Postcolonial studies/ lit. , feminism, poststructuralism

Education

mariel-amez
  • 1. Postcolonial Studies, Feminism, Poststructuralism Literature in English III Mariel Amez
  • 2. POSTCOLONIALISM
    • new writing in English?
    • world fiction?
    • international or transcultural writing?
    • Commonwealth literature?
    • Postcolonial literature?
  • 3. POSTCOLONIALISM
    • Postcolonial studies/ theory: Reading
    • vs
    • Postcolonial literature: Writing
  • 4.
    • Colonial literature :concerned with colonial perceptions and experience, written by metropolitans, creoles and indigenes during colonial times
    • Colonialist literature :concerned with colonial expansion, written by and for colonizing Europeans about non-European lands dominated by them.
    POSTCOLONIALISM
  • 5. Colonialist literature
    • Eurocentric discourse that assumed the normality and preeminence of everything "occidental," correlatively with its representations of the "oriental" as an exotic and inferior other.
  • 6. Postcolonial literature
    • Counter-narrative in which the colonial cultures fight their way back into a world history written by Europeans.
  • 7. Colonialist and Postcolonial literature
    • did not simplyarticulatecolonial or nationalist preoccupations;
    • also contributed to themaking ,definition , andclarificationof those same preoccupations
  • 8. Colonialist vs Postcolonial literature
    • A valid dichotomy?
    • An overgeneralisation?
    • A rewriting of hegemony and domination?
  • 9. OthernessDifference
    • Marginalised
    • Disempowered
    • Robbed of their voice and identity
    • BUT
    • Self cannot exist without the other
    • Self and other are mirror images connected by their reflection
  • 10.
    • Chapter 1 “Imperialism and Textuality” inBoehmer, Elleke.Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Migrant Metaphors.
  • 11. How was thecolonized othercharacterized?
    • in need of civilization
    • savages lacking the power and ability to think and rule
    • useless, lazy, avoiding to do work through pretence
    • Agency, diversity, resistance, voices
    • screened out
  • 12. Representations of white men
    • hard and careful workers
    • sensible, rational
    • careful builders
    • intellectuals
    • profit-makers
    • colonial officers part of an elite
  • 13. Purposes of Othering
    • construct superiorityofthe West
    • justify the dispossession ofnatives
    • represent the degradation of other human beings as natural
    • foster nationalism
  • 14. “ Mainstream realist novels could beofimperial domination even if they were notaboutit”.
    • a commodity (images of riches and trade )
    • a new beginning (transportation; exile)
    • “ The forbidden”: fascination or fear
    • Mainly
    • took for granted the integrity, superiority, and strength of the West
    • showed acceptance of the Empire
  • 15. Which “forms of self-validation” of the Empire in the 19th century are mentioned?
    • ideologies of moral, cultural, and racial supremacy
    • responsible, kind, gentle and morally uplifting ruling
    • selfless, serious, above blame, good government and peace under the law
    • inevitable and historically important: a new history
  • 16.
    • Chapter 2 “Colonialist Concerns” (provided on paper) fromBoehmer, Elleke.Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Migrant Metaphors.
  • 17. What is the attitude towards other cultures in colonialist texts?
    • sources of contamination: infectious and bewitching
    • create vulnerability: closeness to savage passions ;apprehension at racial mixing
    • interpreting reality in a European way
    • empty of indigenous cultures
    • objects of study
    • accepting British rule as part of the order of things
  • 18. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • gaze
    • to look at someone or something for a long time, giving it all your attention, often without realizing you are doing so
    • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
  • 19. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • gaze
    • psychological relationship of power
    • gazer: superior to object of gaze
    • Schroeder, J.E.Consuming Representation: A Visual Approach to Consumer Research. Representing Consumers: Voices Views and Vision.Routledge Publishers, 1998.
  • 20. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • normative gaze
    • Eurocentric racial identity: lens to view and construct other races
    • West, Cornel
  • 21. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • Commanding perspective assumed by the European in the text
    • high vantage point
    • knowledgeable position
    • bird’s-eye description
    • represents authority
  • 22. How is the white hero characterised in colonialist texts?
    • youth and virility
    • model of Christian honour and patriotism
    • emissary of progress
    • restraint
    • moral earnestness
    • rationality
    • technological skill
    • ability to rule
  • 23. How are women characterised in colonialist texts?
    • seductive distraction or harmful presence
    • unmanning and polluting
    • black: contamination and degeneration of excessive pleasure
  • 24. How is the colonised characterised in colonialist texts?
