Annual wildflowers 2014 final

Education

cvadheim
  • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2014 (our 10th year) © Project SOUND
  • 2. Accent on Annuals: some of our more unusual annual wildflowers C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh Preserve January 4 & 7, 2014 © Project SOUND
  • 3. What do you think of when you picture a wildflower garden?http://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/© Project SOUND
  • 4. Many of us have a hard time envisioning wildflowers in our gardenshttp://www.theodorepayne.org/history/seedspmix2a.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 5. It’s time for the California native gardening tradition to take the next step… … become more sophisticatedhttp://mostbeautifulgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/simplesofisticated-backyard-garden.jpg© Project SOUNDhttp://acharlottegarden.blogspot.com/2011/08/california-native-plant-garden-at-san.html
  • 6. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide© Project SOUND
  • 7. Bringing Nature Home: Mother Nature + the art of gardening (gardening ‘secrets’)© Project SOUND
  • 8. The ‘essence’ of Japanese gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home© Project SOUND
  • 9. Wildflower gardens should reflect (but not necessarily recreate) their natural contexthttp://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/ http://www.moprairie.org/placemarks/coyne-prairie-dade-county/http://www.laspilitas.com/easy/easywildflower.htm© Project SOUND
  • 10. Beautiful, authentic gardens begin with nature  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape http://sequoiariverlands.wordpress.com/category/native-plants/ Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/category/tags/san-diego-native-landscaping?page=3© Project SOUND
  • 11. We’ve focused on local prairie/pool plants used in local gardens  Camissonia species (Suncups)  Clarkia purpurea (Purple Clarkia)  Collinsia heterophylla (Chinese Houses)  Gilia tricolor (Birds-eye Gilia)  Lasthenia californica (Goldfields)  Layia platyglossa (Tidytips)  Lupines (Lupinus bicolor; L. succulentis)  Annual Salviashttp://www.speciesphoto.com/images/sjwa/2004_03_09/DSCN0009.htmlToday we’ll venture further afield in search of annual wildflowers for the home garden © Project SOUND
  • 12. Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides©2009 Thomas Stoughton© Project SOUND
  • 13. Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides  Foothills/mountains of the Coast Ranges from Monterey County southward into San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties.  Another series of populations on Santa Catalina Island and along the coast (L.A. Co.) and immediately adjacent foothills in Orange and San Diego counties http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19357Sandy to gravelly or rocky places, coastal scrub, mixed grassland, chaparral, pine-oak woodlands, 1000-4000 ft elevation In LA. County: Catalina Isl.; Malibu Lake; ‘Inglewood Hills’; Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Santa Susanna & Verdugo Mtns  Highly variable © Project SOUND
  • 14. Size depends on conditions  Size:  1 ft tall 1-5 ft wide (spreads with water) Growth form:  ©2009 Robert SteersHerbaceous annual wildflower Form typical for annuals in buckwheat family:  Erect or spreading Foliage:    ©2003 Michael ChartersMostly in basal rosette Spatulate leaves; often hairy Leaves dry up at time of flowering; nice colors Infusion of entire plant used as lotion for pimples © Project SOUND
  • 15. Flowers: pinks  Blooms: depends on rains; April-July  Flowers:    ©2009 Thomas StoughtonPink (medium to bright), lavender Many small flowers in loose or dense clusters – flat spray Involucres (series of bracts beneath flowers) & petals colored Combination of colored leaves, bracts, flowers gives multicolored effect – ‘Turkish rugging’©2009 Neal Kramerhttp://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Chorizanthe_staticoides.htmhttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Polygonaceae/Chorizanthe%20staticoides. htm
  • 16. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: well-drained best  pH: any local Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: soils need to be moist through growth season  Summer: taper off once flower buds begin to form Fertilizer: none needed - likes poor soils; low dose if fine Other: no mulch or gravel mulch for best reseeding©2005 Aaron Schusteff© Project SOUND
  • 17. CA Wildflower gardening basics  Obtain seeds from a reputable CA native plant source  Plant seeds when winter rains begin  For best growth & reseeding, plant in bare ground or (better) use an inorganic (gravel) mulch  Keep plants well-watered during growing season – don’t hesitate to supplement Taper off water when flowering starts to wane http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/polygonaceae/choriz anthe/chorizanthe-staticoides/ Let plants reseed naturally or collect and store seed © Project SOUND
  • 18. Turkish delight      ©2011 Chris Winchellhttp://www.smmtc.org/plantofthemonth/plant_of_the_month_201306_Turkish_Rugging.phpMassed – on slopes or where can be viewed from above In a rock garden or dry stone wall In containers Combined with summer-dry grasses As spring groundcover around local native shrubshttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Polygonaceae/Chorizanthe%20staticoides.htm © Project SOUND
  • 19. * Desert Candle – Caulanthus inflatus©2003 Mark Bratton© Project SOUND
  • 20. * Desert Candle – Caulanthus inflatus  Common, Mojave desert; Antelope Valley; also in S. Sierra foothills, foothills of Transverse Ranges  Open, sandy plains and rocky slopes between 2000' and 5000‘ in Creosote Bush Scrub, Valley Grassland, Joshua Tree Woodland http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2240,2371,2388Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences.©2010 Neal Kramer© Project SOUND
  • 21. Desert candle: an unusual ‘Mustard’  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1-2 ft wide Growth form:    Herbaceous annual Robust, upright habit Stem is swollen and hollow Young upper stems can be cooked and eaten Foliage:   JoAnn Ordano © California Academy of Sciences.Large, coarse leaves, often with toothed margins Leaves clasp the stem© Project SOUND ©2010 Neal Kramer
  • 22. Flowers: weird & wonderful  Blooms: in spring after rains; in the wilds, Mar-May, in garden probably Mar-Apr. Flowers:   Flowers are small, very narrow tubes & white Flower bracts are white tipped with maroon-purple Flowers on short stalks around the inflated stem – typical forBrassicaceae Overall appearance: a lit ‘candle’ – hence common name Seeds: in long ‘pod’ that splits when dry, dropping seedsCharles Webber © California Academ y of Sciences ©2011 Aaron Schusteff© Project SOUND
  • 23. Caulanthus from seed  Known to have low germination rates  Usually means some pretreatment factor is needed  Look to Mother Nature:  How long are seeds in ground in nature?  What factors are they exposed to? Heat? Cold? Multiple rains? Fire/smoke? More on this next month – ‘Botany for Gardeners’ http://www.hazmac.biz/030421/030421CaulanthusInflatus.html© Project SOUND
  • 24. Desert foothills Soils:  Texture: best with well-drained – sandy, rocky – no heavy clays  pH: any local incl. alkali Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good soil moisture Nov/Dec until Feb.  Summer: taper off after flowering commences Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: need to plant in Nov/Dec.,even if you have to water. More on winter watering in our March talk – ‘Climate Change ‘©2009 Shawn DeCew© Project SOUND
  • 25. Garden candles   ©2005 Dieter WilkenIn a desert-themed garden In a dry rock garden, with other spring annuals In a dry meadow planting, with cool season grasses, S. CA wildflowers As an unusual pot plant – often the unusual ones are the most fun©2008 John Game© Project SOUND
  • 26. These are unusual wildflowers, but how can I use them effectively in my garden?©2009 Shawn DeCew© Project SOUND
  • 27. Let’s see what gardens from another, similar climate can suggesthttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/traveler/none/south-africa© Project SOUND
  • 28. South Africa: much in common with us  Mediterranean climate  Topography shaped by plate tectonics  High mountains http://www.selftours.co.za/maps.htmw. L.A. Co.http://www.southafrica-travel.net/Medaia/Geomap.gifhttp://www.calflora.net/southafrica/rainfall.html© Project SOUND
  • 29. Many well-known gardens in South Africa  As here, botanic gardens are often associated with universities or large cities  But some the most famous – and oldest/youngest – are unique  Combine aspects of botanic gardens with nature preserves – they are literally ‘gardens within preserves’ – much like Rancho Santa Ana Botanic GardenNorth-West University Botanical Garden© Project SOUND
