Poultry: Contamination, Preservation and Spoilage

Food

ilyana-causing
  • PoultryPoultry
  • Poultry is a category of domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of collecting their eggs, killing them for their meat and feathers Poultry is the second most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 30% of meat production worldwide
  • Even though poultry is concerned mostly with chicken meat, but the principles also apply to meat of other fowl, such as turkey, goose, duck and squab.
  • Turkey Pheasant Goose Chicken Duck Quail
  • Contamination of Poultry
  • Contamination of Poultry The skin of live birds may contain numbers of bacteria averaging 1,500 per centimeter and could also be derived from the feet, feathers, and feces Contamination of the skin and the lining of the body cavity occurs during washing, plucking, and evisceration The process of sticking and bleeding can also introduce contamination Knives, cloths, air, and hands and clothing of the workers can serve as intermediate sources of contamination After the handling of the meat contamination can come from carts, boxes, or other containers
  • Since most sources of contamination is found during processing of the fowl, today they are processed by a fully automated conveyor or track line with vacuum evisceration
  • Preservation of Poultry
  • Preservation of Poultry The principles of preservation in meat and meat products also applies to poultry, although the plucking and bleeding raise different problems The method of killing and bleeding of the fowl has an important effect on the quality of the product The method of plucking also has some influence on the keeping of the quality of the bird Dry-plucked birds are more resistant to decomposition than semi scalded or scalded ones because the skin is less likely to be broken but more pinfeathers are left. Steam scalding of birds is more effective than hot water in reducing numbers of bacteria, including coliforms and salmonella
  • – to render the animal immobile or unconscious – the stage wherein they drain the blood – the stage where they plunge the animal’s carcass into very hot water to facilitate plucking – the process where they remove the feathers – this stage is where they remove the internal organs – this is where they keep the poultry in cold storage Stages of Processing Poultry
  • Asepsis The sanitation of the handling of the birds before killing has influenced on the numbers of microorganisms on the skin at dressing Even under best conditions if the condition of handling and storage are not good it will permit microbial deterioration. Contamination can be prevented if the fowl is not eviscerated until sold in the retail market The shackles holding the feet and head of the fowl can be also the source of heavy contamination.
  • USE OF HEAT Chicken and other fowls may be canned in their own juices of jelly Heat processes are used for canned meat The chicken or other fowl may be salted in a weak brine before being packed into the glass jars or cans
  • USE OF LOW TEMPERATURES Most poultry is preserved by either chilling or freezing The lower the temperature of storage, the longer the birds can be stored without undesirable changes
  • Chilling Chilling storage of poultry is for only a short period Dressed birds are sometimes stored in ice when there is no available mechanical refrigeration The poultry should be chilled to 4𝑜𝐶 or less and for how long depends on the weight Weight Time Below 4 lbs. 4 hours 4-8 lbs. 6 hours Above 8 lbs. 8 hours
  • Freezing Poultry can be kept in good conditions for months when its frozen Poultry should be frozen fast enough to retain most of the natural bloom and the external appearance of a freshly dressed fowl The storage temperature should be below −17.8𝑜𝐶 with 95% humidity
  • Product Storage Times After Purchased Poultry 1 or 2 days Ground Poultry 1 or 2 days Uncooked Turkey Sausage 1 or 2 days Refirgerator Home Storage (at 𝟒𝟎𝒐 𝑭 or below) of Fresh or Uncooked Poultry If the product has a “Sell-By Date” or no date, cook or freeze the product by the times on the chart Processed Product Unopened, After Purchase After Opening Cooked Poultry 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Smoked Turkey, whole frozen (after defrosting) 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Cooked Sausage 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Canned Poultry, shelf stable 2 to 5 years/ pantry 3 to 4 days Refirgerator Home Storage (at 𝟒𝟎𝒐 𝑭 or below) of Processed Product Sealed at Plant If the product has a “Sell-By Date” or no date, cook or freeze the product by the times on the chart
  • USE OF PRESERVATIVES Poultry are soaked up in organic acids (acetic, adipic, succinic) at pH 2.5 helps lengthen shelf life Some fowl, like Turkey, are cured in a solution of salt, sugar , and sodium nitrate for several weeks at about 3.3𝑜C
