The history ofÂ Agriculture in IndiaÂ dates back toÂ Indus Valley CivilizationÂ Era.
AgriÂ is from LatinÂ agerÂ ("a field"), andÂ cultureÂ is from LatinÂ cultura,Â meaning "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil."
India's agriculture is composed of many crops, with the foremost food staples being rice and wheat.
The agriculture accounts for as much as a quarter of the Indian economy and employs an estimated 60 percent of the labor force.
In recent history, agriculture has been the main source of the food we consume on a daily basis.
AgricultureÂ is the term used to describe the act of growing crops and raising livestock for human consumption and use. Â
Currently, agriculture is divided into two different types
Industrialized agricultureÂ is the type of agriculture where large quantities of crops and livestock are produced through industrialized techniques for the purpose of sale.
The goal of industrialized agriculture is to increaseÂ crop yield.
Â Subsistence agricultureÂ is when a farmer lives on a small amount of land and produces enough food to feed his or her household and have a small cash crop.
The goal of subsistence agriculture is to produce enough food to ensure the survival of the individual family.Â
Farming Systems in IndiaÂ are strategically utilized, according to the locations where they are most suitable.
The farming systems that significantly contribute to the domestic GDP of India areÂ subsistence farming,Â organic farming, andÂ industrial farming.
Â Regions throughout India differ in types of farming they use; some are based onÂ horticulture,Â ley farming,Â agroforestry, and many more.
Â Due to India's geographical location, certain parts experience different climates, thus affecting each region's agricultural productivity differently.
India is very dependent on its monsoon cycle for large crop yields.
FARMING SYSTEM IN INDIA:
Organic farming can be explained as an agricultural method wherein the following techniques are used:
Crop Rotation:Â A technique to grow various kinds of crops in the same area, according to different seasons, in a sequential manner
Green Manure:Â Refers to the dying plants that are uprooted and stuffed into the soil in order to make them act as a nutrient for the soil to increase its quality
Biological Pest Control:Â A method in which living organisms are used to control pests, without or with limited use of chemicals
Compost:Â Highly rich in nutrients, this is a recycled organic matter used as a fertilizer in the agricultural farms
India's food grain production increased marginally to 252.23 million tones in the 2015-16 crop year, as per the third advance estimates, despite setback due to deficient rainfall and shortage of water in reservoirs.Â
Production of rice, coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, sugarcane ,cotton and jute was lower due to erratic rainfall during the 2015 monsoon season.Â
As per the 3 rd advance estimates for 2015-16 total food grains production in the country has been higher than that in the last year.
Rice production during 2015-16 is estimated at 103.36 million tones, which is lower by 2.12 million tones than its production of 105.48 million tones during 2014-15.Â
Salient Features of Agriculture:
There are certain salient features of agriculture in India. Some of these are:
Pressure of Population on Agriculture
Mechanization of Farming
Dependency upon Monsoon
Importance of Animals
Variety of Crops
Predominance of Food Crops
Problems Faced by the Agriculture Sector:
There are certain problems and challenges faced by the agriculture sector in India. Some such problems are:
Stagnation in Production of Major Crops
Decrease in Fresh Ground Water
Lack of Storage Facilities
Costly Farm Inputs
Affect of Global Climate Change