlslevel,obeylngaufhorlpbecomesavaluelnlfself, wlfhoufreferenceelfherfolmmedlaferewardsandpunlshmenfsor fo hlgherprlnclp|es.Kohlbergbellevedfhafbyfheflmeachl|dwas fhlrteen, mosfmora|quesflonswereansweredonfheconvenflonal level. The convenflona| reasonlng abouf Helnz's fheff wou|d be, ¨No, he shouldn'fhavesfo|enfhe drug. Sfeallngls agalnsffhe law. Everyone knows fhaf. ¨ Someflmedurlngadolescence,accordlngfoKohlberg,afewpeo- pledevelop beyondfheconvenflonallevelfofhefhlrd andhlghesf level,whlchhecalled¨posfconvenflonalmorallp. ¨Thlsfhlrdlevelre- ÷ ) 74 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R qulres fhe lndlvldualfo formulafe absfracf moralprlnclples andfo acfonfhemfosafls[hlsownconsclence ,rafherfhanfogalnfheap- provalofofhers.Affheposfconvenfional level,moralreasonlngfran- scends fhe concrefe rules ofsoclep, rules fhaf fhe lndlvldual now undersfandsare ohenlnconiIlcfwlfhoneanofheranyway. Hls rea- sonlngls lnformedlnsfeadbyiluld, absfracfconcepfs such as free- dom,dlgnlp,]usflce,andrespecfforllfe.WhereHelnzlsconcerned, a person reasonlngaffhe posfconvenflonal level mlghf well lnslsf fhafhumanllfewasmorevaluablefhanmoney, andfhaffhesancflp ofllfewasamorallawfhafsupersededsoclepsrulesaboufsfeallng. ¦ ¨Yes, lf's a dlfnculf problem, buf lf's undersfandable fhaf Helnz wouldsfealfhellfesavlngdrugfhaffhedrugglsfwaswlfhholdlngfor reasonsofmoney¨) Kohlberg belleved fhaf mosf people never complefelyachleved posfconvenflonalmoralreasonlng,evenlnadulfhood, becausewhen he lnfervlewed olderboysandyoungmen lnhls sfudles, he found fhaf fewer fhan I0 percenf offhem offered clear level-fhree re� sponses. A a foofnofe here, Ì would menflon fhaf fhls vlew of Kohlbergs, lfrlghf, mlghf help fo explaln fhe passlngsfrange facf fhaf moral oufrage from fhe publlc ls relaflvely llmlfed when lf comes fo fhe aforemenfloned wealfhy pharmaceuflcal companles. Perhapsmosfofus,Amerlcansespeclally, arelncllnedfoaccepffhe drugglsf'sproprlefagclalm,¨I dlscoveredfhedrug, andI' mgolngfo make moneyfrom lf.¨Honorlngownershlpabove allofherfeafures ofa slfuaflon lsa parf ofconvenflonal moral reasonlng~or lf lsaf leasfamongmen ralsed lnNorfh/merlca. Enter Gender and Culture WhaffacfordoesKohlberg'ssysfemofmoraldevelopmenfleaveouf, even af lfs hlghesf level? Answer Helnz's relaflonshlp wlfh hls spouse,whlchlsappreclablymorepersonal,andperhapsmorecom- ! 75 MART HA S T OUT pelllng, fhan even fhe mosf evolved undersfandlng offhe general sancflpof|lfe. And whaf, mosf llkely, l sfhe ma]or ilaw ln Kohlberg's overall research deslgn? If lsfhafwhenhe orlglnallyaskedhlsmoralques- flons,heaskedfhemonlyofboys. Koh|berg, abrllllanfsoclalsclen- flsf,somehowmanagedfooverlookhalffhehumanrace. Thlsoverslghfwasaddressedln I982, lnagroundbreaklngbook byCarolGllllgan, enflfled In a Di f erent Voice: Psyc h o l ogica l T h eory an d Womens Deve l opment. Asfudenf ofKohlberg's,Gllllgantoo»as lnferesfed ln advanclnga unlversal sfage fheopofmoraldevelop- menf, buf she sfrong|y dlsagreed wlfh fhe llmlfed confenf offhe moral levels Kohlberg had proposed. Kohlberg, she sald, had pro- ducedamodelofmoralreasonlngfhafwasbasedonan¨efhlcof]us- flce, ¨8 preoccupaflonwlfh¨fherules, ¨befheyconcrefeorabsfracf. GllllganbellevedfhafKoh|berghadderlvedonlyan¨efhlcof]usflce¨ becausehehadlnfervlewedon|ymales, andfhaflfwomenwereln- fervlewed, averydlùerenfsysfemofldealswouldemerge.Shelnfer- vlewedwomenwhowereuaklngmomenfousdeclslonslnfhelrllves and dlscovered fhaf fhese women were fhlnklng abouf fhe caring fhlng fo do, rafher fhan ponderlng ¨fhe rules. ¨ Women, declded Gllllgan, reasoned morally �ccordlng fo an ¨efhlc ofcare, ¨ rafher fhanamale¨efhlcof]usflce. ¨Shefheorlzedfhaffhlswassobecause glrlsldenfl[wlfhfhelrmofhersandfendfohaveexperlenceswlfhln fhefamllyfhafemphaslzelnferpersonalresponslveness. Gl|llganarguede|oquenf|yfhafnelfhervanfagepolnfwassupe- rlorfofheofher,buffhaffhefwo efhlcsslmp|ylnformedfwodlffer- enfvolces. Men spoke ofaffachmenffosoclefa|andpersonalrules, andwomenspoke ofaffachmenffo people. Women's mora|devel- opmenf,Gllllgansald,wasbasednofsolelyonchangeslncognlflve capablllpbuf also onmafuraflonalchanges lnfhewayfhe selfand fhesoclalenvlronmenfwerepercelved A woman's posfconvenflona| ]udgmenf regardlng Helnz's dllemmawould referfofhe lmporfance ofhlsrelaflonshlpwlfhhls ) 75 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R wlfe, andmlghfasserfaswe|lfhaffhedrugglsf'sclalmwas lmmoral because he was allowlngsomeone fo dle when he cou|d do some- fhlng fo prevenf lf. Gll|lgan was persuaded fhaf posfconvenflona| reasonlnglnwomenfocusedonfhevalueofdolngnoharmfose|for ofhers,whlchlsmorespeclncandrelaflonal,andlnmanywaysmore demandlng,fhanaprlnclp|esuchasfhe generalsancflpofllfe. ThanksfoCarolGllllgan, psychologlsfs and educafors now un- dersfand fhaf moral reasonlng has more fhan one dlmenslon and fhaf people develop mora|ly ln much more complexways fhan we nrsf belleved. Infhelasffwenfyyears, newersfudleshave shownus thafbofhwomenandmenmayusebofhanºefhlcofcare¨ andan ¨efhlcof]usflce¨lnfhelrmoralreasonlng.Thesefwovolcesspeakln complexchoruses,andgenderdlfferencesarefarmorelnfrlcafefhan aslngleunamblguousllnebefweenal|womenandal|men. We nowknowalsofhaffhereareprobablynounlversalsfagesof moral developmenf fhrough whlch a|| human belngs evephere pass, even when we dlvlde fhe human race ln half by gender. Culfural relaflvlsm exlsfs even lnfhe moral domaln. And lfmora| reasonlnghasfwodlmenslons, oneof]usflceandoneofcare, fhen whynoffhreedlmenslons, orhundreds, ormore?Whynofasmany perspecflvesasfherearehumanslfuaflons,values,andwaysforalse chlldren? One lllusfraflon of fhe slgnlncance of confexf and culfure ln mora|]udgmenflsfheworkof]oanMlllerandDavldBersoffofYale Unlverslfy. Mlllerand Bersoffhave sfudled Amerlcanchlldren and adulfs from New Haven, Connecflcuf, as compared wlfh Hlndu chlldrenandadulfsfromMysoreClp, lnsoufhemIndla , Theypolnf ouffhafAmerlcanculfureencourageshlghlylndlvlduallsflcvlewsof fhe self-aufonomy and personal achlevemenf for bofh boys an d glrls-versus Hlndu Indlan culfure, whlch feaches an lnferdepen- denfconcepfoffheselffobo�hsexes-fhevalueofpermanenffles fo ofher people, and of subordlnaflng one's personal amblflons fo fhegoalsoffhegroup. ¯ ) 77 ¯ MARTHA S T OUT l nfhelrsfudlesofmoraldevelopmenf, Mlllerandßersoûfound fhaf Hlndu lndlans fend fo regard lnferpersonal responslbl|lfles as soclallyenforceablemoraldufles, as opposedfofheAmerlcanvlew ofsuchfasks asoccaslonsforpersonaldeclslonmaklng. Forexam- .--` 7 p|e,whefherornoffofakecareofone'sslsferwhohasDowssyn- dromeafferone'sparenfscannolongerdosowouldbevlewedbyan Amerlcanasacholce,adeclslonfhafhadmorallmpllcaflons,bufa cholce nonefheless. The same slfuaflonwould be seen bya Hlndu Indlanasanonnegoflab|emorallmperaflve ¦dharma) , alongwlfhan expecfaflonfhaffhefamllywouldcompelfhefulnllmenfoffhlsdup lfnecessary. Furfhermore,lndlansbellevefhaflnferpersonaldupls anafuralparfofwhafmosflndlvldua|sarelncllnedtodoanyway, as opposedfoAmerlcans,whobellevefhafsoclalexpecfaflonsandper- sonalwlshes are a|mosfalways opposedfo eachofherandfhafone musfsomehowsfrlkea¨ba|ance¨befweenfhem. Such dlfferences ln bellefand early lnsfrucflon are large, and fheyfendfocreafesubsfanflalcross-culfuraldlverslplnmoralrea- sonlng.MlllerandßersoûreporffhafHlnduIndlans,bofhmenand women, developaccordlngfo a ¨dup-based perspecflve, ¨a dlmen- slon ofmora| ]udgmenf fhaf ls dlfferenf from bofh fhe ¨efhlc of ]usflce¨andfhe¨efhlcofcare. ¨Theyconclude, ¨Welnferprefourre- sulfs as lmplylng fhaf qua|lfaflvely dlsflncf ppes of lnferpersonal moral codes develop ln Amerlcan and Hlndu l ndlan culfures, re- ilecflngfheconfrasflngculfuralvlewsoffheselfemphaslzedlneach sefflng.¨ Andyef, desplfefhemanyanddlverseprocessesofmoral]udg- menfspun offbyourvarlous humanculfures, lnfhennalanalysls fhere ls somefhlng more fo fhe heart of fhe mafter, somefhlng deeper and much lessvarlable. Thls nxedpsychologlcal elemenfL our sense of an lrreconcllable confesf befween moral forces. An overallpercepflonofgoodandevllasaduallfylnhuman llfewould seem fo be comp|efe|y and asfonlshlngly unlversal ¦asfonlshlngfo soclalsclenflsfsafleasf) . Goodversusevlllsfheageless,culfure-free " ) 78 " T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D O O R human p|ot, and thc undcrtoncs oI a sccming|y univcrsa| mora| strugg|c arc rcadi|y rccognizcd by both gcndcrs in a|| cu|turcs. I wou|dcxpcctawomanIromthc south oIIndiato posscss this Iun- damcnta|scnsc oIadividcd mora| rca|m, and shc wou|d cxpcct thc samc oI mc. For cxamp|c, whcrc poor, dcspcratc Hcinz is con- ccmcd, indcpcndcntoIajudgmcnt rcgardinghowhc shou|drcso|vc his di|cmma÷whathc shou|dorshou|dnotJo÷thcrcwi|| bcagcn- cra|, iI unspokcn, agrccmcnt across cu|turcs that Hcinz, with his commitmcnt to somconc hc |ovcs, has thc highcrmora| ground as thcstorybcgins, andthatthc sc|hshdruggistisbchavingbad|y. 1hcrc is no g|oba|consistcncyin thcintc||cctua|proccssoImora| rcasoning itsc|I, in howwc thinkthrough mora| di|cmmas and dc- cidcwhatspccihca||yto do. Butisthcrcauniqinourcmotiona|rc- actiontothc mora|strugg|c bctwccngoodandcvi|, ancar-univcrsa| scvcnth scnsc that can bc rc|icd on to ignorc a|| oIour diIIcrcnccs andbordcrsî Ad iIso, howdocs itIcc|î Te Universal Bond As I bcgintowritcthc hna|scctionoIthischaptcronthcoriginsoI conscicncc, it isthc morning oI Scptcmbcr I I , 2003. I usua||y|ikc quictwhi|c Iwork, butthismorningIhavctumcdonatc|cvisionin thc othcr room so that I can hcarthc voiccs oIthc chi|drcn at thc sitc oIthc IormcrWor|d1radc1owcrs asthcy rcad thc namcs, onc byonc,oIthcpcop|cwhopcrishcdthcrc. Ear|icrthismorning,Iscnt mydaughtcroûtoschoo|,justasIdidonthcmomingoIScptcmbcr I I ¬oycarsago. 1hc diIIcrcncc isthattwoycars ago, bctwccnthc timc I scnt hcrto schoo| and thc timc shc camc homc, thc who|c wor|d hadchangcd. I noticc howcasi|ythc I|oodoIcmotion sti||comcs, thoughtwo ycars havc gonc bysinccthcn. - ! 