  • 30. http://www.friendsreunited.com/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden-cape-town/Memory/1c37c8a0-cb83-4625-8888-a127008a6e31© Project SOUND
  • 31. South Africa: Biodiversity ‘hotspot’  South Africa is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, after Indonesia and Brazil.  Occupies only about 2% of the world's land area, but is home to nearly: 10% of the world's plants; 7% of the reptiles, birds and mammals and 15% of known coastal marine species.  9 biomes (unique vegetation landscapes), 3 of which have been declared global biodiversity hotspots. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_succotrina© Project SOUND
  • 32. Biomes of South Africa savannahSucculent karoo ThicketFynbosNama karooGrassland © Project SOUNDhttp://www.ekapa.ioisa.org.za/biomes/intro.htm#2
  • 33. South Africa’s National Botanic Gardens  9 National Botanical Gardens  Now managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).  The focus is: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:South_Africa-PretoriaNational_Botanical_Gardens03.jpg Growing and conserving South Africa’s indigenous plants  Conserving natural vegetation and associated biodiversity within their boundaries  Promoting and raising environmental awareness in South Africa and abroad.http://justcallmegertie.wordpress.com/tag/hantam-national-botanical-garden/© Project SOUND
  • 34. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden  One of the world’s great botanic gardens.  Location: against the eastern slopes of Cape Town’s Table Mountain. http://www.soccerphile.com/soccerphile/wc2010/city_guide/kirstenbosch.html Established in 1913 to promote, conserve and display the rich and diverse flora of southern Africa  Was the first botanic garden in the world to be devoted to a country's indigenous flora.© Project SOUND http://ecoaffect.org/2012/07/25/4-out-of-8-worlds-most-amazing-botanical-gardens-areapga-members/
  • 35. Kirstenbosch National Botanical GardenKirstenbosch displays a wide variety of the unique plant life of the Cape Flora (the fynbos), as well as plants from all the diverse regions of southern Africa. © Project SOUND
  • 36. http://annabengan.blogspot.com/2012/07/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden.htmlKirstenbosch is part of a nature reserve. The 36 hectare garden is part of a 528 hectare (1300 acre) estate that contains protected mountainside supporting natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. The Kirstenbosch Estate borders the Table Mountain National Park. © Project SOUND
  • 37. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden 30-60 inches of rain – more like N. CA coasthttp://toptravellists.net/table-mountain-and-kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens-cape-town-south-africa.htmlKirstenbosch lies in the heart of the Cape Floristic Region. In 2004, the Cape Floristic Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site © Project SOUND
  • 38. Lessons from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.cape-town-tourism.za.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/01300735.jpg1) Importance of accenting unique native species © Project SOUND
  • 39. 2. Using colorful flowers to best advantagehttp://www.neverstoptraveling.com/south-africa-the-other-side-of-the-table-mountain© Project SOUND
  • 40. The ‘essence’ of sophisticated gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home© Project SOUND
  • 41. Bringing Nature Home  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/california-poppieslupines-rich-reid.jpg Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ © Project SOUND
  • 42. Desert Candle in the Mojave Deserthttp://forums.backpacker.com/cgi-bin/forums/ikonboard.cgi?act=Print;f=8971047454;t=9991132727© Project SOUND
  • 43. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.123rf.com/photo_16347008_kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens-in-cape-townsouth-africa.htmlhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-nationalbotanical-gardens/1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family© Project SOUND
  • 44. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.neverstoptraveling.com/south-africa-the-other-side-of-the-table-mountainhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden http://forums.backpacker.com/cgibin/forums/ikonboard.cgi?act=Print;f=8971047454;t=99911327272. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths, drifts, instead of mixing many colors together © Project SOUND
  • 45. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.sanbi.org/gardens/kirstenboschhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens/3. Plant densely: important both for aesthetics and for plant reproduction © Project SOUND
  • 46. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://blog.thomascook.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/South-AfricaKirstenbosch-Botanical-Gardens.jpghttp://www.capetown.travel/blog/entry/blue_crowding_orange_at_kirstenbosch_flickr_pic_of_the_ day4. Carefully plan color contrasts http://www.activetravels.com/blog/userfiles/image/IMG_6737(2).jpg http://tejonranch.com/wp-content/uploads/flower5.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 47. Douglas’ Meadowfoam – Limnanthes douglasiihttp://www.em.ca/garden/ann_limnanthes_douglasii.html
  • 48. * White Meadowfoam – Limnanthes alba© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 49. * White Meadowfoam – Limnanthes alba  Vernal pools of Central Valley; also foothills of N/Central Sierras  Usually in seasonally moist, grassy places: Valley Grassland, Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forest, wetland-riparian.  Ssp. : Limnanthes alba ssp. alba; ? Ssp. gracilis; ? Ssp. parishii; Limnanthes alba ssp. versicolor ‘Limnanthes’ means ‘marsh flower’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgibin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4945,4948,4949©2012 Jean Pawekhttp://online.sfsu.edu/bholzman/courses/Fall01%20projects/sbee.htm© Project SOUND
  • 50. White Meadowfoam: dainty spring forbe  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1-2 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Erect or reclining habit; most erect when massed Stems slender; one or more from base Foliage:  Medium green; sparse Leaves finely dissected Roots: ©2013 Debra L. CookShallow roots; easy to transplant © Project SOUND
  • 51. White flowers  Blooms: Blooms as soils dry out; usually Feb-April in S. CA Flowers:   Pure white with pale yellow centers; may become pale pink with age 5 petals have radiating veins Light sweet scent Attracts insect pollinators; not self-fertile (pollen released before female parts are receptive) so need multiple plants Seeds: grown and pressed to produce ‘Meadowfoam oil’©2011 Hattie Brown© Project SOUND
  • 52. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: poorly draining soils in nature; clays and others in garden  pH: any local Light: full sun Water: ©2012 Jean Pawek Winter: moist soils; supplement as needed  Summer: taper off water as plants bloom Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: no mulch / gravel mulch for best reseeding; will tolerate a thin layer of organic mulch© Project SOUND
  • 53. The usefulness of white: contrasthttp://blog.thomascook.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/South-AfricaKirstenbosch-Botanical-Gardens.jpghttp://www.plumjam.com/wildflowers/5-2013-Jenkinson/http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8225/8573032478_997b8c082b_z.jpg http://img0.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/c/7/97/911/97911516_limnanthes_alba.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 54. White wildflowers: contrast       ©2012 Jean PawekMark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseAttractive pot plant; use a colored pot for maximum effect Massed – ‘sea of white’ Rain garden; dry swale Edging pathways With brightly colored wildflowers In vegetable garden – attracts insect pollinators & other beneficials; use also as ‘green manure’http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/PublishingImages/lg/cons_profile_liflgr_plant.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 55. Good companionshttp://blog.anniesannuals.com/     Douglas’ meadowfoam (yellow) Baby blue-eyes (blue) Any of the Goldfields (yellow) Ranunculus californicus (yellow) Zeltnera/Centaureum (pink) Linanthus spp. (pink)http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8225/8573032478_997b8c082b_z.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 56. Monterey Centaury – Zeltnera (Centaurium) muehlenbergii©2009 Ron Wolf© Project SOUND
