Global warming (EVS Project)
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What is global warming? Ravenshaw Junior College Cuttack Presented by :- Preetish Priyadarshi Samal Project Report: GLOBAL WARMING For having nice project contact me on :- firstname.lastname@example.org www.facebook.com/preetish.pn2 GLOBAL WARMING 2 CONTENTS Certificate Declaration Preface Acknowledgement Difference between Global Warming & Climate Change What is Global Warming How do GLOBAL Warming works Cause of Global Warming Green House effect & its example Global Warming Causes Animalâs thought toward Global Warming Major Consequences Who is responsible Proof When did Global Warming start How can we stop Global Warming Have Faith on Global Warming : Shifting Gears Us emission But our Goal Response to Global Warming Interesting evidence of Global Warming Conclusion CERTIFICATE I Do here by certified that this project titled âGLOBAL WARMING.â Is done by â PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMALâ, of âRAVENSHAW JUNIOR COLLEGEâ , is an original work and have been submitted under by supervision and guidance. Acknowledgement and believe, this project work is completed from every aspect, which can help the study in various ways. â I wish all success in future lifeâ. DECLARATION I , PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL declared that , I tried my best to do this project work, â GLOBAL WARMINGâ and the project is completed by myself from every aspect under the guidance of my college teacher. PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL PREFACE Human activities have led to large increases in heat-trapping gases over the past century. The global warming of the past 50 years is due primarily to this human-induced increase. Global average temperature and sea level have increased, and precipitation patterns have changed. Human âfingerprintsâ also have been identified in many other aspects of the climate system, including changes in ocean heat content, precipitation, atmospheric moisture, plant and animal health and location, and Arctic sea ice. In the U.S., the amount of rain falling in the heaviest downpours has increased approximately 20 percent on average in the past century. Many types of extreme weather events, such as heat waves and regional droughts, have become more frequent and intense during the past 40 to 50 years. The destructive energy of Atlantic hurricanes has increased... In the eastern Pacific, the strongest hurricanes have become stronger since the 1980s, even while the total number of storms has decreased. Sea level has risen along most of the U.S. coast over the last 50 years, and will rise more in the future. Arctic sea ice is declining rapidly and this is very likely to continue. Global temperatures are projected to continue to rise over this century. Whether by 2-3 degrees F or more than 11 degrees depends on a number of factors, including the amount of heat-trapping gas emissions humans continue to allow and how sensitive the climate is to those emissions. Lower emissions of heat-trapping gases will delay the appearance of climate change impacts and lessen their magnitude. Unless the rate of emissions is substantially reduced, impacts are expected to become increasingly severe for more people and places. I, PREETISH PRIYADARSHI SAMAL, owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the writing of this project. My deepest thanks to our Zoology Lecturer MS. PUSHPALATA PAL, the guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. She has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.Â I express my thanks to the Principal forÂ extending her support. My deep sense of gratitude to my friends for their support and guidance. I would also thank my Institution and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family and well wishers for their encouragement and cooperation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT GLOBAL WARMING is the increase of the Earthâs average surface temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. CLIMATE CHANGE is a broader term that refers to long-term changes in climate, including average temperature and precipitation. Difference It should NOT be confused with climate change ! ! 8 What is global warming ? Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which started to increase in the late 19th century and is projected to keep going up. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 Â°C (1.4Â Â°F), with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels. These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized nations. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme-weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in crop yields. 9 How Global Warming Works Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Greenhouse gases 10 CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING Pollution from coal, natural gas, and oil CO2 from airplanes & vehicles POPULATION INCREASE DEFORESTATION Greenhouse Effect The Sunâs energy passes through the carâs windshield. This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and cannot pass back through the windshield, causing the inside of the car to warm up. Example of the Greenhouse Effect 13 Melting of glaciers Global warming causes- Polar Bear Extinction Warmer waters and more hurricanes Increased probability and intensity of droughts and heat waves Melting Polar ice caps Increased Temperature Animals like these think likeâ¦â¦ WHERE IS my habitatâ¦!!! Temperatures Weather in recent winters Glacier and Ice Cap Melting Evidence of global warming is very apparent in the recent melting of ice sheets. Two places where melting has become extremely visible are Antarctica and Greenland. One problem with this is that much less heat is absorbed by snow than by water, thus worsening the effect as the ice retreats. One area of particular concern is the Himalayans. 1/3 of the worlds fresh drinking water comes from the run off from this glacier system. A direct consequence from our polluting actions will be the disappearance of these vital glaciers. Between the years 1860-1900 average temperatures have increased by 0.75 degrees Celsius. Over the past 100 years global temperatures have risen by 1.3 degrees. Recent winter was the warmest winter ever recorded( in the history of the planet Earth). 