    • fossilised survival of earlier evolutionary stages
    • irrational, barbaric, primitive, animal-like or childlike, violent or difficult to control, evil and harmful
    • passive, soft, lazy, weak, inscrutable, seductive, feminine
    • lack of character and individual will: crowd imagery
    • certain nobility due to military skill
  • 25. How are the colonised countries characterised in colonialist texts?
    • vast and shapeless
    • savage and degraded
    • sources of threat, trauma and mystery
    • treacherous, dark, still
    • “ the engulfing female”
    • places where white men defined their masculinityand where they bonded
  • 26.
    • Frantz Fanon(1925 – 1961) – Martinique
    • Black Skin, White Masks(1952)
    • The Wretched of the Earth(1961)
      • The category "white" depends for its stability on its negation, "black." Neither exists without the other, and both come into being at the moment of imperial conquest.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 27.
    • Frantz Fanon(cont’d)
      • Speaking French means accepting the collective consciousness of the French, which identifies blackness with evil and sin.
      • To escape this association the black man thinks of himself as a universal subject equally participating in society.
      • The black man is necessarily alienated from himself.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 28.
    • Edward Said(1935-2003) – Jerusalem
    • Orientalism(1978)
    • Culture and Imperialism(1993)
    • Politics of Dispossession(1994)
      • Examines the ways through which the ‘Orient’ was, and continues to be constructed through the lens of Europeans, in part defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 29.
    • Edward Said(cont’d)
      • The European invention of the fiction of the Orient and the Orientals has served to create not only knowledge but also the very reality they appear to describe
      • This knowledge tradition has functioned to serve hegemonic, imperialist ends
      • The Occident / Orient distinction has operated on oppositional terms ensuring that the Orient has been constructed as a negative, inferior inversion of Western culture
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 30.
    • Edward Said(cont’d)
      • By constructing the ‘Orient’ as culturally static, eternally uniform and incapable of self-definition, the ‘Occident’ as its established opposite is infused with a secure sense of its own cultural and intellectual superiority. The West consequently viewed itself as dynamic, innovative and expanding, which ultimately secured a sense of imperial conceit and self-justification for colonial rule.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 31.
    • Binary oppositions
      • The West: dynamic, rational, peaceful, liberal, logical, capable of holding real values - “male”
      • The Orient: static, irrational, warlike, passion-ridden, “immoral” – “female”
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 32.
    • Homi K. Bhabha(b. 1949) – India
    • Nation and Narration(1990)
    • The Location of Culture(1993)
    • Cosmopolitanism(2002)
      • Encourages a rigorous rethinking of nationalism, representation, and resistance that above all stresses the "ambivalence" or "hybridity" that characterizes the site of colonial contestation.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 33.
    • Homi K. Bhabha(cont’d.)
      • Criticises the supposedly homogenous, innate, and historically continuous traditions that falsely define and ensure the subordinate status of Third World nations.
      • Argues that cultures can be understood to interact, transgress, and transform each other in a much more complex manner than the traditional binary oppositions can allow.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 34.
    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
    • (b. 1942) – India
    • In Other Worlds(1988)
    • Outside in the Teaching Machine(1993)
    • A Critique of Postcolonial Reason(1999).
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 35.
      • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak(cont’d)
      • Criticises European literary and philosophical texts for providing ideological support for European colonialism anddevelops a feminist perspective .
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 36.
        • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak(cont’d)
        • Postcolonial theory focuses too much on past forms of colonial domination - inadequate to criticise the impact of contemporary global economic domination
        • By speaking out and reclaiming a collective cultural identity, subalterns will in fact re-inscribe their subordinate position in society. The academic assumption of a subaltern collectivity becomes akin to an ethnocentric extension of Western logos.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 37. Postcolonial literature
    • Writing from the Empire (before political independence)
      • white settlers
      • creoles
      • indigenous peoples
  • 38. Postcolonial literature
    • Writing after Independence
      • cancelling colonial stereotypes
      • becoming subjects
      • rewriting history
      • establishing identity
  • 39. Postcolonial literature
    • Genres
    • ThemesorMotifs
    • Strategies
  • 40. Postcolonial literature: Strategies
    • Appropriation
    • Indigenous myth
    • Language
  • 41. Feminism
    • First wave :equality, rights, liberation and emancipation.
    • Second wave :sex is our biological and natural being; gender is the social and cultural interpretation of that being.
    • Third wave : no natural ‘sex’ underlying our gender; sex istextual– always in production and open to question.
  • 42. Feminist literary criticism
    • starts in late 1960’s
    • not a unitary theory or procedure
    • includes adaptations ofpsychoanalytic, Marxist,andpoststructuralisttheories.