  • 57. Monterey Centaury – Zeltnera (Centaurium) muehlenbergii  In CA: N. and Central coast; foothills of N. CAMoist areas in many communities: Sagebrush Scrub, Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Oak Woodland, Foothill Woodland, Valley Grassland, Northern Juniper Woodlandhttp://www.wildflowersearch.com/search?oldstate=gloc% 3Az%3Bbloom%3AIgnore%3Bname%3AZeltnera+muehl enbergiiWestern North America from British Columbia to CA, NVPrevious names: Centauriumhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4374,4375,4380© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's Collegemuehlenbergii ; Centaurium curvistamineum; Centaurium floribundum © Project SOUND
  • 58. The Gentian family: Gentianaceae  Mostly herbaceous; some shrubs  Distribution – almost world-wide, though some species have very narrow distribution  Flowers:http://www.infoescola.com/plantas/familia-gentianaceae/ Uses: Bisexual; usually insect pollinated  Commonly bell-shaped, in parts of 4 or 5  Fruit: often capsule Garden flowers – many quite lovely  Medicinal and flavoring plants © Project SOUND
  • 59. The ‘Centauries’: not 1 but 4 genera  The new genus Zeltnera comprises 25 species mainly confined to California, Mexico, and Texas. Gyrandra is a small genus with three species restricted to some areas of Mexico and Central America  Schenkia comprises five species: Asia, Eurasia, north Africa, and a rare/endangered Hawaiian endemic.http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canchalagua.html The genus Centaurium s.s. consists of ca. 20 species of primarily Mediterranean distribution. © Project SOUND
  • 60. Monterey Centaury  Size:  1-3 ft tall (usually < 2) 1-3 ft wide (usually 1-2) Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Slender, erect stems – usually branching Stems medium green, smooth Foliage:    ©2004 Carol W. WithamMedium to pale green Leaves simple, opposite on stem and rather sparse Leaf shape: ovate Infusion of plants used for constipation by native peoples © Project SOUND
  • 61. Garden-pretty flowers  Blooms: in spring; usually AprMay in S. CA gardens Flowers:   Bright pink (usual) to medium pink with white (yellow) centers Funnel-shaped; 5-petals Flowers in loose clusters, mostly above the foliage Very attractive; Seeds:  ©2008 Neal KramerMany small seeds in dry capsules; re-seeds nicely © Project SOUND
  • 62. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: any – rocky to clay  pH: any local Light: Full sun to light shade Water:  Winter: needs good soil moisture  Summer: OK with some summer irrigation; withhold after flowering ceases Fertilizer: none needed; some fertilizer will be tolerated fine Other: no deep organic mulches if you want it to re-seed.http://dennismarelli.net/2009-06-22_1%20Gentian%20cropped.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 63. Garden uses for Centauries Natural prairie with Ranunculus californicus, Asclepias fascicularis, Sisyrinchium bellum and N. CA grassesMass for clouds of magenta color along pathways, near fences & wallsUnder shrubs, including rosesCharming pot plants – either alone or in combination©2013 Margo Bors© Project SOUNDhttp://www.santacruzmountainsecology.com/wp-content/uploads/Centaurium-muehlenbergiiMonterey-Centaury.jpghttp://www.scmta-trails.org/050605-wilder/050605-wilder-0031.jpg
  • 64. If your garden is a bit drier in summer© Project SOUND
  • 65. Charming Centaury – Zeltnera venusta© Project SOUND
  • 66. Charming Centaury – Zeltnera venusta  Widespread in foothills and coastal areas  Locally on Catalina Island  Santa Monica Mtns  San Gabriel & Desert mountains (foothills)  ?other locally Relatively common on dry slopes and flats to about 3000 ft. elevation in:    Coastal sage scrub Chaparral Grasslands Foothill woodlands and pine forestshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4374,4375,4382l© Project SOUND
  • 67. http://bfs.claremont.edu/biota/plants/centaurium.html Charming Centaury provides a surprising spot of color among the drying grasses of summer © Project SOUND
  • 68. Charming Centaury looks like an oldfashioned garden flower  Size:  6” to 2 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form: annual wildflower  Erect  Simple, open branching stem Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green; fresh looking  Leaves simple, narrow to oblong© Project SOUND
  • 69. Flowers are fantastic  Blooms:  Late spring/summer  usually May-July in our area Flowers:  Color: range from bright magenta to white  Five rose/magenta petals white at the base with a yellow throat; may or may not have dark magenta spots  Anthers twist spirally after their pollen has been harvested http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/cancha4.htm© Project SOUND
  • 70. Charming Centaury does well in a waterwise garden  Soils:  Texture: any; well-drained slightly preferred  pH: any local Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Young plants: need good spring soil moisture  Summer: Zone 2 or 2-3 until flowering; then Zone 1 Fertilizer: none needed© Project SOUND
  • 71. Charming Centaury in the garden  Use it, as in nature, in a natural prairie with Lupines, Poppies, Goldenrods and native grasses  Note: interbreeds with other native Centauries – don’t plant if these grow naturally near your garden Mass for clouds of magenta color in early summer  Try it along pathways, near fences & walls  As always, native annuals make great pot plants – either alone or in combination © Project SOUND
  • 72. Native Californians valued Charming Centaury as a medicine plant  Tea from leaves or flowers used for:  Reducing fevers  Pneumonia  Viral illnesseshttp://www.csuchico.edu/bccer/Ecosystem/FloraFauna/pics/Flora/Centaurium_ve nustum.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 73. A burning question: to sow in pots or directly into the ground Charming Centaury seeds: Many small seeds in dry, papery capsule  Easy to collect – just tap capsules to shake seeds into envelope or boxAdvantages of starting annuals in pots: Protection from bird predation  May be able to start earlier – give added warmth  Less seed waste; easier to control seedling rates, especially for smaller seeds  Easier to control soil water for delicate seedlingshttp://www.hazmac.biz/050829/050829CentauriumVenustum.htmlDisadvantages: Potential to disturb roots with transplanting  More work: have to transplanthttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/232/502812779_aa75744cda.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 74. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenbosch1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths or drifts, instead of mixing many colors together 3. Plant densely 4. Carefully plan color contrasts © Project SOUND
  • 75. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenbosch1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths, instead of mixing many colors together 3. Plant densely 4. Carefully plan color contrasts © Project SOUND
  • 76. * Large-flower Linanthus – Leptosiphon (Linanthus) grandiflorus© Project SOUND
  • 77. * Large-flower Linanthus – Leptosiphon (Linanthus) grandiflorus  N. and Central CA coast – Santa Barbara Co north  Full extend of distribution unclear – many populations extirpated  AKA ‘Mountain Phlox’ – nursery trade http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Linanthus grandiflorushttp://www.bayesianinvestor.com/pix/2010/hikes2010may.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 78. Large-flowers, small plant  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form:    Herbaceous annual wildflower Mounded form along coast; may be more upright in garden Stems hairy, branched above Usually forms dense colonies Foliage:   Leaves unusual; narrowly divided Leaves in whorls around stem; at intervals Foliage is quite sparse©2003 Michael Charters© Project SOUND
  • 79. Flowers: phlox lovely  Blooms: in late spring, usually Apr-July in western L.A. county Flowers:    ©2009 Barry BrecklingPink and white; often central are is white, pink outer Five fused petals; open funnel-form Sweetly scented – attract native bees, butterflies, hummingbirds Seeds: easy to grow©2013 John Doyen© Project SOUND
  • 80. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: well-drained best; sandy in nature  pH: any local Light:  Full sun to part-shade; dappled sun fine Water:  Winter: needs moist soils – supplement if needed  Summer: keep plants blooming with occasional summer water – Water Zone 2 Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils but will tolerate weak fertilizer Other: gravel mulch or none is ©2009 Barry Brecklingbest; thin organic mulch OK© Project SOUND