  • Smoking process is also used but more on flavor than for preservation The recommended temperatures during smoking range from 43.3 − 60𝑜𝐶 and the time ranges from a few hours to several days
  • Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere Increasing carbon dioxide concentration 10 – 20% in the atmosphere of stored chickens inhibits the growth of psychrotrophs Dry ice packed with the carcasses may serve as the source of the carbon dioxide This is also known as MAP (modified atmosphere packaging)
  • Use of Irradiation Irradiation of poultry with cathode or gamma rays could be a successful preservation method Rays produce less objectionable change in appearance and flavor than in other foods Radiation doses of 1 to 10 kilograys would reduce the microbial flora and extend the product’s refrigerated shelf life Chicken carcasses have been treated with 2.5 kilograys to effectively destroy salmonella
  • Spoilage of Poultry
  • Spoilage of Poultry Most bacterial growth takes place on the surfaces (skin, lining of the body cavity, and any cut surfaces) Enzymes of the fowl contributes to the deterioration of dressed birds Bacteria is the chief cause of spoilage and the intestines is the primary source
  • Signs of Spoilage  THERE IS AN OFF ODOR CHANGE IN COLOR FEELS STICKY, SLIMY OR TACKY TO TOUCH
  • Eviscerated poultry held at 10𝑜𝐶 or below is spoiled mostly by Pseudomonas and to a lesser degree by yeast (Torulopsis and Rhodoturula). Above 10𝑜𝐶 micrococci usually predominate and there is also growth of Alcaligens and Flavobacterium Iced, cut-up poultry often develops a slime that is accompanied by an odor described as “tainted”, “acid”, “sour”, or “dishraggy”. This is caused by the species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligens
  • Product Bacteria Raw eviscerated carcasses Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, Acinetobacter, Moraxella Dark meat, pH 6.4-6.7 Acinetobacter, Altermonas, Pseudomonas White meat, pH 5.7-5.9 Pseudomonas and others Chicken wrapped in oxygen- impermeable films Microaerophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and others Vacuum-packed chicken Enterobacter and others MAJOR BACTERIA INVOLVED IN THE SPOILAGE OF REFRIGERATED POULTRY Chemical changes in poultry meat other than those caused by microorganisms occur during refrigerated storage and will in time reduce the quality
  • “We can see a thousand miracles around us every day. What is more supernatural than an egg yolk turning into a chicken?” - S. Parkes Cadman
  • Content Frazier, William. Westhoff, Dennis. Food Microbiology Fourth Edition. Quezon City: JMC PRESS, INCORPORATED. http://www.airproducts.com/industries/foodbeverage/meatpoultry/product-list/map- meatpoultry.aspx?itemId=71925338288B4066A0811308E896BAC9. http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.h tm. http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=PJaeczvugJEC&pg=PA485&dq=poultry+microbial+food +spoilage&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HCwTUq6XN6uaiQfd9ICQBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q&f=true. http://www.ashworth.com/industries/poultry-industry/secondary-process http://atrp.gatech.edu/archives/robots_hired.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry http://historymedren.about.com/od/foodandfamine/a/types_of_fowl.html http://www.empirekosher.com/faq/about-food-safety-handling/how-can-i-tell-if-my-poultry- is-spoiled/ Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8uLuz3JC-Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL4wE84JZL4 http://www.airproducts.com/industries/foodbeverage/meatpoultry/product-list/map-meatpoultry.aspx?itemId=71925338288B4066A0811308E896BAC9 http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.htm http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.htm http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=PJaeczvugJEC&pg=PA485&dq=poultry+microbial+food+spoilage&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HCwTUq6XN6uaiQfd9ICQBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=true http://www.ashworth.com/industries/poultry-industry/secondary-process http://atrp.gatech.edu/archives/robots_hired.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry http://historymedren.about.com/od/foodandfamine/a/types_of_fowl.html http://www.empirekosher.com/faq/about-food-safety-handling/how-can-i-tell-if-my-poultry-is-spoiled/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8uLuz3JC-Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL4wE84JZL4
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Text
  • PoultryPoultry
  • Poultry is a category of domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of collecting their eggs, killing them for their meat and feathers Poultry is the second most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 30% of meat production worldwide
  • Even though poultry is concerned mostly with chicken meat, but the principles also apply to meat of other fowl, such as turkey, goose, duck and squab.