79 " MAR T HA S T OUT CIa||thc uncxpcctcd rcactions a pcrson can havc during a ca- tastrophc, onc oIthc morc surprisingoncs Iormc was Icc|ingsud- dcn|yandvcqconscious|y|inkcdtoa||thcpcop|cI hadcvcrknown in my |iIc, Irom chi|dhood on, cvcqonc who had cvcr bccn impor- tanttomc cvcnIora|itt|cwhi|c,anyoncIorwhomIhadcvcrIc|taI- Icction. Inthcdays aItcrScptcmbcr I I , 200I, Ircmcmbcrcdpcop|c I had not sccn or cvcnthought about Iorycars or, in somc cascs, dccadcs. I sawthcirIaccsinmymindwith a|mostunncrvingc|arity. I hadno idcawhcrc manyoIthcscpcop|cwcrc, so|onghadit bccn sinccthcy wcrc in my|iIc, but I wantcd, hc|p|css|y, to pick up thc phonc and ca|| a|| oIthcm. I wantcd to askthcm howthcywcrc÷ myhigh-schoo|writingtcachcr|ongagoin Morth Caro|ina, aroom- matcIrom co||cgc, thc sohhcartcd proprictor oIa groccq whcrc I uscd to shop in Fhi|adc|phia, who wou|d givc away Iood to thosc who cou|d not aIIord it andthcn cnjoin his othcr customcrs to sc- crccy. Wcrc thcyokayî 1hosc whom I cou|d ca||, I ca||cd. Mo onc cvcnIoundthisstrangc.Wcsimp|ychcckcd inwithonc anothcr. Mora| rcasoning÷thc way wc think about mora| di|cmmas÷is anything but consistcnt and univcrsa|. It varics with agc and with gcndcr. ItdiIIcrsIromonccu|turctothc ncxt, andmost|ikc|yIrom onc rcgionorcvcn onc houscho|dto thc ncxt. Forcxamp|c, what I thinkabouttcrrorismandwhatwc shou|d doaboutitwi||probab|y bc s|ight|ydiûcrcntIromwhatmyncighborthinks, andwi|| a|most ccrtain|y bc diûcrcnt Irom thc bc|icIs oIpcop|c who arc rcmovcd Irommc byoccansandcontincnts. ButinakindoIhumanmirac|c, onc thing rcmains constantIorncar|ya|| oIus÷withsomc notab|c cxccptions÷andthatisourproIoundattachmcnttoothcrhumanbc- ings. Emotiona|attachmcnt ispartoImostoIus, downtothcvcry mo|ccu|csthatdcsign our bodics and our brains, and somctimcswc arc powcrIu||y rcmindcd oI it. Bcginning in our gcncs and spira|ing outward to a|| oIour cu|turcs, bc|icIs, and manyrc|igions, it is thc shado � oIthcwhispcroIthcbcginni ¿ goIanundcrstandingthatwc arc a||onc.Andwhatcvcritsorigins,thisis thc csscnccoIconscicncc. !80 berni e's choi ce: why cons ci ence i s better Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. -Mahatma Gandhi Ì Iyou couldbccomplctclyIrcc oIconscicncc~no moral scruplcs andnoguiltatall÷whatdoyouthinkyouwoulddowithyourliIcî Whcn I askpcoplcthisqucstion, as I oItcnhavc, thc [picalrc- sponsc is, ¨Ch wow, ¨ or ¨Ch my goodncss, ¨ Iollowcd by a silcncc duringwhichthcywrinklcthcirIaccsinmcntalcIIort, asiIsomconc hadaskcdthcmaqucstionin alanguagcthcyonlyhalI-undcrstood. 1hcnmostpcoplc grinorlaugh, sccmingly cmbarrasscd bythc au- thorityoIconscicnccinthcirlivcs,andrcplywithsomcvcrsionoI,¨I don`trcallyknowwhat I 'd do, but I'msurc itwouldn`tbcwhat I` m doingnow. ¨ Acr ¨Ch wow¨ and a bricI pausc, onc cspccially imaginativc pcrson chucklcd and said, ¨Maybc I` d bc thc dictator oI a small countq or somcthing. ¨ Hc said this as iI such an ambitionwould havc bccn smartcr and morc im,rcssivc than thc socially valuablc proIcssionalcarccrhchad in Iact pursucd. Woulditbcsmartcrnottohavc aconscicnccîWouldwc bchap- ¬ )8) MAR T HA S T OUT know that groups oI pcop|c wou|d cnd up in troub|c~ "wc|e nations oI sociopaths, cvcqonc out Ior himsc|I or hcrsc|I ¿¸¸¸qt�c . But rca|istica||y, ona pcrsona| |cvc|, wou|d you or I , as indi- bc happicrandbcttcroIIiIwc cou|dshcdthc |imitations oI Itwou|d ccrtain|y sccm so at timcs. Oishoncst pcop|c positionsoIpowcr,andcorporatcthicvcspurchascGu|Istrcams ,whi|cwcworkrcsponsib|yandmakc ¨scnsib|c¨ carpay- . But what is thc truth oIthc mattcrî From a psycho|ogica| oIvicw,dosociopathsrca||yhavcbcttcr|ivcsthanwc do, oris aconscicnccsomchowthc happicrIatcî anironica||yuti|itarianway, Irom thc bcginning, wcwcrc sc- bynaturctobcsocia|,sharingcrcaturcs,ourvcqbrainswircd cmotiona| conncctcdncss with onc anothcr, and Ior a scnsc oI nsctcncc. Cr rathcr, a|| but a Icw oIus took this path. Frohting a diIIcrcnt but cqua||y busincss|ikc sc|ccion proccss, a Icw as rogucs, apathctic to thcir brothcr and sistcr human bc- with cmotiona||ydisconncctcdbrainsthathatchcdthorough|y agcndas.|udgingIromthcvantagcoIthctwcnq-hrstccntury, |ooking through thc cycs olpsycho|og, whichoIthcsctwo an- Iactions, thc socia||yconscicntious orthc sociopathic, can wc saygothumannaturc`s bcttcrdca|î Te Losing Side of Wnning ^ ltwou|d bc diIhcu|t to rcIutc thc obscrvationthat pcop|c who arc comp|ctc|y unhampcrcd by conscicncc somctimcs achicvc powcr andwca|th, at|castIorawhi|c. 1oomanychaptcrsinthchumanhis- ¹'. ' æ¡book, Iromitshrst |incsto itsmostcontcmporaq cntrics, arc 'or�anized around thc stupcndous succcsscs oI mi|itaq invadcrs, conqucrors, robbcr barons, and cmpirc bui|dcrs. Such individua|s arc cithcrtoo|ongdcadortooprivi|cgcdto5cIorma||ycva|uatcdin thc tashion a c|inica| psycho|ogist wou|d |ikc. But givcn ccrtain oI )82 ¬ ¬ W T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R thcir wc||-known and high|y documcntcd bchaviors, wc assumc, cvcnwithoutknowingthcirscorcs onthc Fdsca|c, thata Iairnum- bcroIthcmwou|dnotbcIoundto posscss anyintcrvcningscnsc oI ob|igationbascdincmotiona|attachmcnttoothcrs. lnothcrwords, somcoIthcmwcrc,andarc,sociopaths. 1o makc mattcrs worsc, bruta|conqucrors a _ d cmpirc bui|dcrs arcusua||yhc|dinawcbythcircontcmporarics,andduringthcir|iIc- timcs thcyarc oItcnsccnas ro|c modc|s Iorthc cntirc human racc. Þodoubtcount|cssthirtccnth-ccntuqMongo|boyswcrcputtobcd withta|csoIthcindomitab|cGcnghisKhan,andoncwondcrswhich oIthc modcn hcrocswctoutto ourownchi|drcnwi||u|timatc|ybc rcmcmbcrcdbyhistoryasmotivatcdbyruth|csssc|I-intcrcst. Scxua|conqucsta|soisscrvcdrathcrwc||bythc abscnccoIcon- scicncc. 1o i||ustratc this point usingthc oIIspring oIthc samc Ia- mous [rant, Gcnghis Khan`s c|dcstson,1ushi Khan, is saidto havc sircd Iorty sons via his birthright to pick Irom thc most bcautiIu| womcn oIthc conqucrcd. 1hc rcmaindcr oIthc vanquishcd, a|ong withthcir sons, wcrcroutinc|ys|aughtcrcd. Cnc oIGcnghis`s many grandsons, Kub|ai Khan, Ioundcr oIthc Yuan dynasq, had twcnq- two|cgitimatcsons, and addcdthirqvirginstohis harcmcvcryycar. And as oIthctimc lwritc thcsc words, virtua||yidcntica|Ychromo- somcsarccarricdbya|most8pcrccntoIthcmcn|ivinginthcrcgion oIthc Iormcr Mongo| Empirc, I6 mi||ion oIthcm. Gcncticists bc- |icvcthismcansthatsomc I6mi||ionpcop|c|ivinginthctwcnq-hrst ccntuqarc stampcdwith Gcnghis Khan's thirtccnth-ccntury|cgacy oIgcnocidcandrapc. GcnghisKhanwascxccptiona|amongsociopathic[rantsinthat hc didnotdicavio|cntoranignominiousdcath. lnstcad, hcIc||oII ahorscduringahunt, in I227.ByIarmostpcrpctrators oIgcnocidc andmass rapc cvcntua||ytakc thcirown|ivcsor arc ki||cd, oItcnby cnragcd Io||owcrs who havc had cnough. Ca|igu|a was assassinatcd byonc oIhis own guards. Hit|cr is bc|icvcd tohavc put a pisto| in his mouth, and his bodyis said to havc bccn crcmatcdwithdicsc| - )8j ¬ MAR T HA S T OUT Iuc|. Musso|iniwas shot and his bodyhungby its hcc|s in a pub|ic squarc. Romania's Micolac Ccau�cscu and his wiIc, Elcna, wcrc ki||cd byahring squad in I989,on Christmas Oay. Cambodia'sFo| Fotdicd in atwo-roomhut, hc|dprisoncrbyIormcrassociatcs, his bodyburncdundcrapi|c oIgarbagcandrubbcrtircs. G|oba|sociopaths most¡ica||ycomctonogoodcnd, andthis sharply downward tcndcncy is disp|aycd by thc morc |ocal oncs as wc||. Inthchna|ana|ysis,sociopathyappcarstobca|osinggamc,rc- gard|css oIits sca|c. `Hannah`s Iathcr, Ior cxamp|c, |ost cvcqthing that shouldhavc bccn prcciousto him. Bythc timc hcwas hIq, hc had IorIcitcd his job, his position in thc community, his bcautiIu| wiIc, and his |oving daughtcr, a||Iorthc cxhi|aration oIbcinga mi- norplaycrinthchcroingamc,andinthccnd,hcis|ikc|ytodic Irom ß bul|ct to his own hcad, Irom thc gun oI somc othcr smal|-timc crimina|. Lukc,mypaticntSydncysdcadbcatcx,also|ostcvcqthing that was va|uablc÷his wiIc, his son, and cvcn his swimming poo|. SupcrSkip,thoughhc b|ithc|ydccmshimsclItobctoounassai|ab|c andtoosmanto bcbroughtdownbythc |ikcsoIthcSccuriticsand Exchangc Commission, probab|ywi|| provc to bc ncithcrwhcnthc SEChna||yscts uponhimincarncst. ¨Or.¨ Oorccn Litt|chc|d, cvcn with a mindIu|lysharp cnoughto pursuc a rca| Fh O. , wi|| instcad migratc as a Iakc to morc and morc obscurc locations, p|ayingthc samctcdiousgamcswiththcdcccntpcop|cshccnvics,unti|shcruns ' . out oI p|accs to hidc. By thc timc shc is hIq, hcr travcls and hcr unchcckcd covctousncss wi|| havc cmpticd hcr bank account and pin � hcdhcrIacc intothatoIaborcdscvcnq-ycar-o|d. A list oIsuch drcaq cndings cou|d go on and on. Contraqto whatsccmsto bcarathcrpopu|arbc|ict ¸ actingruth|csslydocs not, inthccnd,bringyoumorcthanyourIairsharcoIthcgoodthingsin |iIc. Quitc thc oppositc, oncmightcvcn saythat, Ior thc cxtraordi- nari|ypaticntobscrvcr, onctcchniqucto dctcrmincwhcthcrornot a qucstionab|cpcrsonisagcnuincsociopathistowaitunti|thccndoI T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R hcr |iIc andwitncsswhcthcrornot shc has ruincd hcrsc|I, partia||y ormaybc cvcn comp|ctc|y. Oocs shc rca||yposscsswhatyouwou|d |ovctohavcinyour|iIc, or, instcad, is shc iso|atcd, burncd-out, and borcdî IsitpcrhapsstunningthcwaythcmightyhavcIa||cnî Sincc wc bcgan to rccord wars, occupations, and projccts oI gcnocidc,historianshavcohcnrcmarkcd thata ccrtainqpcoIcat- astrophic, amora| vi||ain sccms to bc bom ovcr and ovcr into thc human racc. Mo sooncr arc wc rid oI onc than anothcr appcars somcwhcrc c|sconthcp|anct. Fromthc pointoIvicwoIpopu|ation gcnctics,thcrc is probab|ysomctruthto this |cgcnd. And sinccwc donotundcrstandthcsc pcop|c, sinccthcirpsycho|ogis soa|icnto most oIus,wc oItcn do not rccognizc orstop thcm unti| aItcrthcy havc damagcd humaniq in unIathomab|c ways. But, as Gandhi pointcd outwith suchwondcr and rc|icI, ¨inthc cnd, thcya|ways Ia||÷thinkoIit, a|ways' ¨ Jhc samc phcnomcnon occurs onsma||cr sca|cs too. Crdinaq pcop|cwithoutconscicnccvisitpainonthcirIami|icsandcommuni- tics, butinthccnd,thcytcndtosc|I-dcstruct. Sma||-timcsociopaths wou|d survivc |ong cnoughto dominatc somc oIthc othcrs on our imaginaqdcscrt is|and, maybcpromu|gatc somc gcncs, but at thc cndoIthc day, thcywou|d probab|ybchungupbythcirhcc|s. FartoIthcrcasonIorthiscvcntua| Iai|urc is obvious, cspccia||y incascswhcrc inIamous dcspots such as Musso|ini or Fo| Fothavc bccnki||cdand muti|atcd byangqcx-Io||owcrs. lIyouopprcss,rob, murdcr, andrapccnoughpcop|c, cvcntua||ysomcoIthcmwi||gang uponyou andtakc thcir rcvcngc.Wccan scc this inthc much |css cpicstoryoIOorccnLitt|chc|daswc||.1hcoddswcrca|waysagainst hcr, and hna||y shcjust happcncd to makc thc wrong pcrson mad. Butthcrcarcadditiona|rcasons,|cssobvious, Iorthc|ong-tcrmIai|- urc oI|ivingwithout a conscicncc, rcasonsthat arc cndcmictothc psycho|ogoIsociopathyrathcrthanthc ragc oIothcrpcop|c. AndthchrstoIthcsc isborcdom,p|ainandsimp|c. - )85 ¯ 1 J MAR T HA S T OUT I s That^Thcrc Is? 1houghwca||knowwhatborcd º mis,mostnorma|adu|tsdonotcx- pcricncc shccr borcdom vcq oItcn. Wc arc strcsscd, rushcd, and worricd, butwc arcsc|dompurc|yborcd÷in par| bccauscwc arc so strcsscd, rushcd, and worricd. 1imc without anything wc must at- tcndto usua||yIcc|s|ikc a brcathcr, not|ikc monotony. 1o gctaIcc| Iorwhatshccrborcdomis|ikc,wcmusthcarkcnbacktochi|dhood. Chi|drcn and ado|csccnts arc Ircqucnt|y borcd, so borcd thcy can hard|ycvcnstandit. 1hcirpcrIcct|ynorma|dcvc|opmcnta|nccd Ior constant stimu|ation, Ior cxp|oring and ongoing |carning, is oItcn thwartcd in awor|d oI|ongtrips, rainyaItcmoons, and studyha||s. Inchi|dhood, borcdom can bc cxcruciating, |ikc a chronicspiritua| hcadachc, or a powcrIu| thirst with no bcvcragc to bc had. It can hurtsobadthatthcpoorkidIcc|s|ikcyc||ingout |oud, orthrowing somcthing noisy at a wa||. Extrcmc borcdom is arguab|y a Iorm oI pain. Luc[ Ior us, adu|ts do not havc thc samc nccd Ior constant stimu|ation. Ocspitc ourstrcsscs,wc tcndto|ivcwithinaIair|yman- agcab|c window oIarousa|, ncithcr unbcarab|y ovcrstimu|atcd nor undcrstimu|atcd÷cxccptIo¡ sociopaths. Fc � p|cwhoarcsociopaths rcportthatthcycravccxtrastimu|ationa|mostcontinua||y. Somcusc thcworda dd icte d , as ina dd icte d tothri||s, a dd icte d torisk. Suchad- dictionsoccurbccauscthcbcst¦maybcthcon|y)consistcntcurcIor undcrstimu|ationis our cmotiona||iIc, so muchso that inmanypsy- cho|ogtcxts, thc tcrms arusa l and emotiona l response arc uscd a|- most intcrchangcab|y.Wc arc stimu|atcd byourmcaningIu| tics to, ncgotiationswith,andhappyandunhappymomcntsa|ongsidcothcr pcop|c, and sociopaths donothavc this cmotiona||iIcto|ivc. 1hcy do not cxpcricncc thc somctimcs harrowing, somctimcs thri||ing, cvcr-prcscnt arousa|thatunavoidab|yattcnds gcnuinc attachmcnts to othcrpcop|c. ¯ )85 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Laboratory cxpcrimcnts using clcctric shocks and loud noiscs havc Iound thatcvcnthc physiological rcactions ¦swcating, racing hcart, and so Iorth) normally associatcd with anxious anticipation andlcarncdIcararcIarlcsspronounccdinsociopaths. Foradcquatc stimulation, sociopaths havc only thcir gamcs oI domination, and thcsc gamcs gct old and stalc vcq quickly. Likc drugs, thc gamcs havcto bcdonc ovcrandovcr, largcrandbcttcr, and dcpcndingon thcrcsourccsandtalcntsoIthcparticularsociopath,thismaynotbc possiblc.Andso in sociopathy, thc pain oIborcdom can bc ncarly constant. 