  • 81. Using Linanthus     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptosiphon_grandiflorushttp://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/10/linanthus-grandiflorus/Excellent container plant – alone or with other annuals In part-shade under trees; naturalizes well With N. coastal grasses for a northern prairie Must have for: scented garden; pollinator garden Vegetable garden; under fruit trees© Project SOUND
  • 82. The gardens of Cordoba, Spainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Bridge,_C%C3%B3rdoba,_Espana.jpg http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/europe/spain/map_of_spain.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 83. The climate of Corboda: hot and dryhttp://www.inlandandalucia.com/CordobaInfo.aspxGardens reflect the climate – and Moorish and Roman gardening traditions © Project SOUND
  • 84. Cordoba is well known for its patio gardenshttp://www.rosstours.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/RP-Cordoba-courtyard-1_final.jpg http://www.spainisculture.com/export/sites/cultura/multimedia/galerias/monumentos/palacio_vian a_cordoba_t1400131.jpg_1306973099.jpghttp://cache.desktopnexus.com/thumbnails/1467585-bigthumbnail.jpg http://www.piccavey.com/cordoba-patios-palacio-viana/ Project SOUND ©
  • 85. Cordoba’s spring garden contest…… over the top color http://lincolnbrody.wordpress.com/2008/05/22/a-weekend-incordoba/© Project SOUND
  • 86. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://zeitgeistinapetiole.wordpress.com/category/plants/http://www.spain-holiday.com/blog/the-crosses-of-may-come-to-cordoba.php1. Use containers to provide seasonal color © Project SOUND
  • 87. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.rosstours.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/RP-Cordoba-courtyard-1_final.jpghttp://nature.desktopnexus.com/wallpaper/1448746/2. Limit the color palette © Project SOUND
  • 88. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/greathomesanddestinations/patios-as-a-competitive-sport-itmust-be-cordoba.html?_r=0 http://lincolnbrody.wordpress.com/2008/05/22/a-weekend-incordoba/3. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast © Project SOUND
  • 89. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardens4. Choose colors that support your aim: hot, exciting brights or cool, soothing pastels © Project SOUND
  • 90. * Red Ribbons – Clarkia concinnaGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences© Project SOUND
  • 91. * Red Ribbons – Clarkia concinna  Endemic to California - low-elevation mountains/foothills of the N. CA  Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Oak Woodland, Douglas-Fir Forest, CSS – sea level to 4000 ft or so  Three sub-species: ssp. automixa; ssp. concinna; ssp. raichei http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5358© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's Collegehttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CLCO© Project SOUND
  • 92. Red Ribbons: Clarkia characteristics  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Upright habit Slender appearance Foliage:  ©2009 Terry DyeMedium green; sometimes red-tinged Leaves more rounded than other clarkia© Project SOUND
  • 93. Flowers: very showy  Blooms: Spring or early summer; April to June or July (like elegant Clarkia) Flowers: Magenta or pink Petals are deeply lobed – quite unusual for a Clarkia  Sepals are thin, dark – like ‘red ribbons’  Super pretty and unique; and dependable like all Clarkias  ©2012 Jason Matthias Mills Seeds:  ©2008 Ron WolfMany small seeds in capsule Harvest flowering stems, invert in paper bag and let dry © Project SOUND
  • 94. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: just about any; well-drained best  pH: any local Light: Best in part-shade: dappled sun, high shade under trees, morning sun. Water: ©2008 Doreen L. Smith Winter: adequate for young seedlings  Summer: taper off when flowering wanes Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch promotes re-seeding© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 95. Brighten up your shade      For a brilliant show under trees Mid-bed for shady mixed beds Color bowls on shady porches Hanging baskets Seeds are edible – parch Attracts hummingbirds!©2006 Matt Below© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College©2000 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org© Project SOUND
  • 96. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://heynatives.blogspot.com/2010/01/waiting-for-wildflowers.html http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.htmlhttp://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2013_04_01_archive.html1. Use containers to provide seasonal color 2. Limit the color palette © Project SOUND
  • 97. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.piccavey.com/cordoba-patios-palacio-viana/http://montanawildlifegardener.blogspot.com/2012/ 07/some-other-things-flowering-in-garden.html3. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast 4. Choose colors that support your aim: hot brights or cool, refeshing pastels © Project SOUND
  • 98. * Mountain Collomia/Large-flowered Phlox Collomia grandiflora©2005 Victoria Marshall© Project SOUND
  • 99. * Mountain Collomia/Large-flowered Phlox Collomia grandiflora  Western N. America, including foothills and Mtns of CA (west of Sierras)  Locally: San Gabriel & Liebre mtns  Known in nursery trade as ‘Largeflowered Phlox’; AKA ‘Grand Collomia’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5654,5662,5664©2013 Jean Pawek© Project SOUND
  • 100. Mountain Collomia: simple herbaceous plant  Size:  1-3 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Upright habit; robust stem may be branched at top Stem usually hairy & may be red Foliage:   ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2009 Gary A. Monroe http://www.yosemitehikes.com/wildflowers/large-flowered-collomia/gallerly-leaf.htmLeaves medium green; lance-shaped or linear Simple, alternate Infusion of leaves/stalks taken for constipation and to "clean out your system.". Roots: long taproot © Project SOUND
  • 101. Flowers: wonderful!  Blooms: in late spring – usually April to May or even June Flowers: ©2006 Steven Thorsted Shades of salmon orange Flowers trumpet-shaped with 5 petals Flowers in dense to loose cluster at top of stem  Distinctive blue pollen Seeds:  Fruit a dry capsule with sticky seeds Re-seeds well - Invasive in Middle East, Mediterranean © Project SOUND
  • 102. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: most  pH: any local Light:  Full sun to part-shade [some shade is better in many gardens] Water:  Winter: needs moist soil  Summer: let plants dry out to promote flowering and seed production Fertilizer: none needed. Fine with poor soils, but will grow bigger with a little fertilizer Other: no mulch or gravel mulch © Project SOUND
  • 103. Large-flower phlox   Excellent addition to mixed flower bed – nice color In a ‘meadow’ with local mountain grasses, annuals As an attractive container plant; a lovely soft combination with white-flowered annuals©2012 Steven Perry© Clayton J. Antieau© 2008, G. D. Carr© Project SOUND
  • 104. We’ve come to the end of our ‘accent on annuals’http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.a sp?prodid=249©2009 Barry Breckling http://www.scmta-trails.org/050605-wilder/050605-wilder-0031.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 105. We’ve ‘visited’ some interesting gardenshttp://www.pinterest.com/jlviles/porches-patios/http://www.jasonelk.com/2013/01/its-a-beautiful-day-at-harold-porter-botanicalgarden-in-bettys-bay/© Project SOUND
  • 106. Lessons from some great mediterranean climate gardens 1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Choose colors that support your aim: hot brights or cool pastels 3. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths or clumps, instead of mixing many colors together 4. Plant densely – in pots of in the ground 5. Carefully plan color contrasts – including contrasts with hardscape 6. Use containers to provide seasonal color 7. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast © Project SOUND
  • 107. What do you think of when you picture a wildflower garden?http://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/ http://tejonranch.com/wp-content/uploads/flower5.jpghttp://californianativegardendesign.blogspot.com/2011/05/sowing-california-nativewildflowers.html © Project SOUND
  • 108. It’s not too late to plant some annual wildflowers© Project SOUND
  • 109. The annual wildflowers are a bit slow this year© Project SOUND
  • 110. Come next month for ‘Botany for Gardeners’© Project SOUND
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    Jan 2014 lecture - 'Out of the Wilds & Into your Garden'