  • 43. Shared Assumptions
    • Western civilization is pervasivelypatriarchal
    • sex is determined by anatomy;genderis acultural constructgenerated by patriarchal biases of civilization
    • patriarchal ideology pervades writings traditionally consideredgreat literature , written mainlyby men for men
    • standard selection and critical treatmentgender-biased
  • 44. Anglo-American Feminist Crit.
    • dojusticeto female points of view, concerns, and values
    • enlarge , reorder, even displace, the literarycanon
    • no fundamental difference:an undervaluing of female writing
    • analysis of therepresentationof men and women by male and female authors
    • E.g. Gilbert & Gubar (1979):The Madwoman in the Attic :
  • 45. French Feminist Crit.
    • theoryof the role of gender in writing
    • fundamentaldistinctionbased on social and economic factors
    • Western languages male-engendered, male-constituted, and male-dominated:phallogocentrism
    • écriture féminine( Cixous)
  • 46. Post-structuralism
    • late 1960’s
    • critiques structuralism
    • complementsstructuralism: alternative modes of inquiry, explanation and interpretation.
    • Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes , etc.
  • 47. Post-structuralism
    • signifier and signified are not only oppositional butplural
    • incommensuratequalities of language
    • no text can mean what itseems to say
    • challenges(even undermines) traditional conceptionsof meaning, knowledge, truth, and the subject or "self" (humanism)
  • 48. Deconstruction
    • language operates in subtle and often contradictory ways:no certainties
    • destabilisationof hierarchical oppositions
    • the signified is always a signifier in another system :infinite deferral of meaning
  • 49. Deconstruction
    • différance :( Frenchdifférer )
    • todefer , postpone, delay and also
    • todiffer , be different from
    • The text is an endless sequence of signifiers which can have no ultimate or determinate meaning
  • 50. Deconstruction
    • aporia:tension between what a text manifestly means to say and what it is nonetheless constrained to mean
    • traces : indications of an absence that define a presence
    • reading undererasure
  • 51. Deconstruction
    • a way of highlighting things that texts do to themselves and each other
    • questioning prioritiesset up as natural or self-evident
    • demonstrating binary oppositions areunstable , reversible, and mutually dependent
    • showing how textssubvert , exceed, even overturn their author's stated purposes
  • 52. Literature in English III Mariel Amez
    Please download to view
  • 1
    All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
    Description
    Some key concepts in these three critical approaches, and an overview of postcolonial lit.
    Text
    • 1. Postcolonial Studies, Feminism, Poststructuralism Literature in English III Mariel Amez
  • 2. POSTCOLONIALISM
    • new writing in English?
    • world fiction?
    • international or transcultural writing?
    • Commonwealth literature?
    • Postcolonial literature?
  • 3. POSTCOLONIALISM
    • Postcolonial studies/ theory: Reading
    • vs
    • Postcolonial literature: Writing
  • 4.
    • Colonial literature :concerned with colonial perceptions and experience, written by metropolitans, creoles and indigenes during colonial times
    • Colonialist literature :concerned with colonial expansion, written by and for colonizing Europeans about non-European lands dominated by them.
    POSTCOLONIALISM
  • 5. Colonialist literature
    • Eurocentric discourse that assumed the normality and preeminence of everything "occidental," correlatively with its representations of the "oriental" as an exotic and inferior other.
  • 6. Postcolonial literature
    • Counter-narrative in which the colonial cultures fight their way back into a world history written by Europeans.
  • 7. Colonialist and Postcolonial literature
    • did not simplyarticulatecolonial or nationalist preoccupations;
    • also contributed to themaking ,definition , andclarificationof those same preoccupations
  • 8. Colonialist vs Postcolonial literature
    • A valid dichotomy?
    • An overgeneralisation?
    • A rewriting of hegemony and domination?
  • 9. OthernessDifference
    • Marginalised
    • Disempowered
    • Robbed of their voice and identity
    • BUT
    • Self cannot exist without the other
    • Self and other are mirror images connected by their reflection
  • 10.
    • Chapter 1 “Imperialism and Textuality” inBoehmer, Elleke.Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Migrant Metaphors.
  • 11. How was thecolonized othercharacterized?
    • in need of civilization
    • savages lacking the power and ability to think and rule
    • useless, lazy, avoiding to do work through pretence
    • Agency, diversity, resistance, voices
    • screened out
  • 12. Representations of white men
    • hard and careful workers
    • sensible, rational
    • careful builders
    • intellectuals
    • profit-makers
    • colonial officers part of an elite
  • 13. Purposes of Othering
    • construct superiorityofthe West
    • justify the dispossession ofnatives
    • represent the degradation of other human beings as natural
    • foster nationalism
  • 14. “ Mainstream realist novels could beofimperial domination even if they were notaboutit”.