1hc inclinationto dilutc borcdom chcmicallyIorawhilc is part oI thc rcason sociopaths tcnd to bc alcohol and drug abuscrs. A major comor _ idity study publishcd in I990 in thc Joural o f t h e American Me d ical Association cstimatcsthatasmanyas75pcrccntoI sociopaths arc dcpcndcnt on alcohol, and 50 pcrccnt abusc othcr drugs.AndsosociopathsarcoItcnaddicts inthc usualscnsc,inad- ditionto bcing hgurativcly addictcd to risk. With its ¨pcak cxpcri- cnccs¨ and its dangcrs, thc drugculturcholds morc than onc Iorm oIappcalIorthc conscicncclcss, and thc drugculturc is whcrc many sociopathsIcclmost at homc. Anothcr study, publishcd in I993 in thc American Joural o f Psyc h iatr, Ioundthat I8 pcrccntoIintravcno � s-drugabuscrs diag- noscdwithantisocial pcrsonality disordcr wcrc HIV-positivc, whilc only8 pcrccnt oI intravcnous-drug abuscrs without antisocial pcr- sonali]disordcr tcstcd positivc Ior HIV 1hc highcr odds ratio oI HIV inIcctionamongsociopaths is prcsumablyduc tothcir grcatcr risk-takingbchaviors. 1hcsc statistics bring qs backto a qucstion I poscd in thc hrst chaptcr. Isthc abscncc oIconscicncc anadaptivccondition, oris it a mcntal disordcrî Cnc opcrational dchnition oImcntal disordcr is anypsychologicalconditionthatcauscs substantial ¨liIc disruption, ¨ which istosay, scrious and unusual limitations ina pcrson's abilip toIunctionaswcllas might bccxpcctcdgivcnthatpcrson`s ovcrall )87 MAR T HA S T OUT hcalthandlcvcloIintclligcncc. Commonscnsctcllsusthatthcpres­ ence oIany oIthc rccognizcd mcntal disordcrs÷major dcprcssion, chronic anxicq, paranoia, and so Iorth-would Iikcly causc wocIul ¨liIcdisruption.¨Butwhataboutthca b sence oIsomcthingwc usually rcgard as a strictly moral traitî What about thc abscncc oI con- scicnccîWcknowthatsociopaths almostncvcrsccktrcatmcnt, but dothcysuIIcr ¨liIc disruption¨ noncthclcssî AwayoIapproachingthisissucisto considcrwhat is mcaning- Iul in liIc to thc sociopath÷winning and domination~and thcn to pondcrthcIollowingoddqucstion.Whyarcallsociopathsnot inpo- sitions oIgrcatpowcrîGivcnthcirIocuscdmotivation, andgrantcd thc IrccdomoIactionthatrcsults Iromhavingno conscicnccwhat- socvcr, thcy should all bc Iormidablc national lcadcrs or intcma- tiona| CECs, or at lcast high-ranking proIcssionals or dictators oI smallcountrics.Whydothcynot winallthctimcî Forthcydonot. Instcad, mostoIthcmarcobscurc pcoplc, and limitcd to dominatingthciryoungchildrcn, or a dcprcsscd spousc, orpcrhapsaIcwcmployccsorcoworkcrs. Motaninsignihcantnum- bcroIthcmarcinjail,likc Hannah'sIathcr, orindangcrIorthcirca- rccrs orthcir livcs. VcqIcw arc Iabulouslywcalthy likc Skip. Evcn IcwcrarcIamous. Havingncvcrmadc muchoIamarkonthcworld, thcmajoriqarc ona downwardliIccoursc, andbylatc middlc agc will bc burncd out complctcly. 1hcycan rob and tormcnt us tcm- porarily, ycs, butthcyarc, incIIcct, Iailcdlivcs. Fromapsychologist's pointoIvicw, cvcnthc oncsinprcstigious positions, cvcn thc oncs with Iamous namcs arc Iailcd livcs. For most oIus, happincss comcsthroughthc abiliqto lovc, to conduct orlivcs accordingto our highcrvalucs ¦most oIthc timc) , and to Icclrcasonablycontcntcd within ottrsclvcs. Soci ¿ paths cannot lovc, bydchnitionthcydonot h ave highcrvalucs, andthcyalmostncvcr Iccl comIortablc in thcirown skins. 1hcyarc lovclcss, amoral, and chronicallyborcd, cvcnthcIcwwho bccomc rich and powcrIul. AndthcyarcuncomIortablc inthcirskinsIormorc rcasonsthan )88 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R borcdom.1hcabsolutc sclI-involvcmcntoIsociopathycrcatcsan in- dividualconsciousncssthatisawarcoIcvcqlittlcachcandtwitchin thc body, cvcq passing scnsation in thc hcad and chcst, and cars that oricnt with acutc pcrsonalizcd conccm to cvcq radio and tclcvision rcport about cvcrything Irom bcdbugs to ricin. Bccausc his conccrns and awarcncss arc gcarcd cxclusivcly toward himsclI, thc pcrson without conscicncc somctimcs livcs in a tormcnt oI hypochondriacal rcactions that would makc cvcn thc most IrctIul anxic[ ncurotic appcar rational. Gctting a papcr cut is a major cvcnt, andacoldsorc isthc bcginningoIthc cnd. Fcrhaps thcmost Iamous historical cxamplc oIthc sociopath's obscssion with his body is AdolI Hitlcr, who was a liIclong hy- pochondriac with an ovcrpowcring Icar oI dcvclopingcanccr. In an attcmpttokccpcanccrat bay, andtocurc alonglistoIothcrimag- inaqhcalthproblcms, hcswallowcd¨rcmcdics¨Iormulatcdspccially by _ is Iavoritc pcrsonal physician, Or. 1hcodorc Morcll. Many oI thcsc tablcts containcd ha|lucinogcnic toxins. In this way, Hitlcr graduallypoisoncdhimsclIintoactualillncss. Mostlikclyonaccount oIthis, atrcmor ¦a rcal onc) inhisrighthandbccamcconspicuous, andbymid- I944, hcwasdisallowingphotographs. Sociopaths somctimcs uscthcirhypochondriasisasastratcgto gctoutoIdoingwork. Cnc momcntthcyarchnc,butthcnitistimc topaythcbillsorlookIorajob orhclpaIricndmovctoancwapart- mcnt, and suddcnlythcyhavc chcst pains oralimp.And imaginaq mcdical conccrns and inhrmitics oItcn sccurc spccial trcatmcnt, suchasthc onc lastchairinanovcrcrowdcdroom. ! lngcncral,thcrcis anavcrsiontosustaincdcIIortandorganizcd projcctsoIwork, and, oIcoursc, thisprcIcrcnccIorcasc iscxtrcmcly \ sclI-limitingwhcrcsucccssinthcrcalworldisconccmcd.Gcttingup cv¢singlc morningand workingIora long succcssion oIhours is \ almostncvcrconsidcrcd. Sociopaths Icclthatthc casyschcmc, thc onc-shot dcal, or thc clcvcr ambush is much to bc prcIcrrcd ovcr day-to-daycommitmcntto ajob, a long-tcrm goal, or a plan. Evcn - !89 ¯ IART HA S T OUT whcn sociopaths arc Iound in high-statusjobs, thcsc posit�onstcnd to bcthosc inwhichthc amountoIactua|hardworkdonc ¦ornot) canbccasi|yobscurcd, orwhcrcothcrscanbcmanipu|atcdintobc- ingthc rca|workcrs. Insuch scttings, a smartsociopath can somc- timcskccpthings goingwithanoccasiona|sp|ashypcrIormancc, or by schmoozing and bcingcharming, or bybcing intimidating. Shc poscshcrsc|Ias thcabscntcc supcrvisor, orthc ¨rainmakcr,¨ orthc inva|uab|c ¨high-strung gcnius. ¨ ShcrcquircsIrcqucntvacations, or sabbatica|s inwhichhcr actua| activitics arc somcwhat mystcrious. Sustaincdwork,thctruckcyto|astingsucccss÷kccpingonc`snosc tothc grindstonc, to|cratingtcdium, sccingtothcdctai|s÷is a|itt|c too c|osc to rcsponsibi|iq. Sad|y, this samc sc|I-|imiting Iactor tcnds to app|y cvcn to so- ciopathswhoarcbornwith spccia|giIts andta|cnts.1hckindoIin- tcnsc commitmcntanddai|yworkrcquircdto dcvc|opandpromotc onc`s art, onc's music, or any othcr crcativc projcct istypica||y im- possib|cIorasociopath. IIsucccsscanbcacquircdIortuitous|y, with on|ycpisodicinput,thcnpcrhaps. ButiIthcartrcquircsapro|ongcd pcrsona| invcstmcnt, it is |ost. In thc cnd, a pcrson without con- scicncc has thc samc rc|ationship to hcr own giIts as shc docs to othcrpcop|c. Shc docsnottakc carc oIthcm. And sociopathyisa|mosta|ways aso|oroutinc, anothcrstratcg thatmaysomctimcsworktcmporari|ybutnotoItcn inthc |ongrun. Forthc obvious rcason oIunrcmitting sc|I-intcrcst, pcop|c without conscicncc makc |ousytcam p|aycrs.1hc sociopath is out Ior him- sc|Ia|onc. Whcn hc dca|swithanothcr pcrson, orwitha group oI pcop|c,hcattcmptstodosoby|ics, I|attcq, andthccrcationoIIcar. 1hcsc approachcs to succcss arc Iar »cakcr and morc short-|ivcd thanarcgcnuincrc|ating, |cadcrship, andpcrsona|invo|vcmcnt,and goa|s that might havc bccn rcachcd in a partncrship, or in a sus- taincd groupcûort, arc usua||yscutt|cdbythc socicpath's cxc|usivc conccrnwith himsc|I. 1his pathto u|timatc Iai|urc is typica||ytakcn - ) ÿ " T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R by inIamous}rants, as wc|| as by count|css |css pub|icizcd socio- pathiccmp|oycrs,coworkcrs, andspouscs. Whcn thc thri|| oI manipu|ating othcrpcop|c takcs ovcr, as it docs in sociopathy, a||othcr objcctivcs arc cc|ipscd, and thc rcsu|t- ing¨|iIc disruption,¨thoughoIadiIIcrcnt sort, canbcjustasscvcrc as thc |imitations imposcd by major dcprcssion, chronic anxic[, paranoia, andothcrmcnta|i||ncsscs.Andthc cmotiona|bankruptcy oIsociopathymcans thatthc sociopathisIorcvcrdcprivcd oIanau- thcntic cmotiona| intc||igcncc, a capaci[ Ior undcrstanding how pcop|c work that is an irrcp|accab|c guidc Ior |iving in thc human wor|d. Likc Oorccn, who actua||ybc|icvcs shccan incrcasc hcrpcr- sona|powcrby diminishing othcrs, |ikc Skip, who imagincs himsc|I pcrmancnt|yimmunc to socictyandits ru|cs, |ikc thc dcIcatcd dic- tatorwho is bcwi|dcrcd bccausc thc hatc-h||cd mob composcd oI ¨his pcoplc¨ wi|| not a||owhimto ncgotiatc, a pcrsonwithout con- scicncc,cvcnasmartonc,tcndstobcashortsightcdandsurprising|y naIvcindividua|whocvcntua||ycxpircsoIborcdom,hnancia|ruin, or abu||ct. Exreme Conscience Sti||, thc most compc||ing rcason Ior dcsiring to havc conscicncc, rathcrthanwishingtobcIrcc oIit,isnotthc |ist oIruinous disad- vantagcsthataccructosociopathy. Mo,thcbcstpartoIposscssinga mora| scnsc is thc dccp and bcautiIu| gih that comcs to us insidc, andon l y insidc,thcwrappingsoIconscicncc. T e a b i l ity to l ove comcs bund|cd up in conscicncc,just as ourspirits arc bund|cd up in our bodics. ConscicnccisthccmbodimcntoI|ovc, imbucdintoourvcry bio1og. It |ivcs in thc part oIthc brainthat rcacts cmotiona||y, and inthcirIavor,whcnthconcswc|ovcnccdourattcntion,ourhc|p, or cvcnoursacrihcc.Wchavca|rcadysccnthatwhcnsomconc`s mind " ]9! " MART HA S T OUT ! is not cquippcdto lovc, hc canhavc no gcnuinc conscicncc cithcr, sincc conscicncc is an intcrvcning scnsc olrcsponsibili¡ bascd in ourcmotional attachmcntsto othcrs. Mowwc turnthis psychologi- calcquationaround.1hcothcrtruthisthatshouldapcrsonhavcno conscicncc, hccould ncvcrtruly lovc. Whcn an impcrativc scnsc ol rcsponsibility issubtractcdlromlovc, allthat islcltisathin,tcrtiaq thing-awillto posscss,whichisnotlovcat all. |ustahcrScptcmbcr I I ,200I , cvcnasa º cspcciallydarkandag- grcssivc chaptcr . in our histoq bcgan, mypsychologistlricnd Bcmic toldmcwithouthcsitationthathcwouldchooscconscicnccovcrthc apparcntcxpcdicncyolbcingwithoutconscicncc,butthathccould notarticulatcwhy. I bclicvc Bcrnic's intuitivcprclcrcnccwas ducto thc incxtricablc link bctwccn conscicncc and thc abili¡to lovc, and that ilgivcn thc choicc bctwccn allthc powcr, lamc, and moncy in thcworldandthc privilcgc ollovinghisownchildrcn, Bcmicwould choosc thc lattcrin a hcartbcat. Inpart, this is bccausc Bcmic is a goodpcrson. Also, thisisbccauscBcrnicisagoodpsychologist,and hc knows somcthingaboutwhatactuallymakcspcoplc happy. 