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    • 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your GardenGardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND – 2014 (our 10th year) © Project SOUND
  • 2. Accent on Annuals: some of our more unusual annual wildflowers C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh PreserveMadrona Marsh Preserve January 4 & 7, 2014 © Project SOUND
  • 3. What do you think of when you picture a wildflower garden?http://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/© Project SOUND
  • 4. Many of us have a hard time envisioning wildflowers in our gardenshttp://www.theodorepayne.org/history/seedspmix2a.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 5. It’s time for the California native gardening tradition to take the next step… … become more sophisticatedhttp://mostbeautifulgardens.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/simplesofisticated-backyard-garden.jpg© Project SOUNDhttp://acharlottegarden.blogspot.com/2011/08/california-native-plant-garden-at-san.html
  • 6. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide© Project SOUND
  • 7. Bringing Nature Home: Mother Nature + the art of gardening (gardening ‘secrets’)© Project SOUND
  • 8. The ‘essence’ of Japanese gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home© Project SOUND
  • 9. Wildflower gardens should reflect (but not necessarily recreate) their natural contexthttp://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/ http://www.moprairie.org/placemarks/coyne-prairie-dade-county/http://www.laspilitas.com/easy/easywildflower.htm© Project SOUND
  • 10. Beautiful, authentic gardens begin with nature  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape http://sequoiariverlands.wordpress.com/category/native-plants/ Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/category/tags/san-diego-native-landscaping?page=3© Project SOUND
  • 11. We’ve focused on local prairie/pool plants used in local gardens  Camissonia species (Suncups)  Clarkia purpurea (Purple Clarkia)  Collinsia heterophylla (Chinese Houses)  Gilia tricolor (Birds-eye Gilia)  Lasthenia californica (Goldfields)  Layia platyglossa (Tidytips)  Lupines (Lupinus bicolor; L. succulentis)  Annual Salviashttp://www.speciesphoto.com/images/sjwa/2004_03_09/DSCN0009.htmlToday we’ll venture further afield in search of annual wildflowers for the home garden © Project SOUND
  • 12. Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides©2009 Thomas Stoughton© Project SOUND
  • 13. Turkish rugging – Chorizanthe stacticoides  Foothills/mountains of the Coast Ranges from Monterey County southward into San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties.  Another series of populations on Santa Catalina Island and along the coast (L.A. Co.) and immediately adjacent foothills in Orange and San Diego counties http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19357Sandy to gravelly or rocky places, coastal scrub, mixed grassland, chaparral, pine-oak woodlands, 1000-4000 ft elevation In LA. County: Catalina Isl.; Malibu Lake; ‘Inglewood Hills’; Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Santa Susanna & Verdugo Mtns  Highly variable © Project SOUND
  • 14. Size depends on conditions  Size:  1 ft tall 1-5 ft wide (spreads with water) Growth form:  ©2009 Robert SteersHerbaceous annual wildflower Form typical for annuals in buckwheat family:  Erect or spreading Foliage:    ©2003 Michael ChartersMostly in basal rosette Spatulate leaves; often hairy Leaves dry up at time of flowering; nice colors Infusion of entire plant used as lotion for pimples © Project SOUND
  • 15. Flowers: pinks  Blooms: depends on rains; April-July  Flowers:    ©2009 Thomas StoughtonPink (medium to bright), lavender Many small flowers in loose or dense clusters – flat spray Involucres (series of bracts beneath flowers) & petals colored Combination of colored leaves, bracts, flowers gives multicolored effect – ‘Turkish rugging’©2009 Neal Kramerhttp://www.smmflowers.org/bloom/species/Chorizanthe_staticoides.htmhttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Polygonaceae/Chorizanthe%20staticoides. htm
  • 16. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: well-drained best  pH: any local Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: soils need to be moist through growth season  Summer: taper off once flower buds begin to form Fertilizer: none needed - likes poor soils; low dose if fine Other: no mulch or gravel mulch for best reseeding©2005 Aaron Schusteff© Project SOUND
  • 17. CA Wildflower gardening basics  Obtain seeds from a reputable CA native plant source  Plant seeds when winter rains begin  For best growth & reseeding, plant in bare ground or (better) use an inorganic (gravel) mulch  Keep plants well-watered during growing season – don’t hesitate to supplement Taper off water when flowering starts to wane http://sbwildflowers.wordpress.com/wildflowers/polygonaceae/choriz anthe/chorizanthe-staticoides/ Let plants reseed naturally or collect and store seed © Project SOUND
  • 18. Turkish delight      ©2011 Chris Winchellhttp://www.smmtc.org/plantofthemonth/plant_of_the_month_201306_Turkish_Rugging.phpMassed – on slopes or where can be viewed from above In a rock garden or dry stone wall In containers Combined with summer-dry grasses As spring groundcover around local native shrubshttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Polygonaceae/Chorizanthe%20staticoides.htm © Project SOUND
  • 19. * Desert Candle – Caulanthus inflatus©2003 Mark Bratton© Project SOUND
  • 20. * Desert Candle – Caulanthus inflatus  Common, Mojave desert; Antelope Valley; also in S. Sierra foothills, foothills of Transverse Ranges  Open, sandy plains and rocky slopes between 2000' and 5000‘ in Creosote Bush Scrub, Valley Grassland, Joshua Tree Woodland http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?2240,2371,2388Jo-Ann Ordano © California Academy of Sciences.©2010 Neal Kramer© Project SOUND
  • 21. Desert candle: an unusual ‘Mustard’  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1-2 ft wide Growth form:    Herbaceous annual Robust, upright habit Stem is swollen and hollow Young upper stems can be cooked and eaten Foliage:   JoAnn Ordano © California Academy of Sciences.Large, coarse leaves, often with toothed margins Leaves clasp the stem© Project SOUND ©2010 Neal Kramer
  • 22. Flowers: weird & wonderful  Blooms: in spring after rains; in the wilds, Mar-May, in garden probably Mar-Apr. Flowers:   Flowers are small, very narrow tubes & white Flower bracts are white tipped with maroon-purple Flowers on short stalks around the inflated stem – typical forBrassicaceae Overall appearance: a lit ‘candle’ – hence common name Seeds: in long ‘pod’ that splits when dry, dropping seedsCharles Webber © California Academ y of Sciences ©2011 Aaron Schusteff© Project SOUND
  • 23. Caulanthus from seed  Known to have low germination rates  Usually means some pretreatment factor is needed  Look to Mother Nature:  How long are seeds in ground in nature?  What factors are they exposed to? Heat? Cold? Multiple rains? Fire/smoke? More on this next month – ‘Botany for Gardeners’ http://www.hazmac.biz/030421/030421CaulanthusInflatus.html© Project SOUND
  • 24. Desert foothills Soils:  Texture: best with well-drained – sandy, rocky – no heavy clays  pH: any local incl. alkali Light: full sun  Water:  Winter: needs good soil moisture Nov/Dec until Feb.  Summer: taper off after flowering commences Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: need to plant in Nov/Dec.,even if you have to water. More on winter watering in our March talk – ‘Climate Change ‘©2009 Shawn DeCew© Project SOUND
  • 25. Garden candles   ©2005 Dieter WilkenIn a desert-themed garden In a dry rock garden, with other spring annuals In a dry meadow planting, with cool season grasses, S. CA wildflowers As an unusual pot plant – often the unusual ones are the most fun©2008 John Game© Project SOUND
  • 26. These are unusual wildflowers, but how can I use them effectively in my garden?©2009 Shawn DeCew© Project SOUND
  • 27. Let’s see what gardens from another, similar climate can suggesthttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/destinations/traveler/none/south-africa© Project SOUND
  • 28. South Africa: much in common with us  Mediterranean climate  Topography shaped by plate tectonics  High mountains http://www.selftours.co.za/maps.htmw. L.A. Co.http://www.southafrica-travel.net/Medaia/Geomap.gifhttp://www.calflora.net/southafrica/rainfall.html© Project SOUND
  • 29. Many well-known gardens in South Africa  As here, botanic gardens are often associated with universities or large cities  But some the most famous – and oldest/youngest – are unique  Combine aspects of botanic gardens with nature preserves – they are literally ‘gardens within preserves’ – much like Rancho Santa Ana Botanic GardenNorth-West University Botanical Garden© Project SOUND