    • a commodity (images of riches and trade )
    • a new beginning (transportation; exile)
    • “ The forbidden”: fascination or fear
    • Mainly
    • took for granted the integrity, superiority, and strength of the West
    • showed acceptance of the Empire
  • 15. Which “forms of self-validation” of the Empire in the 19th century are mentioned?
    • ideologies of moral, cultural, and racial supremacy
    • responsible, kind, gentle and morally uplifting ruling
    • selfless, serious, above blame, good government and peace under the law
    • inevitable and historically important: a new history
  • 16.
    • Chapter 2 “Colonialist Concerns” (provided on paper) fromBoehmer, Elleke.Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Migrant Metaphors.
  • 17. What is the attitude towards other cultures in colonialist texts?
    • sources of contamination: infectious and bewitching
    • create vulnerability: closeness to savage passions ;apprehension at racial mixing
    • interpreting reality in a European way
    • empty of indigenous cultures
    • objects of study
    • accepting British rule as part of the order of things
  • 18. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • gaze
    • to look at someone or something for a long time, giving it all your attention, often without realizing you are doing so
    • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
  • 19. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • gaze
    • psychological relationship of power
    • gazer: superior to object of gaze
    • Schroeder, J.E.Consuming Representation: A Visual Approach to Consumer Research. Representing Consumers: Voices Views and Vision.Routledge Publishers, 1998.
  • 20. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • normative gaze
    • Eurocentric racial identity: lens to view and construct other races
    • West, Cornel
  • 21. What is the “colonial gaze”?
    • Commanding perspective assumed by the European in the text
    • high vantage point
    • knowledgeable position
    • bird’s-eye description
    • represents authority
  • 22. How is the white hero characterised in colonialist texts?
    • youth and virility
    • model of Christian honour and patriotism
    • emissary of progress
    • restraint
    • moral earnestness
    • rationality
    • technological skill
    • ability to rule
  • 23. How are women characterised in colonialist texts?
    • seductive distraction or harmful presence
    • unmanning and polluting
    • black: contamination and degeneration of excessive pleasure
  • 24. How is the colonised characterised in colonialist texts?
    • fossilised survival of earlier evolutionary stages
    • irrational, barbaric, primitive, animal-like or childlike, violent or difficult to control, evil and harmful
    • passive, soft, lazy, weak, inscrutable, seductive, feminine
    • lack of character and individual will: crowd imagery
    • certain nobility due to military skill
  • 25. How are the colonised countries characterised in colonialist texts?
    • vast and shapeless
    • savage and degraded
    • sources of threat, trauma and mystery
    • treacherous, dark, still
    • “ the engulfing female”
    • places where white men defined their masculinityand where they bonded
  • 26.
    • Frantz Fanon(1925 – 1961) – Martinique
    • Black Skin, White Masks(1952)
    • The Wretched of the Earth(1961)
      • The category "white" depends for its stability on its negation, "black." Neither exists without the other, and both come into being at the moment of imperial conquest.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 27.
    • Frantz Fanon(cont’d)
      • Speaking French means accepting the collective consciousness of the French, which identifies blackness with evil and sin.
      • To escape this association the black man thinks of himself as a universal subject equally participating in society.
      • The black man is necessarily alienated from himself.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 28.
    • Edward Said(1935-2003) – Jerusalem
    • Orientalism(1978)
    • Culture and Imperialism(1993)
    • Politics of Dispossession(1994)
      • Examines the ways through which the ‘Orient’ was, and continues to be constructed through the lens of Europeans, in part defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 29.
    • Edward Said(cont’d)
      • The European invention of the fiction of the Orient and the Orientals has served to create not only knowledge but also the very reality they appear to describe
      • This knowledge tradition has functioned to serve hegemonic, imperialist ends
      • The Occident / Orient distinction has operated on oppositional terms ensuring that the Orient has been constructed as a negative, inferior inversion of Western culture
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 30.
    • Edward Said(cont’d)
      • By constructing the ‘Orient’ as culturally static, eternally uniform and incapable of self-definition, the ‘Occident’ as its established opposite is infused with a secure sense of its own cultural and intellectual superiority. The West consequently viewed itself as dynamic, innovative and expanding, which ultimately secured a sense of imperial conceit and self-justification for colonial rule.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 31.
    • Binary oppositions
      • The West: dynamic, rational, peaceful, liberal, logical, capable of holding real values - “male”
      • The Orient: static, irrational, warlike, passion-ridden, “immoral” – “female”
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 32.