10 out of the past 14 years are the warmest on record. Sea level rising Possibly the biggest threat brought by global warming is rapid sea level changes. Two years ago the entire Larsen B ice shelf broke away into pieces in less than a month. Scientists thought it would be at least a decade before this shelf melted, even with global warming. Both Greenland and Western Antarctica are depleting at shocking rates. Not all of global Warming's effects are unprecedented. Global warming causes- At some places, it At othersâ¦â¦ SOMEWHERE itâs toooâ¦â¦.ooo WHEREAS At others toooâ¦.. COLD Hot !! Its all because of GLOBAL WARMING Major CONSEQUENCE DROUGHT UNSEASONAL FLOOD WE the HUMAMS are the ones causing It CAUSED BY WHOMâ¦???? WHO Is THE CULPRIT??? BUT We need PROOF ! ! SO Hereâs the PROOF Alaska 1914 2004 Arizona Portage Glacier Colorado River June 2002 Dec 2003 19 ANTARCTICA â losing ice faster..!!!!!! BEFORE NOW "There will be no polar ice by 2060...Somewhere along that path, the polar bear drops out." Global Atmospheric Concentration of CO2 When did global warming start ? 21 We can stop global warming! JUST DOâ¦â¦â¦â¦these Follow the arrowâ¦.. Itâs NOT too LATE ACT NOW!!!! 22 Scientists agree that the burning of fossil fuels is causing global warming. Since these fuels are burned for energy, and everyone uses energy, everyone can help stop global warming just by using less energy or energy from renewable sources! Spread Awareness Turn off your computer or the TV when youâre not using it. Be Bulb SmartâUse CFLs 500 lbs. of coal Dress lightly when itâs hot instead of turning up the air conditioning. 1,430 lbs. CO2 pollution avoided -$30 saved Incandescent Compact Fluorescent Recycle Drive LESS, drive SMART Use a bicycle or bus 23 AND HAVE FAITH ON â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦ Wind Power Solar Power Fuel efficient cars Heyâ¦..!!! Its working 24 Global Warming: Shifting Gears 25 2007 Goal: Reductions in CO2 Per Year Billions of Metric Tons Carbon 26 BUT 2007 Reductions in CO2 Per Year Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind Power Biofuels Carbon capture and storage Billions of Metric Tons Carbon Our Goal 28 RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING MITIGATION In order to limit warming to within the lower range described in the IPCC's "Summary Report for Policymakers" it will be necessary to adopt policies that will limit greenhouse gas emissions to one of several significantly different scenarios described in the full report. This will become more and more difficult with each year of increasing volumes of emissions and even more drastic measures will be required in later years to stabilize a desired atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. Energy-related carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2010 were the highest in history, breaking the prior record set in 2008. Since even in the most optimistic scenario, fossil fuels are going to be used for years to come, mitigation may also involve carbon capture and storage, a process that traps CO2 produced by factories and gas or coal power stations and then stores it, usually underground. ADAPTATION Other policy responses include adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate change may be planned, e.g., by local or national government, or spontaneous, i.e., done privately without government intervention. The ability to adapt is closely linked to social and economic development. Even societies with high capacities to adapt are still vulnerable to climate change. Planned adaptation is already occurring on a limited basis. The barriers, limits, and costs of future adaptation are not fully understood. REENGENEERING A body of the scientific literature has developed which considers alternative reengineering techniques for climate change mitigation. In the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (published in 2007) Working Group III (WG3) assessed some "apparently promising" geoengineering techniques, including ocean fertilization, capturing and sequestering CO2, and techniques for reducing the amount of sunlight absorbed by the Earth's atmospheric system. The IPCC's overall conclusion was that geoengineering options remained "largely speculative and unproven, (...) with the risk of unknown side-effects." In the IPCC's[ judgement, reliable cost estimates for geoengineering options had not yet been published. As most geoengineering techniques would affect the entire globe, deployment would likely require global public acceptance and an adequate global legal and regulatory framework, as well as significant further scientific research. 30 Interesting evidence of global warming This phenomena is an example of how little we know about the possible implications of global warming In far northern Canada the Native Inuit have noticed the sun rise significantly earlier in the year (2 months) This has been caused by the warming of the layer of air above the snow. This distorts the sunâs light, literally causing it to rise earlier. CONCLUSION The term global warming was probably first used in its modern sense on 8 August 1975 in a science paper by Wally Broacher in the journal Science called "Are we on the brink of a pronounced global warming?". Broacherâs choice of words was new and represented a significant recognition that the climate was warming; previously the phrasing used by scientists was "inadvertent climate modification," because while it was recognized humans could change the climate, no one was sure which direction it was going. The National Academy of Sciences first used global warming in a 1979 paper called the Carney Report, it said: "if carbon dioxide continues to increase no reason to doubt that climate changes will result and no reason to believe that these changes will be negligible." The report made a distinction between referring to surface temperature changes as global warming, while referring to other changes caused by increased CO2 as climate change. Global warming became more widely popular after 1988 when NASA climate scientist James Hansen used the term in a testimony to Congress. He said: "global warming has reached a level such that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect. 32 The Earth is melting! Use less energy âSave the Earth to save Our Futureâ Preetish Priyadarshi Samal