  • 30. http://www.friendsreunited.com/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden-cape-town/Memory/1c37c8a0-cb83-4625-8888-a127008a6e31© Project SOUND
  • 31. South Africa: Biodiversity ‘hotspot’  South Africa is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, after Indonesia and Brazil.  Occupies only about 2% of the world's land area, but is home to nearly: 10% of the world's plants; 7% of the reptiles, birds and mammals and 15% of known coastal marine species.  9 biomes (unique vegetation landscapes), 3 of which have been declared global biodiversity hotspots. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aloe_succotrina© Project SOUND
  • 32. Biomes of South Africa savannahSucculent karoo ThicketFynbosNama karooGrassland © Project SOUNDhttp://www.ekapa.ioisa.org.za/biomes/intro.htm#2
  • 33. South Africa’s National Botanic Gardens  9 National Botanical Gardens  Now managed by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).  The focus is: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:South_Africa-PretoriaNational_Botanical_Gardens03.jpg Growing and conserving South Africa’s indigenous plants  Conserving natural vegetation and associated biodiversity within their boundaries  Promoting and raising environmental awareness in South Africa and abroad.http://justcallmegertie.wordpress.com/tag/hantam-national-botanical-garden/© Project SOUND
  • 34. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden  One of the world’s great botanic gardens.  Location: against the eastern slopes of Cape Town’s Table Mountain. http://www.soccerphile.com/soccerphile/wc2010/city_guide/kirstenbosch.html Established in 1913 to promote, conserve and display the rich and diverse flora of southern Africa  Was the first botanic garden in the world to be devoted to a country's indigenous flora.© Project SOUND http://ecoaffect.org/2012/07/25/4-out-of-8-worlds-most-amazing-botanical-gardens-areapga-members/
  • 35. Kirstenbosch National Botanical GardenKirstenbosch displays a wide variety of the unique plant life of the Cape Flora (the fynbos), as well as plants from all the diverse regions of southern Africa. © Project SOUND
  • 36. http://annabengan.blogspot.com/2012/07/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden.htmlKirstenbosch is part of a nature reserve. The 36 hectare garden is part of a 528 hectare (1300 acre) estate that contains protected mountainside supporting natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. The Kirstenbosch Estate borders the Table Mountain National Park. © Project SOUND
  • 37. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden 30-60 inches of rain – more like N. CA coasthttp://toptravellists.net/table-mountain-and-kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens-cape-town-south-africa.htmlKirstenbosch lies in the heart of the Cape Floristic Region. In 2004, the Cape Floristic Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site © Project SOUND
  • 38. Lessons from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.cape-town-tourism.za.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/01300735.jpg1) Importance of accenting unique native species © Project SOUND
  • 39. 2. Using colorful flowers to best advantagehttp://www.neverstoptraveling.com/south-africa-the-other-side-of-the-table-mountain© Project SOUND
  • 40. The ‘essence’ of sophisticated gardening is to capture the ‘spirit’ of the natural world in which we live - and bring it home© Project SOUND
  • 41. Bringing Nature Home  First we need to develop a deep understanding of the natural landscape http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/california-poppieslupines-rich-reid.jpg Then we must determine the ‘essence’ of what makes our California landscape unique Only then can we apply traditional principles for ‘bringing nature home’ © Project SOUND
  • 42. Desert Candle in the Mojave Deserthttp://forums.backpacker.com/cgi-bin/forums/ikonboard.cgi?act=Print;f=8971047454;t=9991132727© Project SOUND
  • 43. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.123rf.com/photo_16347008_kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens-in-cape-townsouth-africa.htmlhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-nationalbotanical-gardens/1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family© Project SOUND
  • 44. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.neverstoptraveling.com/south-africa-the-other-side-of-the-table-mountainhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-garden http://forums.backpacker.com/cgibin/forums/ikonboard.cgi?act=Print;f=8971047454;t=99911327272. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths, drifts, instead of mixing many colors together © Project SOUND
  • 45. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://www.sanbi.org/gardens/kirstenboschhttp://blog.sa-venues.com/provinces/western-cape/kirstenbosch-national-botanical-gardens/3. Plant densely: important both for aesthetics and for plant reproduction © Project SOUND
  • 46. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenboschhttp://blog.thomascook.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/South-AfricaKirstenbosch-Botanical-Gardens.jpghttp://www.capetown.travel/blog/entry/blue_crowding_orange_at_kirstenbosch_flickr_pic_of_the_ day4. Carefully plan color contrasts http://www.activetravels.com/blog/userfiles/image/IMG_6737(2).jpg http://tejonranch.com/wp-content/uploads/flower5.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 47. Douglas’ Meadowfoam – Limnanthes douglasiihttp://www.em.ca/garden/ann_limnanthes_douglasii.html
  • 48. * White Meadowfoam – Limnanthes alba© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 49. * White Meadowfoam – Limnanthes alba  Vernal pools of Central Valley; also foothills of N/Central Sierras  Usually in seasonally moist, grassy places: Valley Grassland, Foothill Woodland, Yellow Pine Forest, wetland-riparian.  Ssp. : Limnanthes alba ssp. alba; ? Ssp. gracilis; ? Ssp. parishii; Limnanthes alba ssp. versicolor ‘Limnanthes’ means ‘marsh flower’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgibin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4945,4948,4949©2012 Jean Pawekhttp://online.sfsu.edu/bholzman/courses/Fall01%20projects/sbee.htm© Project SOUND
  • 50. White Meadowfoam: dainty spring forbe  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1-2 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Erect or reclining habit; most erect when massed Stems slender; one or more from base Foliage:  Medium green; sparse Leaves finely dissected Roots: ©2013 Debra L. CookShallow roots; easy to transplant © Project SOUND
  • 51. White flowers  Blooms: Blooms as soils dry out; usually Feb-April in S. CA Flowers:   Pure white with pale yellow centers; may become pale pink with age 5 petals have radiating veins Light sweet scent Attracts insect pollinators; not self-fertile (pollen released before female parts are receptive) so need multiple plants Seeds: grown and pressed to produce ‘Meadowfoam oil’©2011 Hattie Brown© Project SOUND
  • 52. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: poorly draining soils in nature; clays and others in garden  pH: any local Light: full sun Water: ©2012 Jean Pawek Winter: moist soils; supplement as needed  Summer: taper off water as plants bloom Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: no mulch / gravel mulch for best reseeding; will tolerate a thin layer of organic mulch© Project SOUND
  • 53. The usefulness of white: contrasthttp://blog.thomascook.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/South-AfricaKirstenbosch-Botanical-Gardens.jpghttp://www.plumjam.com/wildflowers/5-2013-Jenkinson/http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8225/8573032478_997b8c082b_z.jpg http://img0.liveinternet.ru/images/attach/c/7/97/911/97911516_limnanthes_alba.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 54. White wildflowers: contrast       ©2012 Jean PawekMark W. Skinner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS DatabaseAttractive pot plant; use a colored pot for maximum effect Massed – ‘sea of white’ Rain garden; dry swale Edging pathways With brightly colored wildflowers In vegetable garden – attracts insect pollinators & other beneficials; use also as ‘green manure’http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/PublishingImages/lg/cons_profile_liflgr_plant.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 55. Good companionshttp://blog.anniesannuals.com/     Douglas’ meadowfoam (yellow) Baby blue-eyes (blue) Any of the Goldfields (yellow) Ranunculus californicus (yellow) Zeltnera/Centaureum (pink) Linanthus spp. (pink)http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8225/8573032478_997b8c082b_z.jpg © Project SOUND