1hcrc is thc will to posscss and to dominatc, and thcn thcrc is lovc. Whcthcr ornot hc could cxprcss his rcasons atthat momcnt, in choosing conscicncc, Bcrnic thc psychologist cûcctivcly chosc lovc, and this docs not surprisc mc. Oominating c constitutc a tcmporaqthrill, butit docsnot makc pcoplchappy. Lovingdocs. Butisitnotpossiblctohavctoo much conscicnccîA¡cthcrcnot psychologistswho havc said tbat, larlromhappincss,pcoplc can bc ¡rannizcd anddrivcnintoscrious dcprcssionbythcirconscicnccsî Ycs and no. Frcud obscrvcdthat an ovcractivc supcrcgo COtild bullyits owncrinto dcprcssionandpossiblycvcnsuicidc. Butsupcr- cgo, thatyammcring disciplinaryvoicc intcrnalizcd lrom our carly cxpcricnccs, is not conscicncc. Mcithcr is somcthingthatpsycholo- gLts call ¨unhcalthyshamc, ¨which is notrcallyshamc, inthc scnsc olarcactiontohavingcommittcdbaddccds,somuchasitisthcir- rationalbclicl, instillcdbyncgativcmcssagcsinchildhood,thatonc's ¯ ! 92 ¯ T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D OOR who|c sc|I is somchow bad, rcpc||cnt, worth|css. Evcn a |itt|c un- hca|thy shamc is too much, but unhca|thy shamc is hard|ynorma| conscicncc, which is an intcrvcning scnsc oIrcsponsibi|ity and not anintrusivc Icc|ingoIworth|cssncss andca|ami¡. Whcncontcmpo- raq psycho|ogists saythat too much conscicncc is toxic, thcir vo- cabu|aq is carc|css. 1hcyarc rcIcrringinstcad to unhca|thyshamc, orto astridcntsupcrcgoworkingovcrtimc. Conscicncc, ourscvcnthscnsc, is a diIIcrcnt phcnomcnona|to- gcthcr. It is a Icc|ing oI ob|igation bascd in |ovc. So thc qucstion |ingcrs. Is cxtrcmcconscicncc dcbi|itatingorc|cvatingî _ 1o undcrstand what a grcat dca| oIconscicncc docs to thc psy- chc,wc can obscrvc thc |ivcs andthc happincss |cvc|oIpcop|cwho ¸ havc dcvc|opcd thcir innatc scnsc oIconscicncc into an cspccia||y powcrIu|cmotiona|musc|c. Eachonc oIus mightnamcdiûcrcntin- dividua|s as our mora| hcrocs, Irom historica| or pub|ic hgurcs to pcop|cwc havc knownpcrsona||ywho havc imprcsscd uswith thcir mora| commitmcnt. In a systcmatic study oI such pcop|c, Annc Co|by oI Radc|iIIc`s Hcnry Murray Rcscarch Ccntcr and Wi|liam Oamon oI Brown \nivcrsity's Ocpartmcnt oI Education madc choiccs oIthcir own. Conccrncd aboutwhatthcypcrccivcd as our currcnt scarcity oI mora| |cadcrship, Co|by and Oamon sc|cctcd twcn¡-thrccindividua|swhomthcyconsidcrcdto bc ¨mora|cxcm- p|ars, 'c|cvcnmcnandtwc|vcwomcnwhoscmora|commitmcnthas rcsu|tcd in signa|conuibutions inmanyarcas, inc|udingcivi|rights and civi| |ibcrtics, thc rcduction oI povcr¡ and hungcr, rc|igious Irccdom, cnvironmcnta| protcction, and pcacc. 1hcsc twcn¡-thrcc pcop|c arc divcrsc in tcrms oI racc, rc|igion, sociocconomic status, andspccihcgoa|s, buta||havc oncthingin common¸. ancxtraordi- nari|ypowcrIu| scnsc oIconscicncc, an ¨ovcrdcvc|opcd¨ scnsc that thcý arc rcsponsib|c Ior thc wc|Iarc oIthcir Ic||ow human bcings. 1hcy rcprcscnt, Irom a psycho|ogist's vantagc point, thc diamctric cmotiona| andmcnta| oppositc oIthc sociopathswc havc bccn dis- cussing. !9j Co|by and Oamon`s ¨mora| cxcmp|ars¨ inc|udc Virginia Fostcr Ourr,thcSouthcrnbc||cturncdcivi|rights activistwhowasthc hrst pcrson to hug Rosa Farks whcn shc stcppcd out ol jai|, Suzic Va|adcz,whohasspcntmanyycars Iccding, c|othing, andproviding mcdica|carcto thousands olpoor Mcxicans inCiudad|uárcz,|ack Co|cman, a lormcr prcsidcnt ol Havcrlord Co||cgc, notcd lor his ¨b|uc-co||arsabbatica|s¨asaditchdiggcr,¸agarbagcman,ahomc|css pcrson, busincssmanCabc||Brand,whodcvotcd himsc|ltothccrc- ation ol 1ota| Action Against Fovcr¡ in Roanokc, Virginia, and Char|cszcttaWadd|cs, loundcrolthc Fcrpctua| Mission,whodcdi- catcdhcr|ilc to hc|pingthcc|dcr|y andthcpoor,thc unwcd moth- crs,thc prostitutcs, andthc abuscd chi|drcn olOctroit, Michigan. 1hc rcscarchcrs studicd autobiographics and ora| historics and conductcd in-dcpth intcrvicwswithcach olthc twcnty-thrcc cxcm- p|ars andthcircoworkcrs. Ina bookthatdocumcntsthcirhndings, cntit|cd S ome Do C are: C ontemporar Lives o f Mora l C ommitment, thcy rcport thrcc striking commona|itics among individua|s ol cx- trcmc conscicncc. 1hc authors |abc| thcsc sharcd charactcristics as ¦ I ) ¨ccrtain¡, ' ¦ 2) ¨positivity, ' and ¦ 3) ¨uni¡ ol sc|l and mora| goa|s. ' ¨Ccrtain¡' rclcrs to ancxccptiona|c|ari¡conccmingwhat thc cxcmp|ars bc|icvc to bc right, and a|so thcir scnsc ol an un- cquivoca| pcrsona| rcsponsibi|i¡to act onthosc bc|icls. ¨Fositivity' cxprcsscs thc c�cmp|ars` alhrmativc approach to |ilc, thcir cxtraor- dinaq cnjoymcnt olthcir work, and thcir markcd optimism, oltcn dcspitc hardshiporcvcndangcr.And ¨uni¡ol&c|landmora|goa|s' dcscribcsthcintcgrationolthcsubjccts`mora|stanccwiththcir con- ccption olthcir own idcnti¡, and thc pcrccivcd samcncss olthcir mora|andpcrsona|goa|s. ` \ni¡' mcans that, lor such pcop|c, conscicncc is not just a guiding |ight. It isw h o t h ey are. Inanattcmptto dcscribc his scnsc olpcrsona|idcntity, onc olthc cxcmp|ars, Cabc|| Brand, cxp|aincd in anintcrvicw, ¨Who I amiswhatI` mab|c to doand how I lcc|a|| ) 94 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR thc timc÷cach day cach momcnt. . . . It's hard lor mc to scparatc who I amlromwhatIwantto do andwhat I amdoing.¨ Co|byandOamonconsidcrthisthirdcharactcristic,thc¨unityol sc|land mora| goa|s, ' to bc thcir most important hnding, and cru- cia||y important to thc undcrstanding olconscicncc and its cllccts. Whcnconscicncc grows sulhcicnt|ystrong, apparcnt|y it unihcsthc humanpsychc inauniqucandbcnchcia|way, and rathcrthancaus- ing ¨|ilc disruption, ' cxrcmc conscicncc signihcant|y cnhanccs |ilc satislaction. Co|byand Oamonwritc, ¨Curcxcmp|ars havc bccnin- vu|ncrab|c to thc dcbi|itating cllccts ol privation bccausc a|| thcy havc nccdcd lor pcrsona| succcss is thc productivc pursuit olthcir mora| mission. ' In unsc|l-conscious dchancc ol our cu|tura| tcn- dcncytosctconscicnccandsc|l-intcrcstinoppositiontocachothcr, Co|byand Oamon's cxcmp|ars ¨dchncd thcir own wc|larc and sc|l- intcrcst in mora| tcrms and wcrc, with vcq lcw cxccptions, cx- trcmc|y happy and lu|h||cd. ¨ Far lrom causing thcm sullcring, or making thcm into dupcs, thcir cxccptiona| scnsc ol ob|igation to othcrpcop|cmadcthcmhappy. Conscicncc, our scnsc ol rcsponsi�i|i¡toward onc anothcr, a|- |ows usto |ivctogcthcr, in ourhomcs and onourp|anct. Ithc|psto crcatcmcaninginour|ivcs, andstandsbctwccnusandancmp¡cx- istcncc ol mcaning|css compctitions. A vcq |argc scnsc ol con- scicncc C intcgratc mora| intcntion, pcrsona| dcsirc, and idcnti¡ in thc mind÷rightaction bccomcs wbo wc orc÷andlorthia rcason, cxtrcmcconscicnccappcarsto bc ararc cxact-htkcyto humanh 4P - pincss. Sohcrc ismybcstpsycho|ogica|advicc.Ayou|ookaroundour worldandtrytohgurcoutwhat isgoingonandwhois ¨winning,'do notwishtohavc |cssconscicncc.Wishlor morc. Cc|cbratcyourlatc. Havingaconscicncc,youmayncvcrbcab|ctodocxact|yasyou p|casc, orjustwhatyouwou|d nccd to doin ordcr to succccdcasi|y ! 95 � MA RT HA S T OUT or u|timatc|y in thc matcria| wor|d. And so pcrhaps you wi|| ncvcr wic|dgrcathnancia|orpo|itica|powcrovcrothcrpcop|c.Maybcyou wi||ncvcrcommandthcrcspcctolthc masscs, orthcirlcar. Cnthc contraq, you maysuûcrpainlu| bouts olconscicnccthat causc you to act quitc againstyour own sc|l-scrving ambitions. And you may havctoworkhard a||yourl ilc, givingupthctcmptationsolchi|d|ikc dcpcndcncy, bccauscyouwantyourownchi|drcntothrivc.Youmay yoursc|lbc caughtup inthc snarcsolsociopathslromtimcto timc, andonaccountoIyourscrup|cs,youmayncvcrbc ab|cto takc sat- islactoq rcvcngc on thc pcop|c who havc hurt you. And, ycs, you mayncvcrbccomcthc dictatorola sma||countq. Butyouwi||bc ab|cto |ookatyourchi|drcn as|ccp in thcir bcds and lcc|thatunbcarab|csurgcolawcandthanksgiving.Youwi||bc ab|cto kccpothcrsa|ivc inyourhcart|ongaltcrthcyarc gonc. You wi||havc gcnuinc lricnds. \n|ikc thc ho||ow, risk-pursuing lcwwho arc dcprivcd ola scvcnth scnsc, you wi|| go throughyour |ilc lu||y awarc ol thc warm and comlorting, inluriating, conlusing, com- pc||ing, and somctimcsjoylu|prcscncc olothcrhuman bcings, and a|ongwithyourconscicnccyouwi||bcgivcnthc chanccto takcthc |argcstriskola||, which, aswc a||know, isto |ovc. Conscicncc tru|y is Mothcr Maturc`s bcttcrbargain. Itsva|uc is cvidcntonagrandhistoricsca|c, andaswcwi|| scc inthcncxtchap- tcr, it isprcciousto us cvcnin ourordinaqday-to-daydca|ingswith lricnds and ncighbors. A|ong with an cntirc ncighborhood, |ct us nowtqto spcnd adaywith anunlortunatc and sociopathicwoman namcd1i||ic. From1i||ic,wc can|carn÷thoughshcncvcrwi||÷that conscicnccmakcscvcqdaycxpcricnccworthhaving. " ) 95 " c L c V c d groundhog day W h at is not goo d f aT t h e swan is not goo d f aT t h e b ee. -Marcus Aurel i us J i||icissomconc pcrsona|i¡thcorist1hcodorc Mi||onwou|dca|| an¨abrasivc psychopath. ¨Shcissociopathicbut, rcgrcttab|ylor 1i||ic, shc |acks thc sociopath's customary charm and hncssc. Instcad, to usc Mi||on's words, shc ¨acts in an ovcrt|y and dircct|y contcntious and quarrc|somcway, ¨ and ¨cvcrything and cvcryonc is anobjcctavai|ab|clornaggingandassau|ting.¨1i||ic`sspccihcta|cnt istotakcthcsma||cst,subt|cstwhispcrolcontÍictandamp|i|itinto a shouting match. Shc cxcc|s at thc crcation olhosti|i¡and bittcr- ncsswhcrcthcrcwasnonc bclorc,andspccia|izcsin provokingpco- l p|cwho ordinari|yarcgcnt|cand pcacc-|oving. In 1i||ic`s univcrsc, 1i|Ìic is a|ways right, and shc takcs sc|l- rightcous p|casurc in opposing and lrustrating hcr opponcnts, who · . arc sccming|ycvcrywhcrc and somchowa|wayswrong. Hcrmission ' in |ilc istocorrcctthcwor|d, a ca||ingshc hccds withouthcsitation or conscicncc. Inthis mission, shc pcrccivcsthatshc is unapprcci- atcdbyothcrs,which lurthcrjustihcshcrbchaviortowardthcm. 1 � 7 MAR T HA S T OUT 1hismorning,1i||ichasdiscovcrcdagroundhoginhcrbac|ard. Ashcwatchcslromhcrsunroom,itsitsbackonitsroundhaunchcs inthc grassandturnsitsa|crt|itt|c lacc incvcqdircction, as ilsur- vcying1i||ic's propcr¡. Whcn1i||ic opcns thc s|iding doorto gct a bcttcr|ook, thc anima| lrcczcsinp|acc Ioramomcnt, thcnwadd|cs awayandvanishcsintothcgroundatthccdgcolthc|awn, atapoint whcrc1i|lic`syardmcctsthatolhcr ncighbors Cathcrinc and Frcd. 1i||icmakcsa mcnta|notcolwhcrcit�ho|c mustbc, thcngocs outtostandonhcrdcck,awhitc-haircdwomanolscvcn¡inab|uc- chcckcrcd houscdrcss, appcaring lor a||thcwor|dto bc thc archc- ¡pa|kindandwisco|dwoman.Ashcgazcswithintcrcstacrossthc |awn, anyonc |ooking on might rcmark that hcr dcmcanor and bottom-hcavy shapc arc not a|togcthcr dillcrcnt lrom thc ground- hog`s. 1i||ic`s ncighbors onthcothcrsidc olhcrhousc and up thc hi||, Crctaand|crq, a|sohappcntobchavingbrcaklastinthcirsunroom and�an scc1i||icthcrconhcr dcck. 1hcyarctoolarawaytonoticc thc groundhog. A|| thcy can makc out is· scvcn¡-ycar-o|d 1i||ic, standingvcqsti|| inhcrb|uc-and-whitc drcss. 