    • Homi K. Bhabha(b. 1949) – India
    • Nation and Narration(1990)
    • The Location of Culture(1993)
    • Cosmopolitanism(2002)
      • Encourages a rigorous rethinking of nationalism, representation, and resistance that above all stresses the "ambivalence" or "hybridity" that characterizes the site of colonial contestation.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 33.
    • Homi K. Bhabha(cont’d.)
      • Criticises the supposedly homogenous, innate, and historically continuous traditions that falsely define and ensure the subordinate status of Third World nations.
      • Argues that cultures can be understood to interact, transgress, and transform each other in a much more complex manner than the traditional binary oppositions can allow.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 34.
    • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
    • (b. 1942) – India
    • In Other Worlds(1988)
    • Outside in the Teaching Machine(1993)
    • A Critique of Postcolonial Reason(1999).
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 35.
      • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak(cont’d)
      • Criticises European literary and philosophical texts for providing ideological support for European colonialism anddevelops a feminist perspective .
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 36.
        • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak(cont’d)
        • Postcolonial theory focuses too much on past forms of colonial domination - inadequate to criticise the impact of contemporary global economic domination
        • By speaking out and reclaiming a collective cultural identity, subalterns will in fact re-inscribe their subordinate position in society. The academic assumption of a subaltern collectivity becomes akin to an ethnocentric extension of Western logos.
    Postcolonial Studies
  • 37. Postcolonial literature
    • Writing from the Empire (before political independence)
      • white settlers
      • creoles
      • indigenous peoples
  • 38. Postcolonial literature
    • Writing after Independence
      • cancelling colonial stereotypes
      • becoming subjects
      • rewriting history
      • establishing identity
  • 39. Postcolonial literature
    • Genres
    • ThemesorMotifs
    • Strategies
  • 40. Postcolonial literature: Strategies
    • Appropriation
    • Indigenous myth
    • Language
  • 41. Feminism
    • First wave :equality, rights, liberation and emancipation.
    • Second wave :sex is our biological and natural being; gender is the social and cultural interpretation of that being.
    • Third wave : no natural ‘sex’ underlying our gender; sex istextual– always in production and open to question.
  • 42. Feminist literary criticism
    • starts in late 1960’s
    • not a unitary theory or procedure
    • includes adaptations ofpsychoanalytic, Marxist,andpoststructuralisttheories.
  • 43. Shared Assumptions
    • Western civilization is pervasivelypatriarchal
    • sex is determined by anatomy;genderis acultural constructgenerated by patriarchal biases of civilization
    • patriarchal ideology pervades writings traditionally consideredgreat literature , written mainlyby men for men
    • standard selection and critical treatmentgender-biased
  • 44. Anglo-American Feminist Crit.
    • dojusticeto female points of view, concerns, and values
    • enlarge , reorder, even displace, the literarycanon
    • no fundamental difference:an undervaluing of female writing
    • analysis of therepresentationof men and women by male and female authors
    • E.g. Gilbert & Gubar (1979):The Madwoman in the Attic :
  • 45. French Feminist Crit.
    • theoryof the role of gender in writing
    • fundamentaldistinctionbased on social and economic factors
    • Western languages male-engendered, male-constituted, and male-dominated:phallogocentrism
    • écriture féminine( Cixous)
  • 46. Post-structuralism
    • late 1960’s
    • critiques structuralism
    • complementsstructuralism: alternative modes of inquiry, explanation and interpretation.
    • Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Jacques Lacan, Roland Barthes , etc.
  • 47. Post-structuralism
    • signifier and signified are not only oppositional butplural
    • incommensuratequalities of language
    • no text can mean what itseems to say
    • challenges(even undermines) traditional conceptionsof meaning, knowledge, truth, and the subject or "self" (humanism)
  • 48. Deconstruction
    • language operates in subtle and often contradictory ways:no certainties
    • destabilisationof hierarchical oppositions
    • the signified is always a signifier in another system :infinite deferral of meaning
  • 49. Deconstruction
    • différance :( Frenchdifférer )
    • todefer , postpone, delay and also
    • todiffer , be different from
    • The text is an endless sequence of signifiers which can have no ultimate or determinate meaning
  • 50. Deconstruction
    • aporia:tension between what a text manifestly means to say and what it is nonetheless constrained to mean
    • traces : indications of an absence that define a presence
    • reading undererasure
  • 51. Deconstruction
    • a way of highlighting things that texts do to themselves and each other
    • questioning prioritiesset up as natural or self-evident
    • demonstrating binary oppositions areunstable , reversible, and mutually dependent
    • showing how textssubvert , exceed, even overturn their author's stated purposes
  • 52. Literature in English III Mariel Amez
  • Comments
    Top