  • 56. Monterey Centaury – Zeltnera (Centaurium) muehlenbergii©2009 Ron Wolf© Project SOUND
  • 57. Monterey Centaury – Zeltnera (Centaurium) muehlenbergii  In CA: N. and Central coast; foothills of N. CAMoist areas in many communities: Sagebrush Scrub, Redwood Forest, Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Oak Woodland, Foothill Woodland, Valley Grassland, Northern Juniper Woodlandhttp://www.wildflowersearch.com/search?oldstate=gloc% 3Az%3Bbloom%3AIgnore%3Bname%3AZeltnera+muehl enbergiiWestern North America from British Columbia to CA, NVPrevious names: Centauriumhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4374,4375,4380© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's Collegemuehlenbergii ; Centaurium curvistamineum; Centaurium floribundum © Project SOUND
  • 58. The Gentian family: Gentianaceae  Mostly herbaceous; some shrubs  Distribution – almost world-wide, though some species have very narrow distribution  Flowers:http://www.infoescola.com/plantas/familia-gentianaceae/ Uses: Bisexual; usually insect pollinated  Commonly bell-shaped, in parts of 4 or 5  Fruit: often capsule Garden flowers – many quite lovely  Medicinal and flavoring plants © Project SOUND
  • 59. The ‘Centauries’: not 1 but 4 genera  The new genus Zeltnera comprises 25 species mainly confined to California, Mexico, and Texas. Gyrandra is a small genus with three species restricted to some areas of Mexico and Central America  Schenkia comprises five species: Asia, Eurasia, north Africa, and a rare/endangered Hawaiian endemic.http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/canchalagua.html The genus Centaurium s.s. consists of ca. 20 species of primarily Mediterranean distribution. © Project SOUND
  • 60. Monterey Centaury  Size:  1-3 ft tall (usually < 2) 1-3 ft wide (usually 1-2) Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Slender, erect stems – usually branching Stems medium green, smooth Foliage:    ©2004 Carol W. WithamMedium to pale green Leaves simple, opposite on stem and rather sparse Leaf shape: ovate Infusion of plants used for constipation by native peoples © Project SOUND
  • 61. Garden-pretty flowers  Blooms: in spring; usually AprMay in S. CA gardens Flowers:   Bright pink (usual) to medium pink with white (yellow) centers Funnel-shaped; 5-petals Flowers in loose clusters, mostly above the foliage Very attractive; Seeds:  ©2008 Neal KramerMany small seeds in dry capsules; re-seeds nicely © Project SOUND
  • 62. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: any – rocky to clay  pH: any local Light: Full sun to light shade Water:  Winter: needs good soil moisture  Summer: OK with some summer irrigation; withhold after flowering ceases Fertilizer: none needed; some fertilizer will be tolerated fine Other: no deep organic mulches if you want it to re-seed.http://dennismarelli.net/2009-06-22_1%20Gentian%20cropped.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 63. Garden uses for Centauries Natural prairie with Ranunculus californicus, Asclepias fascicularis, Sisyrinchium bellum and N. CA grassesMass for clouds of magenta color along pathways, near fences & wallsUnder shrubs, including rosesCharming pot plants – either alone or in combination©2013 Margo Bors© Project SOUNDhttp://www.santacruzmountainsecology.com/wp-content/uploads/Centaurium-muehlenbergiiMonterey-Centaury.jpghttp://www.scmta-trails.org/050605-wilder/050605-wilder-0031.jpg
  • 64. If your garden is a bit drier in summer© Project SOUND
  • 65. Charming Centaury – Zeltnera venusta© Project SOUND
  • 66. Charming Centaury – Zeltnera venusta  Widespread in foothills and coastal areas  Locally on Catalina Island  Santa Monica Mtns  San Gabriel & Desert mountains (foothills)  ?other locally Relatively common on dry slopes and flats to about 3000 ft. elevation in:    Coastal sage scrub Chaparral Grasslands Foothill woodlands and pine forestshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?4374,4375,4382l© Project SOUND
  • 67. http://bfs.claremont.edu/biota/plants/centaurium.html Charming Centaury provides a surprising spot of color among the drying grasses of summer © Project SOUND
  • 68. Charming Centaury looks like an oldfashioned garden flower  Size:  6” to 2 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form: annual wildflower  Erect  Simple, open branching stem Foliage:  Gray-green to blue-green; fresh looking  Leaves simple, narrow to oblong© Project SOUND
  • 69. Flowers are fantastic  Blooms:  Late spring/summer  usually May-July in our area Flowers:  Color: range from bright magenta to white  Five rose/magenta petals white at the base with a yellow throat; may or may not have dark magenta spots  Anthers twist spirally after their pollen has been harvested http://www.timetotrack.com/jay/socal/cancha4.htm© Project SOUND
  • 70. Charming Centaury does well in a waterwise garden  Soils:  Texture: any; well-drained slightly preferred  pH: any local Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Young plants: need good spring soil moisture  Summer: Zone 2 or 2-3 until flowering; then Zone 1 Fertilizer: none needed© Project SOUND
  • 71. Charming Centaury in the garden  Use it, as in nature, in a natural prairie with Lupines, Poppies, Goldenrods and native grasses  Note: interbreeds with other native Centauries – don’t plant if these grow naturally near your garden Mass for clouds of magenta color in early summer  Try it along pathways, near fences & walls  As always, native annuals make great pot plants – either alone or in combination © Project SOUND
  • 72. Native Californians valued Charming Centaury as a medicine plant  Tea from leaves or flowers used for:  Reducing fevers  Pneumonia  Viral illnesseshttp://www.csuchico.edu/bccer/Ecosystem/FloraFauna/pics/Flora/Centaurium_ve nustum.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 73. A burning question: to sow in pots or directly into the ground Charming Centaury seeds: Many small seeds in dry, papery capsule  Easy to collect – just tap capsules to shake seeds into envelope or boxAdvantages of starting annuals in pots: Protection from bird predation  May be able to start earlier – give added warmth  Less seed waste; easier to control seedling rates, especially for smaller seeds  Easier to control soil water for delicate seedlingshttp://www.hazmac.biz/050829/050829CentauriumVenustum.htmlDisadvantages: Potential to disturb roots with transplanting  More work: have to transplanthttp://farm1.static.flickr.com/232/502812779_aa75744cda.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 74. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenbosch1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths or drifts, instead of mixing many colors together 3. Plant densely 4. Carefully plan color contrasts © Project SOUND
  • 75. Four lessons on color from the Kirstenbosch1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths, instead of mixing many colors together 3. Plant densely 4. Carefully plan color contrasts © Project SOUND
  • 76. * Large-flower Linanthus – Leptosiphon (Linanthus) grandiflorus© Project SOUND
  • 77. * Large-flower Linanthus – Leptosiphon (Linanthus) grandiflorus  N. and Central CA coast – Santa Barbara Co north  Full extend of distribution unclear – many populations extirpated  AKA ‘Mountain Phlox’ – nursery trade http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Linanthus grandiflorushttp://www.bayesianinvestor.com/pix/2010/hikes2010may.html © Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 78. Large-flowers, small plant  Size:  1-2 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form:    Herbaceous annual wildflower Mounded form along coast; may be more upright in garden Stems hairy, branched above Usually forms dense colonies Foliage:   Leaves unusual; narrowly divided Leaves in whorls around stem; at intervals Foliage is quite sparse©2003 Michael Charters© Project SOUND
  • 79. Flowers: phlox lovely  Blooms: in late spring, usually Apr-July in western L.A. county Flowers:    ©2009 Barry BrecklingPink and white; often central are is white, pink outer Five fused petals; open funnel-form Sweetly scented – attract native bees, butterflies, hummingbirds Seeds: easy to grow©2013 John Doyen© Project SOUND
  • 80. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: well-drained best; sandy in nature  pH: any local Light:  Full sun to part-shade; dappled sun fine Water:  Winter: needs moist soils – supplement if needed  Summer: keep plants blooming with occasional summer water – Water Zone 2 Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils but will tolerate weak fertilizer Other: gravel mulch or none is ©2009 Barry Brecklingbest; thin organic mulch OK© Project SOUND