1hir¡-hvc-ycar-o|d Crcta, thc managcr ol a |oca| dcpartmcnt storc, says to hcr husband, |crq, a bui|ding contractor, ¨Oamn, I wish that awlu| woman wou|d just movc away. How |ong has shc bccnhcrcnowî' ¨Filtccnmonths, 'rcp|ics|crq. Crcta smi|cs minh|css|y. ¨But who`s counting, rightî I know I shou|dn'twish pcop|c gonc, but shc`sjust so incrcdib|ymean . ¸ And contro||ing. I don`tknowhowshccancvcnstand hcrownsc|l. ' ¸crrysighs and says, ¨Maybc wc cou|d buyhcrout. ' Crcta is about to |augh, and thcn shc rca|izcs that|crq is not joking. A|| ol a suddcn, shc undcrstands that hcr norma||y cvcn- tcmpcrcdhusband dcspiscs1i||iccvcqbitasmuchasshc docs. Shc lcc|s chi||y, anda |itt|c gui|¡, andgocsback intothckitchcntogct somc morc hotcollcc. - 1 98 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R Whcn shc comcsback, |crry is sti|| staringatthc o|dwoman on hcrdcck. Hcsays, ¨Mo,wcrca||ycan`tallordtobuyhcrout. Maybc shc'||just movc. Sccms |ikc you`d movc ilcvcqbody in thc ncigh- borhood hatcdyou asmuch ascvcqbodyhatcs hcr. ¨ Crctapointsout, ¨Wc||, thcthing is, I bct shc gctsthis rcaction whcrcvcrshcgocs. ¨ ¨Ycah, probab|y. Whcrcwasshc|ivingbclorcî¨ ¨Oon'tknow, ¨ answcrs Crcta. 1hcn, bcginningtolcc|somcwhat gratihcd that |crq sharcs hcrscntimcnts, shc says, ¨Oo you bc|icvc thisî It was |astwcck, I think, shc ca||cd mc and saidwc shou|dn`t havc anymorc hrcs in our hrcp|acc. Shc's 'a||crgicto wood smokc, ' don`tyou knowî¨ "W h at? You ncvcr to|d mc shc did that| 1hat`s craç| ¨ |crry cÌcnchcs his hsts, and thcn changcs his asscssmcnt. ¨Mo, that's not craç. 1hat'sjusthorsc crap. Wc`|| havc a hrc inthc damn hrcp|acc tonight. In lact, I`|| bring in somc morc wood bclorc I |cavc lor work. ¨ ¨Butit's supposcdtogct rca||ywarmtoday. ¨ ¨Whocarcsî¨ 1histimc, Crcta docs|augh. ¨Ooyouknowhowwcsoundî¨ |crq|ooks at his wilc shccpish|y, and thccomcrs ol his mouth bcginto tum up. Hc unc|cnchcs his hsts and cracks hisknuck|cs a coup|c oltimcs to gctrid olthc tcnsion. Crcta and |crry`s ncighbor across thc strcct and down thrcc houscs is an c|dcrÌy widow namcd Sunny. At this vcry momcnt, thoughshccannotactua||yscc1i||iconhcrbackdcck|ixcCrctaand |crqcan, Sunnytoo isthinkingabouthowmcan1i||ic is. Ycstcrday, 1i||ic ca||cd thc po|icc bccausc Sunny had parkcd hcr car on thc strcctinlrontolhcrownhousc. Sunnyhasa|ways parkcdhcrcarin ¸ +_thatbigspaccbctwccnthc strcctandhcr housc, sincc hcrhusband passcd awaytcnycars ago, bccausc shc is alraid to backout olhcr drivcway into thc tralhc. 1hcyoungpo|iccmancamc and madc hcr putitinthcdrivcway. Hc apo|ogizcd scvcra|timcs, butsti|| hc said - )99 " MAR T HA S T OUT 1i||icwas right. Itwas avio|ation. Sunnyhasnotcvcnhadbrcaklast yct, and a|rcady shc is drcading hcr trip to thc groccq storc today, bccauscshcwi||havctobackhcrcarout a|onc. Shclcc|s|ikccqing. And thatcarwasnowhcrcncar1i||ic`s housc| A Sunny|amcnts acrossthc strcct,1i||ic, onhcrbac|arddcck, dccidcsthatthcgroundhogisnotgoingtorcappcarrightnow. Shc gocs backintohcr housc, whcrc shc can no |ongcr bc sccnbythc brcaklastingCrctaand|crryupthc hi||. Whi|cCrctaand|crqdrink thcrcstolthcircollccandtqtota|kaboutsomcthingc|sc,1i||ic, in hcr kitchcn, picks up thc phonc and ca||s Cathcrinc, thc ncxt-door ncighborwithwhomshcnowsharcs a groundhog. Cathcrinc tcachcs thc sbh gradc. Shc has taught schoo| sincc shc was twcn¡-two, and now hcr sbticth birthday is coming. Shc thinks shc oughtto rctirc, butthc notion on|y makcs hcr sad. Hcr tcaching, hcr kids, mcan thc wor|d to hcr, and shc rca||ydocs not wantto stopworking. Hcrhusband, Frcd, who is scvcnycarso|dcr anda|rcadyrctircd, undcrstandsthisand ispaticntwith hcr. ¨Whcncvcryou`rcrcady, ¨ hca|ways says. ¨I |ikctoputtcraround thc housc and m things anyway. ¨ And thcn thcy both |augh. Frcd can barc|y rcp|acc burncd-out |ightbu|bs. \nti| hc rc|uctant|y gavc up thc mant|c aycar ago, hc was thc cditor olthcirrcgiona| ncws- papcr.Hcisagood, quict, bookishmanwho|ovcdhiswork,too, and sti||contributcsan¨cmcritus¨human-intcrcstco|umnca||cd¨Fcop|c YouShou|dKnow. ¨ Whcnthc phonc rings, Frcd is rcading in thc |iving room, and Cathcrincisinthckitchcn,gcttingrcadytogotoworkcar|y. 1hctri|| olthc phonc atsuchanhourmakcs Cathcrincjump. Shcanswcrs it quick|y. ¨Hc||oî¨ ¨Cathcrinc, ¨ says1i||icabrupt|y, snippingthcwordasilshcwcrc angq. ¨Ycs, this is Cathcrinc.1i||icî1i||ic,mygoodncss,it`sscvcninthc morning.Arcyou a||rightî¨ ¬ 200 ª T H E S O C I O PATH N EXT D O O R ¨Ycs. I' mhnc. Ijustsawa groundhog inthcyard, and Ithought you`dlikcto know. ¨ ¨AwhatîAgroundhogî¨ ¨Ycs, inthcback, bctwccn ourpropcrtics. ¨ ¨Wcll,that`s . . . intcrcsting.Musthavcbccncutc,Igucss.Wasitî¨ ¨I supposc. Anyway, I know you`rc busy. I just thought you should know about thc animal. Wc can talk about it latcr. Cood- byc. ¨ ¨\h, right. 1alklatcr. Wcll, good-byc thcn,1illic. ¨ Cathcrinc hangs up thc phonc, bahÍcd, and Frcd calls to hcr, ¨Whatwas thatî¨ Shcwalks intothc livingroom, whcrc hc sitswithhis book, and answcrs, ¨1hatwas 1illic. ¨ ¨Ch, ¨ says Frcd, rollinghis cycs. ¨Whatdidshcwautî¨ ¨Shcwantcdtotcllmcshcsawagroundhoginthcbac|ard. ¨ ¨Whydidshcwanttotcllyouthatî¨ Cathcrinc shakcs hcr hcad slowly and says, ¨I don`thavc thc slightcst idca. ¨ ¨/1illic| ¨ pronounccsFrcd, raisinghisrightarmabovchishcad inmocksalutc. A shc hnishcs hcr moming routinc, Cathcrinc lccls conluscd and slightly m at casc, knowing that with 1illic thcrc is always a thickcningplot, andthatthc dcnoucmcnt islikclyto bc controlling and upsctting. Butlorthc lilc olhcr, shc cannot imaginc whatthis thing with thc groundhog is about. Oocs 1illic want to havc it rcmovcdî Is 1illic asking hcr pcrmission in somc roundabout wayî Also, Cathcrinc and Frcd havc livcd in this samc housc lor thirtyycars, and thcy havc ncvcronccsccnagroundhoginthc yard. Howodd. A shc is about to lcavc lor school, thc phonc rings a sccond timc. Shc thinks it must bc 1illic again, but instcad it is anothcr nc|ghbor, swcct, soh-spokcn Sunny, and shc is in tcars. Sunnytclls Cathcrincthat1illic has madchcrparkhcrcarinthc drivcway, and ¯ 201 ¯ MARTHA S T OUT now shc is trappcd. Can somconc hc|pî Can Cathcrinc and Frcd takc hcr to thc storc todayî Lcamingaboutthis ncwcst cxp|oit ol 1i||ic's, Cathcrinc lcc|sthcb|oodrushingangri|yto hcrlacc,butin hcrca|mcstvoicc, shc rcassurcsSunnythatolcoursc Frcdwi||drivc hcr to thc storc. How about |unchtimcîAlso, Frcd knows thc chicl olpo|icc vcq wc||, and maybc somcthing can bc donc aboutthc prob|cmwith Sunny'sparkingspacc. 1caching hcr c|ass ol sbth gradcrs a|| day, Cathcrinc lorgcts ahout 1i||ic, but �hcn shc gcts homc at about 4.30, shc rcmcmbcrs thccar|y-morningphoncca||andbcginstolcc|uncasya||ovcragain. Shc was p|anningto takc a nap bclorc dinncr, butas shc sits down onthc bcd,hcruncasincssgcts suddcn|ystrongcr, and shc is drawn tothcwindow. 1hc bcdroom is onth� sccond tloor, and lrom hcrc, Cathcrinchasac|carvicwolthcwho|cbac|ard,and1i||ic`saswc||. 1hc dayhas bccnunscasonab|ywarm, and a|| thosc nicc lorsythias Frcdp|antcdatthc backcdgc olthciryard arc bcginningto b|oom. 1hcrc isthcwidc back|awn, and bcyondthatthc |ongrowol|itt|c yc||ow lorsythia b|ossoms, and thcn thc gray�brown shadow olthc sti||-|cahcssconscrvationlorcstthatbordcrsa||thcbac|ardsonthis sidc olthc strcct. And a|so, rathcr strangc|y, thcrc is 1i||ic, standing right in thc midd|colhcr|awn. Shcissti||wcaringhcrchcckcrcdb|uc-and-whitc drcssandhasaddcdawidc-brimmcdstrawhat, as ilshcwcrc about to do somc |ady|ikc gardcning. But1i||icncvcrgardcns. A Cathcrinc watchcs lrom hcr bcdroom window, 1i||ic |ooks aroundthc yard, sccms to spysomcthingshc wants, and marchcs ov�rtoit. Shcbcndsand,withobviouscûort,|iltsanobjcctlromthc groundthat|ookstoCathcrinc|ikca|argcwhitcrock,aboutthcsizc andshapc ola sma||watcrmc|on. Studyingthcsccncmorcintcnt|y, Cathcrinc rca|izcsthatthc objcct is indccd a rock, a sma||bou|dcr rca||y, andncar|ytoomuchlor1i||ictoho|d. But1i||iccmbraccs¸thc rockwithbotharms, stoopinginawaythatis painlu|towatch, and ¯ 202 ¯ T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R bcgins to wadd|c unstcadi|y in thc dircction ol Frcd`s lorsythia p|ants. A phrasc lrom thc morning`s phonc convcrsation cchocs in Cathcrinc's hcad÷¨in thc back, bctwccn our propcrtics¨÷and in thissamcmomcnt,Cathcrincknowscxact|ywhat1i||icisdoing.1hc groundhog`sburrow| 1i||ic is going to usc that rock to p|ug up thc dcnolthc groundhogshcto|d hcr about. Cathcrinc is appa||cd. Shclcc|s |ight-hcadcdandsick, a|mostas ilshcwcrcwitncssingamurdcr. Shcnccdsto dosomcthing,butgo- ing out and conlronting1i||ic dircct|ywou|d bc |ikc arguingwith a rabid wo|vcrinc. Intruth, though Cathcrinc docs not |ikc to admit thisto hcrsc|l, 1i||ic lrightcns hcrin gcncra|, lor rcasons shccannot cvcnputintowords.Vhyshou|darathcrinsignihcantscvcn¡-ycar- o|dwomanlrightcnhcrî Andhowdid1i||icknowshcwou|dbc watchinglromthc housc rightnowîDid shcknowî Cathcrinc bcginsto pacc across thc bcdroom, lrom thc window to thc o|d oak drcsscrand backto thc window. Shc sccs JiUic drop thcrockc|umsi|yonto aspotjust bcyondthc lorsythias, midwaybc- twccntwo sma||wi||owsatthccdgcolthcwoods,andshcmarksthc |ocation carclu||y in hcr mind. 1hcn shc paccs back to thc drcsscr and starcs at hcrsc|l in thc antiquc mirror. Whi|c 1i||ic swipcs at |ooscdirtonthclrontolhcrdrcssandparadcsbackacrossthc |awn to hcr dcck, Cathcrinc continucs to starc into hcr own cycs inthc mirror. 1hat poor ¡itt|c anima|, shc kccps thinking. What il hc`s trappcdî Fina||y, Cathcrincknowswhatshcwantstodo.Andshcmusttc|| Frcd. Mc canhc|p. Frcd has bccn atthc ncwspapcr, visiting with somc ol his o|d lricnds. Whcnhc comcs homc, Cathcrinc tc||s him what 1i||ic has donc. Mc says, ¨Wc||, I gucss in this casc 1i||ic got two with onc stonc, |itcra||y. `' ¨Whatdoyoumcanî" 203 MAR T HA S T OUT ¨You andthc littlc woodchuck, both. ' ¨Ch, right. 1hat's rcallytruc, isn'titî' says Cathcrinc glumly. ¨Itwouldappcarso.Surcyoudon`twantmcto go ovcrthcrcand havc it outwithhcrî' ¨Mo.Shc'djustdoitagain. Iwant to hclpthc groundhog,sohc'll bc okay. Cowithmcî' ¨OoI havc a choiccî¨ Cathcrincsmilcsand hugs him. ¨Motrcally, ' shcsays. 1hcymakcdinncrtogcthcr,asisthcirhabit,andwaituntilabout ninco'clock,whcnitis complctclydarkoutsidc. FrcdsuggcstsIlash- lights, butCathcrincthinks1illicwouldsccthcm. ¨Shc`llknowwc libcratcdhim, andshc'lljustcovcrhimagainto- morrow. ' ¨Wc'llhavctotakc at lcast onc, to hnd thc burrowoncc wc gct thcrc. ' ¨Ycs. Right. Ckay, maybc apcnlightî Forwhcnwc gctthcrc. ' 1hcy sctoutacrossthcyardatasnail`spacc, soas nottotrip in thc darkncss. Frcdtakcsthc lcad, and Cathcrinclollows, arms hcld out in lront olhcr likc a slccpwalkcr's, to kccp hcr balancc. Whcn thcygcttothc larcndolthc lawn,thcylollowalongthcrowollor- sythia bushcs until thcrc arc no morc lorsythias. 1hcn, in wondcr, likc a child, Cathcrinc takcs a stcp into thc cvcn morc complctc darkncss bcyond, hopingthat hcrhands, and not hcrlacc, will hnd onc olthcwillows. Shc lc�ls a branch, takcs a dccp brcath, and whispcrs, ¨Ckay, Frcd. Fcnlight. ' Frcd takcs thc light out ol his pockct, holds it closc to thc ground, andtums it on. Altcralcwmomcnts, thcyhndthc mclon- sizc rock, somcwhat morc casilythan thcy could havc hopcd, bc- causc thc rock is smooth and whitc and thc surrounding carth is dark. Cathcrinccxhalcsandpushcsalooscstrandolhairbchindhcr lclt car. Shc and Frcd bcnddownand liltthc rocktogcthcr, rcvcal- ¬ 204 T H E S O C I O PAT H NE XT D O O R inga surprising|ysma||ho|c inthc ground, considcringit is uscdby a lat |itt|c groundhog. Cathcrinc has an impu|sc to shincthc pcn|ightinto thc ho|cto chcck on its occupant. But thcn shc rca|izcs that shc wi|| not scc much, andthatshcmayscarcthc anima|. Arm in arm, whispcring and containing thcir |aughtcr, shc and Frcdstumb|chomc. 1i||ic docs notscc thcm. A thcyrcturnlromthcir mission, shc hasa|rca!ybccndrinkingandsu|kinglorscvcra|ho�rs, as usua|. Shc sits on a sola in hcr |iving room and pours hcrsc|l g|asscs ol C|cn|ivct, tqingto drown outthc monotonyolhcr |ilc and thc id- iots shccontinual|yhasto dca|with.1hcon|ythingthatmakcsthis cvcning dillcrcnt lrom any othcr is thc accumu|ation ol packing boxcsnowstackcd aroundhcr. Insidc hcrdrunkcnlog, shccongratu|atcshcrscllonhcrbri||iant idca not to put up a íLK SALE sign this timc. Shc thinks, I' || takc thcsc crctins bysurprisc. 1hcirstupid mouthswi||gapc. 1hc good-lor-nothingrca|cstatc agcntkccpstc||inghcrthatnot usingasignis shootinghcrsc|linthc loot, andthathc rca||ythinks shc shou|d wait lor a highcr oûcr. 1his buycr camc in undcr hcr pricc. But 1i||ic cannot wait. Shc has ncvcr|ikcd waiting. Shc wi|l havc hcrmomcnt, and hcrmomcntwi||bctomorrowmorning. And thcn cvcryonc in this who|c horrib|c ncigborhood wi|| bc in com- p|ctcshockabouthcrmovc. Shc is surcoI it.1hcagcntdocsnotun- dcrstandwhysccrccymattcrs, buthc isa loo|, sowhy|istcntohimî Shc hastakcn|osscs bclorcwhcnshcwantcd to gctoutola housc last. It's a||inthc gamc, shcthinksto hcrsc|l.A!| in thc gamc. You can't stay in a p|acc whcrc thc pcop|cwon't |istcnto you. And giv- ing thcmapartingshot is cxtrcmc|yimportant. I 1i||ic has a trust lund lrom hcr dcccascd1athcr that has sup� portcd hcrlormostolhcr|ilc. 1hcscda,s, shcsaysshc is ¨rctircd, ¨ I but shc ncvcr rca||y workcd. Shc uscd to paint watcrco|ors somc- 205 MAR T HA S T OUT timcs whcn shc was youngcr, but shc ncvcr so|d anyoIthcm. Shc wou|d |ikc to purchasc grandcr houscs, but hcr wrctchcd mothcr kccpshangingon, andsoshccannotgcthcrhandsonthcrcstoIthc moncy. Hcr mothcr is ncar|ya hundrcdycars o|d, and sti||shc has not dicd. 1i||ic is stuck in thcsc drcadIu| midd|c-c|ass ncighbor- hoods,knowingthat,byrights, shc shou|dhavcawca|thicr|iIcs¡|c. Shc visitshcr mothcr pcriodica||y, bccausc shc ccrtain|y docs not wantto bcwrittcn outoIthcwi||, andthc bcdriddcn o|dwoman a|- ways rcminds hcr oI a ha|I-p|uckcd parakcct squawking in a cagc. What shc hastosayisjustaboutthat intcrcsting. Mothing is vcq intcrcsting, rca||y. Suûocating thc rodcnt was okay Ior a Icw minutcs, and shc hopcs Cathcrinc was watching. Cathcrincwou|dhavc a strokc. Butthcnthatprojcctwas ovcr, and thcrcwas nothingc|scto do. Shccannotimagincwhatthcscabsurd pcop|c on a|| sidcs oI hcr do that sccms to occupy thcm so com- p|ctc|yasthcyscurqabout thcir|itt|c |ivcs. 1hcymusthavcbrains thc sizc oIpcas. Shcpourshcrsc|Ianothcrdrinkandconsumcsit:noncgu|p.Mot yctpackcdintoabox,apaintingthatshcmadcwhcnshcwassti||in hcrtwcntics hangsovcrthc unuscd hrcp|acc, so Iadcdthatthc im- agc can hard|ybc madc out in thc shadows oIthc i||-|ightcd·|iving room. Hunchcdonthc soIa, shc |ooks up at it anddim|y rcca||s thc bcachsccnc shc stoodina||thosc dccadcsago.1hcna||shcsccsarc thc pinpoints oIstars bcIorc hcr cycsthat shc waits Iormostnights oIhcr |iIc,justbcIorc shc b|acksout. 1hc ncxt morning is Saturday, a bitcoo|crthanycstcrday, and nota c|oud inthcs| . Acrossthc strcct and down aIcwhouscs, Sunnyopcnsthc |acc curtains in hcr Iront window, and as thc sun strcams in, shc takcs inthc happyvicwoIhcrcarparkcdwhcrc it is supposcdto bc÷on thc strcct. And thcrc it wi|| stay parkcd. Frcd ta|kcd to thc po|icc chicIycstcrdayaItcr |unch, andgotcvcqthing a|| squarcd away Ior hcr. "Freedom, " shc brcathcs to hcrsc|I. Shc trics to think what shc 205 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D O O R can do lor Frcd and Cathcrinc. Maybc shc can bakc thcm somc- thing. Imagininghowmuchthcywi|||ikcthat, shc lcc|scvcnmorc chccrlu|. Inthc houscupthc hi||, Crctahasthcwcckcndoll, andshc and |crqs|ccp |atc.Whcnthcys|ow|yrouscthcmsc|vcsandgoouttothc sunroom to drink thcir coûcc, thcy noticc a big moving truck in 1i||ic'sdrivcway. ¨Oocsthatmcanwhat Ithinkitmcansî¨|crqasks,staringatthc truck. ¨Cr arcwc sti||inbcd, drcamingî¨ ¨Cot to bc drcaming, ¨ says Crcta, a|so staring. ¨I ncvcr saw a sign. Oidyou cvcrscca signovcrthcrcî¨ ¨Mopc. ¨ |ust now, two mcnwcaringcanvas covcra||s comc out ol1i||ic`s housc, cachcarqingonccndolasola. Crctaand|crq|ookatcach othcrand bcginto |augh. |crq|aughssohard, hc spi||ssomc olhis collcc. Crcta asks him, ¨Whydoyou supposc shc kcptitasccrctî¨ ``Whydocsshcdoanythingî Butitdocsn`tmattcranymorc, docs itî \nbc|icvab|c. ¨ Crcta i sthoughtlu| lor a momcnt, and thcn says, ¨Mow o|d do ¸ you supposc shc isî¨ ¨Idon'tknow. Motyoung. ¨ ¨Iwondcrwhcthcrshccvcrhadanychi|drcn. Chwow. Canyou . imaginc bcingonc olhcr children? " ¨Worscyct, canyou imaginc bcingher?" ¨So, doyouthinkwcshou|dlcc|sorrylor hcrî¨ Crcta asks. |crq gins and wavcs his hand dismissivc|y at thc lumiturc- movingsccncinthc distancc. ``c||, I`m not surc, swccthcart. Butil wc'rc going to lcc| sorq lor hcr, |ct`s do it ovcr brcaklast, okayî Rcmcmbcrthatstrudc|î¨ ¨Ycs| ¨ says Crcta, smacking hcr |ips. Shc picks up both collcc mugs, and thcy abandonthc vicw lromthc sunroom in lavor olthc pastq inthc kitchcn. - 207 ¯ MART H A S T OUT Sincc thcyarc in thc housc ncxt doorto 1i||ic`s, Cathcrinc and Frcd a|sonoticcthcactiviticsolthcmcnlromthcmovingtruck, and wondcrwhythcyncvcrsawa íLk 5PLL signorhcard lrom1i||icthat shcwas moving. Frcd ro||s hiscycs again, and Cathcrinc shakcs hcr hcad. But thcn thcy arc distractcd by anothcr phonc ca||, this onc lrom thcir daughtcr and son-in-|aw, who saythat intwowccksthcy and lour-ycar-o|d Katic arc IÍying out lor anothcr visit. Cathcrinc is bcsidc hcrsc|lwith cxcitcmcnt, and 1i||ic`s moving day, sti|| in progrcss outsidc, islorgottcn. 1wohours|atcr,whcn1hctruckpu||sawaylrom1i||ic'shousc, no onc iswatching.A||is quictagain. InCathcrincandFrcd`sbac|ard,bythclorsythiasatthclarop- positccndolthcrow, thcgroundhogc|ambcrsoutolhissccondho|c andstandsupasta||ashccanonhisshorthind|cgs. Hisb|ackcycs g|intinginthc brightsun|ight,hcpccrsovcratabigwhitcrock|ying ncar his hrst ho|c, at thc othcr cnd olthc yc||ow bushcs. 1hcn hc gazcsuptoward1i||ic'scmp¡housc. Fina||y, hisattcntionsctt|cson a patch oldandc|ions growing inthc soltcarthjustin lront olhim. Anothcrgroundhog,s|ight|ysma||cr,wigg|csoutolthcho|c.1hcysit down groundhog-lashion, sharc a |cisurc|y|unchcon olncw stcms, and amb|collintothcwoods. 208 ! W | | Y | consc i ence in its purest form: S C ience votes for morali ty He is not a perect Muslim who eats his fll and lets his neighbor go hungr. -Muhammad For what shall i t profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, . and lose his own soul? ' -Jesus Te man who knows how to split the atom but has no love in his heart becomes a monster. -Kri shnamurti nc way or anothcr, a lilc ithout conscicncc is a lailcd |ilc. ¸ 1hoscoluswholovcandhavcconscicnccarcrcallyvcryluc|, ìi cvcn as wc go about our cvcqday livcs olwork, rctIcxivc givc-and- �akc, andordinaqplcasurcs. And usually conscicncc is just that. rctIcxivc and ordinaq. Wthout lanlarc and mostly without bcing noticcd, conscicncc gantslittlc bits olmcaningto ournormal andspontancous day-to- dayintcractionswithcvcqonc andcvcqthingaround us. Cathcrinc znd Frcdwcrcnotthinkingabouthigh-mindcdprinciplcswhcnthcy - 209 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT sct out to |ibcratc thc groundhog, which, as it tums out, was not trappcd inthc hrstp|acc.1hcywcrc not bcingpiousorcouragcous, not particu|ar|y cûcctivc, and ccrtain|y not rationa|. It was simp|y that tqing to hc|p thc anima| sccmcd right and somchow madc thcmfeel good. Movingthat rockwas, to usc an o|d and univcrsa||y undcrstoodcxprcssion, ¨good Iorthcir sou|s. ¨ Whcrc conscicncc i sconccrncd, ovcrthc ccnturicsWcstcm cu|- turchasprogrcsscdIromIaithinanimmutab|cCod-scntknow|cdgc oIrightandwrongtoabc|icIin Frcud`s conccptoIapunitivc supcr- cgotoanundcrstandingthatconscicncc is bascd in ournorma|and positivc rc|atcdncss to onc anothcr. A an intcrvcning scnsc oIrc- sponsibi|i¡ scatcd in our cmotiona| attachmcnts, conscicncc has cvo|vcdintoapurc|ypsycho|ogica|construct. But, inakindoIphi|o- sophica|Iu||circ|c backto its bcginnings in thc church, conscicncc is a|sothcp|accwhcrcpsycho|ogandspiritua|i¡mcct, anissucon whichthc rccommcndations oIpsycho|ogandthc tcachings oIthc majorrc|igious and spiritua|traditions oIthcwor|d comp|ctc|y con- cur. In a rcmarkab|c conIÍucncc~cvcn thc radica| matcria|ists and thcmysticsinatacitmcctingoIthcminds-bchavioraÌscicncc, cvo- |utionaqpsycho|og, anda||traditiona|thco|ogics agrcc thathaving a strong conscicncc is cxtrcmc|yadvantagcous, andthat not having onc at a|| most common|y |cads to disastcr, Ior goups and a|so Ior individua|s. Apsycho|ogistwou|dsaythatwhcnwctakcsomc rcsponsibi|i¡ Iorthcwc|Iarc oIothcrs, ouractionsIcc|natura|[or ¨cgo-syntonic¨ ) and ourOv |iIc satisIaction is cnhanccd. 1hc Bib|c says simp|y, ¨It ismorc b|csscdtogivcthantorcccivc. ¨ A apsycho|ogist, Icantc|| youthatthc abscncc oIanintcrvcningscnsc oIrcsponsibi|i¡bascd incmotiona|attachmcnt is associatcdwithancnd|css, usua||y Iuti|c prcoccupation with domination, and rcsu|ts in substantia| |iIc dis- ruptionandcvcntua|dctcrioration. Buddhaputitthisway. ¨A||that wc arcisthcrcsu|toIwhatwchavcthought. IIamanspcaks oracts with ancvi|thought, pain Io||ows him. IIa man spcaks oracts with 210 T H E S O C I O PATH N E XT D OOR a purc thought, happincss lollows him, likc a shadow that ncvcr lcavcs him.¨ Inthcir psychological studyolindividualswith cxccptional con- scicncc,AnncColbyandWilliamOamonwritc, ¨Apositivi¡thatin- cludcsoptimism, lovc, andjoyis . . . closclylinkcdwithmorali¡, as wcsccinthclivcsolourcxcmplars. ¨Buddha again agrccs. Hcsays, ¨1owalksalclythroughthc mazc olhumanlilc, onc nccdsthc light olwisdomandthc guidancc olvirtuc.¨ And, olcoursc, thcrc isthc Coldcn Rulc, whichishumankind's mostancicntcthicolrcciproci¡, andpcrhapsthcmostsuccinctand clcarly opcrationalizcd moral philosophycvcrconccivcd. Conlucius was mcrcly rccording an cvcn oldcr Chincsc sayingwhcn hc wrotc, ¨Oo not do to othcrswhatyouwould not want donc to you, ¨ and whcn |csus said, ¨Oountoothcrs as you would hacthcm do unto you, ¨ hc was rclcrring to an alrcady timc-honorcd |cwish provcrb that instructcd, ¨What is hatclul toyou, do nottoyourlcllo�man. 1his is thc law. all thc rcst is commcntaq. ¨ 1hc Mahabharata tclls lollowcrs olHinduism, ¨1hisis thc sum olthc Oharma. Oonaught untoothcrswhichwould causcyou painildonctoyou. ¨And in in- digcnous traditions aswcll÷thc Yoruba olMigcriasay, ¨Cnc going totakcapointcdsticktopinchababybirdshould hrsttqitonhim- scllto lcclhowit hurts. ¨Andthc Lakota rcligious lcadcrBlackElk taught, ¨Allthingsarcourrclativcs,whatwcdotocvcqthing,wcdo to oursclvcs.AllisrcallyCnc.