  • 81. Using Linanthus     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptosiphon_grandiflorushttp://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/10/linanthus-grandiflorus/Excellent container plant – alone or with other annuals In part-shade under trees; naturalizes well With N. coastal grasses for a northern prairie Must have for: scented garden; pollinator garden Vegetable garden; under fruit trees© Project SOUND
  • 82. The gardens of Cordoba, Spainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_Bridge,_C%C3%B3rdoba,_Espana.jpg http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/europe/spain/map_of_spain.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 83. The climate of Corboda: hot and dryhttp://www.inlandandalucia.com/CordobaInfo.aspxGardens reflect the climate – and Moorish and Roman gardening traditions © Project SOUND
  • 84. Cordoba is well known for its patio gardenshttp://www.rosstours.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/RP-Cordoba-courtyard-1_final.jpg http://www.spainisculture.com/export/sites/cultura/multimedia/galerias/monumentos/palacio_vian a_cordoba_t1400131.jpg_1306973099.jpghttp://cache.desktopnexus.com/thumbnails/1467585-bigthumbnail.jpg http://www.piccavey.com/cordoba-patios-palacio-viana/ Project SOUND ©
  • 85. Cordoba’s spring garden contest…… over the top color http://lincolnbrody.wordpress.com/2008/05/22/a-weekend-incordoba/© Project SOUND
  • 86. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://zeitgeistinapetiole.wordpress.com/category/plants/http://www.spain-holiday.com/blog/the-crosses-of-may-come-to-cordoba.php1. Use containers to provide seasonal color © Project SOUND
  • 87. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.rosstours.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/RP-Cordoba-courtyard-1_final.jpghttp://nature.desktopnexus.com/wallpaper/1448746/2. Limit the color palette © Project SOUND
  • 88. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/greathomesanddestinations/patios-as-a-competitive-sport-itmust-be-cordoba.html?_r=0 http://lincolnbrody.wordpress.com/2008/05/22/a-weekend-incordoba/3. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast © Project SOUND
  • 89. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardens4. Choose colors that support your aim: hot, exciting brights or cool, soothing pastels © Project SOUND
  • 90. * Red Ribbons – Clarkia concinnaGerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences© Project SOUND
  • 91. * Red Ribbons – Clarkia concinna  Endemic to California - low-elevation mountains/foothills of the N. CA  Mixed Evergreen Forest, Northern Oak Woodland, Douglas-Fir Forest, CSS – sea level to 4000 ft or so  Three sub-species: ssp. automixa; ssp. concinna; ssp. raichei http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5263,5341,5358© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's Collegehttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CLCO© Project SOUND
  • 92. Red Ribbons: Clarkia characteristics  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Upright habit Slender appearance Foliage:  ©2009 Terry DyeMedium green; sometimes red-tinged Leaves more rounded than other clarkia© Project SOUND
  • 93. Flowers: very showy  Blooms: Spring or early summer; April to June or July (like elegant Clarkia) Flowers: Magenta or pink Petals are deeply lobed – quite unusual for a Clarkia  Sepals are thin, dark – like ‘red ribbons’  Super pretty and unique; and dependable like all Clarkias  ©2012 Jason Matthias Mills Seeds:  ©2008 Ron WolfMany small seeds in capsule Harvest flowering stems, invert in paper bag and let dry © Project SOUND
  • 94. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: just about any; well-drained best  pH: any local Light: Best in part-shade: dappled sun, high shade under trees, morning sun. Water: ©2008 Doreen L. Smith Winter: adequate for young seedlings  Summer: taper off when flowering wanes Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: gravel mulch promotes re-seeding© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College© Project SOUND
  • 95. Brighten up your shade      For a brilliant show under trees Mid-bed for shady mixed beds Color bowls on shady porches Hanging baskets Seeds are edible – parch Attracts hummingbirds!©2006 Matt Below© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Mary's College©2000 Joseph Dougherty/ecology.org© Project SOUND
  • 96. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://heynatives.blogspot.com/2010/01/waiting-for-wildflowers.html http://camissonia.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.htmlhttp://tmousecmouse.blogspot.com/2013_04_01_archive.html1. Use containers to provide seasonal color 2. Limit the color palette © Project SOUND
  • 97. 4 Lessons in color from Cordoba gardenshttp://www.piccavey.com/cordoba-patios-palacio-viana/http://montanawildlifegardener.blogspot.com/2012/ 07/some-other-things-flowering-in-garden.html3. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast 4. Choose colors that support your aim: hot brights or cool, refeshing pastels © Project SOUND
  • 98. * Mountain Collomia/Large-flowered Phlox Collomia grandiflora©2005 Victoria Marshall© Project SOUND
  • 99. * Mountain Collomia/Large-flowered Phlox Collomia grandiflora  Western N. America, including foothills and Mtns of CA (west of Sierras)  Locally: San Gabriel & Liebre mtns  Known in nursery trade as ‘Largeflowered Phlox’; AKA ‘Grand Collomia’ http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?5654,5662,5664©2013 Jean Pawek© Project SOUND
  • 100. Mountain Collomia: simple herbaceous plant  Size:  1-3 ft tall 1 ft wide Growth form:   Herbaceous annual Upright habit; robust stem may be branched at top Stem usually hairy & may be red Foliage:   ©2006 Steven Thorsted ©2009 Gary A. Monroe http://www.yosemitehikes.com/wildflowers/large-flowered-collomia/gallerly-leaf.htmLeaves medium green; lance-shaped or linear Simple, alternate Infusion of leaves/stalks taken for constipation and to "clean out your system.". Roots: long taproot © Project SOUND
  • 101. Flowers: wonderful!  Blooms: in late spring – usually April to May or even June Flowers: ©2006 Steven Thorsted Shades of salmon orange Flowers trumpet-shaped with 5 petals Flowers in dense to loose cluster at top of stem  Distinctive blue pollen Seeds:  Fruit a dry capsule with sticky seeds Re-seeds well - Invasive in Middle East, Mediterranean © Project SOUND
  • 102. Plant Requirements Soils:  Texture: most  pH: any local Light:  Full sun to part-shade [some shade is better in many gardens] Water:  Winter: needs moist soil  Summer: let plants dry out to promote flowering and seed production Fertilizer: none needed. Fine with poor soils, but will grow bigger with a little fertilizer Other: no mulch or gravel mulch © Project SOUND
  • 103. Large-flower phlox   Excellent addition to mixed flower bed – nice color In a ‘meadow’ with local mountain grasses, annuals As an attractive container plant; a lovely soft combination with white-flowered annuals©2012 Steven Perry© Clayton J. Antieau© 2008, G. D. Carr© Project SOUND
  • 104. We’ve come to the end of our ‘accent on annuals’http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.a sp?prodid=249©2009 Barry Breckling http://www.scmta-trails.org/050605-wilder/050605-wilder-0031.jpg© Project SOUND
  • 105. We’ve ‘visited’ some interesting gardenshttp://www.pinterest.com/jlviles/porches-patios/http://www.jasonelk.com/2013/01/its-a-beautiful-day-at-harold-porter-botanicalgarden-in-bettys-bay/© Project SOUND
  • 106. Lessons from some great mediterranean climate gardens 1. Limit the palette – a single species or color family 2. Choose colors that support your aim: hot brights or cool pastels 3. Mass color for maximal effect - plant in swaths or clumps, instead of mixing many colors together 4. Plant densely – in pots of in the ground 5. Carefully plan color contrasts – including contrasts with hardscape 6. Use containers to provide seasonal color 7. Use hardscape to provide additional color, contrast © Project SOUND
  • 107. What do you think of when you picture a wildflower garden?http://gardenersbasement.com/planting-a-wild-flower-garden/ http://tejonranch.com/wp-content/uploads/flower5.jpghttp://californianativegardendesign.blogspot.com/2011/05/sowing-california-nativewildflowers.html © Project SOUND
  • 108. It’s not too late to plant some annual wildflowers© Project SOUND
  • 109. The annual wildflowers are a bit slow this year© Project SOUND
  • 110. Come next month for ‘Botany for Gardeners’© Project SOUND
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