¨ 1hc smattcring olrcligions that do not adhcrc to moral rcci- . proci¡arccontcmporaq,andtcndtomakcthcmoralwarmtholthc ancicntColdcn Rulc sccm cvcnmorc attractivc bythcirownblood- chilling naturc. A an illustration, onc can citc thc Crcativi¡ Movcmcnt, a militantly anti-Scmitic and anti-Christian group lor- mcrly callcd thc World Church ol thc Crcator, which is a rcligion loundcd onthclovcolthc¨WhitcRacc¨ andthc prcscribcd hatrcd olcvcqoncclsc.Withinthis doctrinc, cvcqoncwho is not ¨Whitc¨ is by dchnition a mcmbcr ol onc olthc ¨mud raccs. ¨ 1hc ccntral ¯ 211 ¯ MAR T HA S T OUT moral prcccpt olthc Crcativi¡ Movcmcnt is cxprcsscd as lollows. ¨Whatis goodlorthcWhitc Racc is thc highcstvirtuc,whatis bad lorthcWhitcRaccisthcultimatcsin.¨\nsurprisingly, thclong-tcrm goalolthc Crcativity!ovcmcnt isto organizcthc ¨Whitc Racc¨ to achicvc world domination. Inwclcomc contrast, most rcligions and spiritualtraditionssub- scribctothcColdcnRulc, andalsotosomclorm olBlackElk`sbc- liclthat¨AllisrcallyCnc. ¨Cncncssisamorclundamcntaltcnctlor somc rcligions thanothcrs. Forcxamplc, whilc thc |udco-Christian traditioninstructs itslollowcrstolovcthcir ncighbors, Eastcrnmys- ticismtcachcs1hatindividuali¡, thccgo, isanillusiontobcginwith, thatwc arc not distinctlrom Cod orlrom onc anothcr, andthcrc- lorc, inaspiritualscnsc,wcare ourncighbors. InPeace Is Ever Step, Victnamcsc Buddhist mastcr 1hich Mhat Hanh trics to cxplain this aspcct ol Eastcm thought lorWcstcmcrs by tclling us that wc ¨intcr-arc. 'Wc arc incluctablyand incxtricablyboundupwithcvcq- onc andcvcqthinginthcunivcrsc, andthisstatc olintcrbcingisthc rcason wc should not sclhshly [andvainly) chasc our goals olindi- vidualacquisitionandpowcr. 1hough lcss conspicuously, a bclicl in oncncss is pan ol thc |udco-Christian tradition as wcll. In I939,asyct anothcr shattcring attcmpt atworlddominationrumblcdin Europc, |cwishthcologian and philosophcr Martin Bubcr addrcsscd thc Mational Conlcrcncc olFalcstinian1cachcrsinJclAviv. Hcconcludcdhisaddrcssbysay- ing,¨Mothingrcmainsbutwhatriscsabovcthcabyssoltoday'smon- strousproblcms, asabovccvcqabyssolcvcrytimc.thcwing-bcatol thcspiritandthccrcativcword.Buthcwhocansccandhcaroutol uni¡willalsobcholdanddisccrnagainwhatcanbc bchcldanddis- ccrncdctcmal|. 1hccducatorwhohclpsto bringmanbackto his owuni¡willhclptoputhimagainlacc to laccwith Cod.' Inwhatcvcr tradition thcy occur, spiritual practiccs locuscd on anawarcncssolintcrbcingtcndtohavcthc intriguingpsychological 212 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR sidccllcctolbringingsignihcantcarth|yhappincsstothcirmostdc- votcdpractitioncrs,a|mostrcgard|cssolcxtcma|circumstanccs. Ina bookthat is a co||aboration bctwccn psycho|ogist Oanic| Co|cman and His Ho|incss thc Oa|ai Lama, cntit|cdDestrctive Emotions: A Scientifc Dialogue with the Dalai Lama, Co|cman writcs, ¨1hc vcq actoIconccrn1orothcrs'wc||-bcing, itsccms, crcatcsagrcatcrstatc olwc||-bcingwithinoncsc|l. '' Inrcccntycars, incrcasingnumbcrs ol scicntists havc cchocd this imprcssion. At a 2002 conlcrcncc on scicncc and thc mind, attcndcd by thc Oa|ai Lama, distinguishcd Austra|ian ncurobio|ogist |ack Fcttigrcw rcmarkcd, ¨Ilyou go to Oharamsa|a ¸ Indian homc olthc 1ibctan communi¡ in cxi|cj , you go up through thc log in midwintcrandyou comc outinthc bright sunshinc, it's |ikc going to hcavcn. What strikcs you immcdiatc|y is thchappy, smi|inglaccsoIthc1ibctans, whodon'thavc much,havc bccn tcrrib|y dcprivcd, and yct thcy arc happy. Wc||, why arc thcy happyî¨ 1hc Oa|ai Lamahimsc|lis intcrcstcd inanswcringthis qucstion scicntihca||y, and inhndinga sccu|arwaytocrcatcthc compassion- atc scnsc oIintcrbcingthat is achicvcd bydcvout practitioncrs ol 1ibctan Buddhistmcditation. 1o this cnd, hc has|aunchcd anintcr- nationa| scrics oIdia|ogucs bctwccnscicntists and Buddhist scho|- ars,thcmostrcccntoIwhich, in2003,wascosponsorcdbythcMind and LiIc Institutc in C o |orado and thc McCovcm Institutc oIthc Massachusctts Institutc ol1cchno|og. Hc intcnds thcsc dia|ogucs toyic|dpractica|so|utionstothcdcstructivcstatcsoImindthatboth thc Buddhists and thc scicntistsvicwasthc root oIhuman cont|ict and sullcring. . A a psycho|ogist, I amparticu|ar|ytakcnwiththc Oa|ai Lama`s dcscriptionolthoscwhomI mightrcIcrto associopaths, oraspco- p|cdcvoidoIanintcrvcningscnscolob|igationbascdinconncctcd- ncss to othcrs. Hc rclcrs to such individua|s as ¨pcop|c who don't havcwc||-dcvc|opcdhuman|ivcs. ¨Morcspccihca||y,thc Oa|ai Lama ¯ 213 ¯ MART HA S T OUT saidoIthcWor|d1radcCcntcrattacks, ¨1cchno|ogisagoodthing, but thc usc oItcchno|og in thc hands oIpcop|c who don`t havc wc||-dcvcÌopcdhuman|ivcs can bc disastrous. ' 1o thc cxcnt that a pcrson's capaci] to havc a wc||-dcvc|opcd human|iIc isIaci|itatcdor|imitcdbyhisorhcrparticu|argraymat- tcr,this BuddhistconccptionoIsociopathyhigh|ightswhatisoncoI thc most intcrcsting cont|ucnccs oI a||, that bctwccn rc|igìon and ncuropsycho|og. Fcrhaps sociopathy is a |iIc |csson that is taught not bysomc physica|Iaci|i]or|imitation, but by ancmotiona| dc- bi|ity. Inothcrwords,somcpcop|cmust|camwhatitis |ikc to |ivc with cxtrcmc bcau], or no |cgs, or as a bcggar, and ot�crs, thosc with no conscicncc, must |camwhatitmcans to |ivc without bcing ab|cto carc aboutothcrs. 1hcrcis anironyhcrc, inthatthiskarmic statc, iIyouwi||, mayindccdbcarcasonto hndsociopathspitiab|c, aswcmightpi]b|indorphans,whcthcrornotwc bc|icvc inthc dc- viccsoIkarma. 1hough psycho|og rccognizcs thc va|uc oIcompassion and oI scnsing oncncss, psycho|ogistshavc so Iar not rcscarchcd anydircct mcthods to achicvcthcsc, thus |cavingsociopaths and cspccia||your hca|thicr discip|cs somcwhat in thc |urch whcrc thc hcightcning oI conscicnccisconccmcd.Awaystoincrcasc|iIc�atisIaction,psycho|- ogists incrcasing|y rccommcnd mora| cducation Ior noma| chi|drcn and giving andvo|untccrismIoradu|ts, but psycho|ogists havc tradi- tiona||ybccnmuchmorc intcrcstcdincndcavorssuchas¨strcngthcn- ing intcrpcrsona| boundarics' and ¨asscrtivcncss training. ' In this rcgard, psycho|og rc|ativc to spiritua|i]rcminds mc oIthc hungq travc|cr in an ancicnt parab|c Irom India ca||cd ¨1hcWìsc Woman's Stonc.'AvcrsionoIthisparab|c,thcauthoroIwhichis|ong|osttoan- tiguiq can bc Iound in a co||cction oI storics compi|cd by Arthur Lcnchan,pub|ishcdin I994by, ironica||y, 1hc EconomicsFrcss. Awiscwomanwhowastravc|inginthcmountainsIound aprc- ciousstonc in astrcam. 1hc ncxt day shc mct anothcr travc|cr 2!4 T H E S O C I O PAT H N E XT D OOR whowashungg, andfhewlsewomanopenedherbagfo share heríood. Thehunggfravelersawfhepreclous sfoneand asked fhewomanfoglvelffo hlm. Shedldsowlfhoufheslfaflon. Thefravelerleû, re]olclnglnhlsgoodíorfune. Heknewfhe sfonewasworfhenoughfoglvehlmsecurlµíorallíeflme.ßuf aíew days lafer he came backfo refum fhe sfone fo fhe wlse woman. ¨l've beenfhlnklng,¨he sald,°lknowhowvaluablefhesfone ls,buf¡glvelfbacklnfhehopefhafyoucanglvemesomefhlng evenmorepreclous.Glvemewhafyouhavewlfhlnyoufhafen- abledyoufoglve mefhesfone. ¨ Thewlse and happyTlbefanßuddhlsfs, andcerfalnlyfheDalal Lamahlmselí, are remlnlscenfofColbyandDamon'sexemplarsoí exfremeconsclence, suchas Suzle Valadez, whofeedsfhe poorln Mexlco, and íormercollegepresldenf]ack Coleman, whofrled fo fosferhlsownsense oflnferbelngand compasslonbybelngadlfch dlgger, a garbage collecfor, a homeless person. ßofh fhe ßuddhlsf monksandfhepsychologlcalexemplarslllusfrafefhaffheawareness provldedbyexfreme consclence lmprovespeople'sllves andmakes fhemhappy.Thlshapplnesslsnoffheproducfofanycognlflvesfraf- eg orreaftrlbuflon oífemporag íallures fofhe cosmos and long- ferm successes fo oneself. In facf, Colby and Damon reporf fhaf mosfoffhelrmoralexemplarsarelnslsfenfreallsfsregardlngfheclr- cumsfances ofhuman llfe andfhelr own llmlfed pofenflal fo alfer fhesecond lflons.No, rafherfhanmerecognlflveadapfaflon,excep- flonalconsclencelnvolvesfhesfrongandsfeadylngsensaflonofbe- lngparfofsomefhlnggreaferfhanoneselí. Indeed, consclencewould seem fo be fhe nexus ofpsycholog and splrlfuallµ, asrevealedbywhafpsychologlsfs nowknowabouf the slngularlyupllfflngeffecfs ofa moral sense based ln emoflonal connecfedness. Inrellglonandsplrlfuallµ, fheexperlenceaffhlslo- cus ls called by names such as oneness, unlµ, lnferbelng, In psy- - 215 " MAR T HA S T OlT cho|og, it is ca||cd conscicncc or thc mora| scnsc. Vhatcvcr ìts namc,it is apowcrlu|intcgratorolhumanthought, cmotion,andac- tion that kncw its origins in our primcva| bio|ogica| past. 1hrough our gcncs, our brains, and pcrhaps our vcq sou|s, it has bccomc a protcctivc, productivc, andmood-sustaininglorcc inourpsycho|og- ica| and socia| |ivcs, and lorthousands olycars has spokcn to our mosttransccndcnttradìtionsandtothcmostadmirab|c mcmbcrs ol ourracc. Conscicnccisthcsti||sma||voiccthathasbccntryingsincc thc inlancyolour spccìcs to tc|| us thatwc arc cvo|utionarì|y, cmo- tiona||y, and spiritua||y Cnc, andthat ilwc scck pcacc and happi- ncss,wc mustbchavcthatway. Conscicncc, and uniquc|yconscicncc, cancompc| us out olour ownskinsandintothcskinolanothcr,orcvcnintocontactwiththc Abso|utc. It is bascd in our cmotiona| tics to onc anothcr. In its purcstlorm, itisca||cd|ovc.Andwondcrlu||y, bothmysticsandcvo- |utionaq psycho|ogists, who concur on not much c|sc, agrcc that pcop|c by thcir norma| naturc arc morc |ikc|y to bc |oving than ma|cvo|cnt. 1his conc|usion signihcs a brcathtakingdcparturc lrom ourusua|,morccynica|vicwoloursc|vcs. 1hco|ogians and scicntists agrcc a|sothat thc human mistakcs tcndingto contravcnc ournorma||ybcncvo|cntnaturc arc twolo|d. 1hc hrstmìstakc is thc dcsìrc to bc pcrsona||y incontro| ol othcrs andolthcwor|d. 1his motivation invo|vcs thc i||usion thatdomina- tion is a worthwh¸i|c goa|, an i||usionthatis mosthxcd inthc socio- pathic mind. And thc sccond tragic crror is mora| cxc|usion. Vc knowthcrcto bc cnd|cssdangcrin dccidingthatthc ¨othcr¨ ìs somc- thing |css than human÷thc othcr gcndcr, thc othcrracc, thc lor- cìgncr,thc ¨cncmy, ¨andpcrhapscvcn thcsociopathhimsc|l-which Lwhythc qucstion olwhatto dowiththc mora|out|awis suchan uncasyonc inthco|oganda|soinpsycho|og. Howdowclaccthc potcntia||y catac|ysmic cha||cngc olpcop|c who simp|y ¨don't havc wc||-dcvc|opcd human |ivcs¨î So lar, psycho|og has |ch this qucs- tion comp|ctc|y unanswcrcd, though it wou|d sccm an cvcr morc 215 T H E S O C I O PAT H N EXT D O O R prcssingissuc as timc gocs by and tcchno|ogis pro|ilcratcd. Acr a||, thc dcvi| iscvo|ving, too. A lor thc qucstion olwho is morc lortunatc, thc pcrson ruth- |css|y cngagcdon|yin cxact|ywhathc wants to do, oryou, who arc ob|igatcd` byyourconscicncc÷onccagain,I askyoutoimagincwhat you wou|d bc |ikc ilyou had no scvcnth scnsc. Butthis timc asyou cnvisionyourhugc inhucncc andwca|th, oryourpcrmancnt |cisurc withoutgui|t, imaginc itwhi|cbcaringinmindwhat conscicnccand on|y conscicncc can bring to a |ilc, what it ha brought to yours. Ficturc c|car|y thc lacc olsomconc you |ovc morc than a|| olyour carth|yposscssions,somconclorwhomyouwou|drunhcad|onginto a bumingbui|dingilthiswcrc rcquircd olyou÷a parcnt, a brothcr, asistcr, adcarlricnd,your|ilcpartncr,yourchi|d.1q topicturcthat samc lacc÷a parcnt`s, oradaughtcr's, ora son's÷wccping in gricl, orsmi|ingin pcaccandjoy. Andnow imaginc lora momcntthatyou cou|d |ooklorcvcrand lcc| abso|utc|y nothing, no |ovc, no dcsirc to hc|p or cvcn to smi|c back. Butdonotimagincthis carccningcmptincsstoo |ong,thoughit wou|d strctch throughout a |ilctimc il you wcrc a pcrson without conscicncc,somconcwhocou|d gui|t|css|yd�anythingat a||. Rathcr, rcturntoyourlcc|ings. Inyourmind, scc thclaccyou|ovc, touch a chcck, hcarthc |aughtcr. Conscicncc b|csscs our individua| |ivcs with just this kind ol mcaningcvcqday. Without it, wc wou|d bc cmotiona||yho||ow and borcd, and wou|d spcnd ourdays pursuing rcpctitivc gamcs olour ownmisguidcdcrcation. Formost ol us, most olthc timc, conscicncc is so ordinaq, so dai|y, and so spontancous thatwc do notcvcnnoticc it. But con- scicncc is a|so much |argcr than wc arc. It is onc sidc ol a con- Irontationbctwccnanancicntlactionolamora|sc|l-intcrcstthathas a|ways bccndoomcd, bothpsycho|ogica||y andspiritua||y, and acir- c|c olmora|mindsjustas agc|css. Aapsycho|ogistand as acitizcn ¯ 217 ¯ M.R T HA S T OUT ol thc spccics, I votc lor thc pcoplc with conscicncc, lor thc o ncs whoarc lovingandcommittcd, lorthc gcncrous and gcntlc souls. I ammost imprcsscdbythoscindividualswho lccl,quitcsimply, that hurtingothcrsiswrong' and thatkindncssisright, andwhoscactions arc quictlydircctcdbythismoral scnsc cvcqdayolthcirlivcs.1hcy arc an clitc olthcir own. 1hcy arc old and young. 1hcyarc pcoplc whohavc bccngonclorhundrcdsolycars andthcbabywhowillbc bomtomorrow.1hcycomclrom cvcqnation, culturc, and rcligion. 1hcyarc thc mostawarcand locuscd mcmbcrs olourspccics. �d thcyarc, andalwayshavcb ccn, ourhopc. ¬ ¬ 2)8 DO\CS Introduction: Imagine page 6 now thought to be present in about 4 percent of the population: See K. Barr et al. . "Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personalit in Adult Primar Care Patients, " Joural of Family Practice 45 ( 1997) : 151-158; R. Bland, S. Newman, and H. Om, "Lifetime Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Edmonton, " Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 77 ( 1988): 24-32; J. Samuels et aI., "DSM-III Personalit Disorders in the Communit, " American Joural of Psychiatr 151 ( 1994) : 1055-1062; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Serices, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Statistical Sourcebook ( Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Serices Administration, 1991) . page 6 Tis condition of missing conscience: For the past two hundred years, sociopathy, variously conceptualized, has been called by a variet of different names in the Western world. For a detailed discussion of the histor of such labels and diagnoses, see J Millon, E. Simonsen, and M. Birket-Smith, "Historical Conceptions of Psychopathy in the United States and Europe, " i n Psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Volent Behavior, eds. T. Millon et al. ( New York: Guilford Press, 1998) . page 6 According to the curent bible of psychiatric labels: American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Association, 1994) . For detailed descriptions and critiques of ¯ 2)9 ¯ NOT E S the APA feld trials used to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria for antisocial personalit disorder, see W. Livesley, ed. , Te DSM-N Personality Disorders (New York: Guilford Press, 1995) . page 6 Other researchers and clinicians: See, for example, R. Hare, "Psychopathy: A Clinical Construct Whose Time Has Come," Criminal Justice and Behavior 23 ( 1996): 25-54. page 7 And sociopaths are noted especially: The accepted expression is "shallowness of emotion, " although in the case of sociopathy a more accurate description would be "absence of emotion. " page 8 As Î have detailed in case studies: M. Stout, Te Myth of Sanity: Divided Consciousness and the Promise of Awareness (New York: Viking Penguin, 2001) . page I2 Robert Hare: R. Hare et aI. , "The Revised Psychopathy thecklist: Descriptive Statistics, Reliabilit, and Factor Structure, " Psychological Assessment 2 ( 1990) : 338-341 . page I 2 Of his subjects. Hare: R. Hare, Without Conscience: Te Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us ( New York: Guilford Press, 1999), p. 207. page I2 And Hervey Cleckley: H. Cleckley, Te Mask of Sanity, 5th ed. (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1976) , p. 90. page I3 with its know relationship to behavior: For a review of research on problems associated with sociopathy, see D. Black and C. Larson, Bad Bos, Bad Men: Confonting Antisocial Personality Disorder ( Oxord: Oxord University Press, 2000) . See also D. Dutton, with S. Golant, The Batterer: A Psychological Profile (New York: Basic Books, 1995); G. Abel, J. Rouleau, and J. Cunningham-Rathner, "Sexually Aggessive Behavior, " in Forensic Psychiatr and Psychclogy, eds. J. Curran, A. McGarry, and S. Shah ( Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1986); L. Grossman and - 220 N OT E S J . Cavenaugh, "Psychopatholog and Denial in Alleged Sex Offenders," Joural of Nerous and Mental Disease 178 ( 1990): 739-744; J. Fox and J. Levin, Overkill: Mass Murder and Serial Killing Exposed (New York: Plenum Press, 1994); and R. Simon, Bad Men Do What Good ' Men Dream (Washington, D. C. : American Psychiatric Press, 1996). page I4 From nowhere, a line fom a thirty-year-old apocalyptic song: Black Sabbath, "Luke's WalVWar Pigs, " Paranoid. Warner Bros. Records, 1970. page I6 what nOelist ! Scott Fitzgerald: Fitzgerald, Tender Is the Night. Chapter I. Te Seventh Sense page 27 In the fourh centur, the Chritian scholar Saint Jerome: See G. Evans, Mediaeval Commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard ( Leiden, D. E. J. Brill, 2002) . page 27 Jerome' illustrious contemporar, Augustine of Hippo: See Augustine, Confessions, trans. H. Chadwick ( Oxord, OH: Oxford Press, 1998), and R. Saarinen, Weakness of the Will in Medieval Tought fom Augustine to Buridan ( Leiden, D. E. J. Brill, 1994) . page 28 A solution to the theological dilemm over conscience: See J McDermott, ed. , Summa Theologiae: A Concise Translation (Allen, Å. Thomas More, 1997); B. Kent, "Transitory Vice: Thomas Aquinas on Incontinence, " Te Joural of the Histor of Philosophy 27 ( 1989) : 199-223; and J Potts, Conscience in Medieval Philosophy (Cambridge: Cambridge Universit Press, 1980) . page 29 Freud proposed tbat i n tbe norl coure of development: See S. Freud, Te Ego and the Id, i n Te Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. J. Strachey (New York: Y Y Norton, 1990), and S. Freud, Civilisation and Its Discontents, in ibid. - 22) N OT E S Chapter 2 . Ice People: The Sociopaths page 44 Robert Hare writes: R. Hare, Without Conscience ! p. 208. page 45 Jane Goodall says the chimpanzees she obsered: J. Goodall, Trough a Window: My Thirty Yeat with the Chimpanzees of Gombe (New York: Houghton Miflin, 2000) , pp. 210-21 1 . Chapter Õ. Wen Normal Conscience Sleeps page 57 to borrow an expression fom Erin Staub: E. Staub, Te Roots of Evil: Te Origins of Genocide and Other Group V�lence (Ca�bridge: Cambridge Universit Press, 1989). See also E. Staub, "Ethnopolitical and Other Group Violence: Origins and Prevention ' :' in Ethnopolitical Watare: Causes, Consequences, and Possible Solutions, eds. D. Chirot and M. Seligman (Washington, D. C. : American Psychological Association, 2001), and N. Smith, "The Psycho-Cultural Roots of Genocide, " Amercan Psychologist 53 ( 1998): 743-753. page 59 One explanation is our trancelike state: For descriptions and exam­ ples of dissociative states, see M. S�(ut, The Myth of Sanity. For a discussion of how dissociative phenomena may affect whole populations, see L. deMause, Te Emotional Life of Nations (New York: Karnac, 2002) . page 60 In 1VÚ1 and 1 VÚZ, i n New Haven, Connecticut: S. Milgram, "Behavioral Study of Obedience, " Joural of Abnoral and Social Psychology 67 ( 1963) : 371-378. See also S. Milgram, Obedience to Authorty: An Expermental Vew (New York: Perennial, 1983) , and J Blass, ed. , Obedience to Authority: Curent Perpectives on the Milgram Paradigm (Mahwah, NJ: Lwrence EribaumAssociates, 2000): page 65 Brig. Gen. S. L. A. Marshall: S. Marshall, Men against Fire: Te Problem of Battle Command in Future War (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1978) , p. 30. 222 N OT E S page 66 In his book On Killing: D. Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learing to Kill in War and Society (Boston: Back Bay Books, 1996) , p. 2. page 66 A Peter Watson writes: P. Watson, War on the Mind: The Militar Uses and Abuses of Psychology (New York:, Basic Books, 1978) , p. 250. page 68 In contrast, research involving Vetnam veterans: J. Stellman and S. Stellman, "Post Traumatic Stress Disorders among American Legionnaires in Relation to Combat Experience: Associated and Contributing Factors, " Environmental Research 47 ( 1988) : 175-210. This research, involving 6, 810 randomly selected veter­ ans, examined the relationship between symptoms of PTSD and participation in the killing process, and was the frst study to quantif levels of combat. Chapter 9. Te Nicest Person in the World page 76 Doreen Littlefeld is what personality theorist Teodore Millon would call: Many people have tried to identif different kinds of so­ ciopaths. One of tne most interesting typologies is Theodore Millon's. Millon identifes ten subtpes of psyc�opathy: cov­ etous, unprincipled, disingenuous, risk-taking, spineless, explo­ sive, abrasive, malevolent, tyrannical. and malignant. He notes that "the number 10 is by no means special. . . . Taxonomies may be put forward at levels that are more coarse or more fne­ grained." Millon's taxonomy is detailed in J Millon and R. Davis, "Ten Subtpes of Psychopathy, " in psychopathy: Antisocial, Criminal, and Volent Behavior eds. T. Millon et al. on average only about ZÛ percent of prison inmates in the United States: See R. Hare, K. Strachan, and A. Forth, "Psychopathy and Crime: A Review, " in Clinical Approaches to Mentally Disordered Ofender, eds. K. Howells and C. Hollin (New York: Wiley, 1993) , and S. Hart and R. Hare, "Psychopathy: Assessment and - 223 ¯ N OT E S Association with Crimin�l Conduct, " in Handbook of Antisocial Behavior, eds. D. Stoff, ]. Breiling, and ]. Maser (New York: Wiley, 1997). Chapter 5. Wy Conscience Is Partially Blind page 90 Relatedly, people without conscience have an uncanny sense: See L. Robins, Deviant Children Grown Up: A Sociological and Psychiatric Study of Sociopathic Peronality ( Huntington, D¦ Krieger Publishing,, 1974) . page 93 Benja�in Wolman: B. Wolman, Antisocial Behavior: Personality Disorders fom Hostility to Homicide (Amherst, D¦ Prometheus Books, 1999), p. 136. page 99 We raise our children, especially girls: See D. Cox, S. Stabb, and K. Bruckner, Womens Anger: Clinical and Developmental Perspectives ( Philaddphia: Brunner-Routledge, 1999) ; L. Brown, Raising Teir Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard Universit Press, 1999), p. 166; L. Brown, "Educating the Resistance: Enc
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