  • Turkey Pheasant Goose Chicken Duck Quail
  • Contamination of Poultry
  • Contamination of Poultry The skin of live birds may contain numbers of bacteria averaging 1,500 per centimeter and could also be derived from the feet, feathers, and feces Contamination of the skin and the lining of the body cavity occurs during washing, plucking, and evisceration The process of sticking and bleeding can also introduce contamination Knives, cloths, air, and hands and clothing of the workers can serve as intermediate sources of contamination After the handling of the meat contamination can come from carts, boxes, or other containers
  • Since most sources of contamination is found during processing of the fowl, today they are processed by a fully automated conveyor or track line with vacuum evisceration
  • Preservation of Poultry
  • Preservation of Poultry The principles of preservation in meat and meat products also applies to poultry, although the plucking and bleeding raise different problems The method of killing and bleeding of the fowl has an important effect on the quality of the product The method of plucking also has some influence on the keeping of the quality of the bird Dry-plucked birds are more resistant to decomposition than semi scalded or scalded ones because the skin is less likely to be broken but more pinfeathers are left. Steam scalding of birds is more effective than hot water in reducing numbers of bacteria, including coliforms and salmonella
  • – to render the animal immobile or unconscious – the stage wherein they drain the blood – the stage where they plunge the animal’s carcass into very hot water to facilitate plucking – the process where they remove the feathers – this stage is where they remove the internal organs – this is where they keep the poultry in cold storage Stages of Processing Poultry
  • Asepsis The sanitation of the handling of the birds before killing has influenced on the numbers of microorganisms on the skin at dressing Even under best conditions if the condition of handling and storage are not good it will permit microbial deterioration. Contamination can be prevented if the fowl is not eviscerated until sold in the retail market The shackles holding the feet and head of the fowl can be also the source of heavy contamination.
  • USE OF HEAT Chicken and other fowls may be canned in their own juices of jelly Heat processes are used for canned meat The chicken or other fowl may be salted in a weak brine before being packed into the glass jars or cans
  • USE OF LOW TEMPERATURES Most poultry is preserved by either chilling or freezing The lower the temperature of storage, the longer the birds can be stored without undesirable changes
  • Chilling Chilling storage of poultry is for only a short period Dressed birds are sometimes stored in ice when there is no available mechanical refrigeration The poultry should be chilled to 4𝑜𝐶 or less and for how long depends on the weight Weight Time Below 4 lbs. 4 hours 4-8 lbs. 6 hours Above 8 lbs. 8 hours
  • Freezing Poultry can be kept in good conditions for months when its frozen Poultry should be frozen fast enough to retain most of the natural bloom and the external appearance of a freshly dressed fowl The storage temperature should be below −17.8𝑜𝐶 with 95% humidity
  • Product Storage Times After Purchased Poultry 1 or 2 days Ground Poultry 1 or 2 days Uncooked Turkey Sausage 1 or 2 days Refirgerator Home Storage (at 𝟒𝟎𝒐 𝑭 or below) of Fresh or Uncooked Poultry If the product has a “Sell-By Date” or no date, cook or freeze the product by the times on the chart Processed Product Unopened, After Purchase After Opening Cooked Poultry 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Smoked Turkey, whole frozen (after defrosting) 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Cooked Sausage 3 to 4 days 3 to 4 days Canned Poultry, shelf stable 2 to 5 years/ pantry 3 to 4 days Refirgerator Home Storage (at 𝟒𝟎𝒐 𝑭 or below) of Processed Product Sealed at Plant If the product has a “Sell-By Date” or no date, cook or freeze the product by the times on the chart
  • USE OF PRESERVATIVES Poultry are soaked up in organic acids (acetic, adipic, succinic) at pH 2.5 helps lengthen shelf life Some fowl, like Turkey, are cured in a solution of salt, sugar , and sodium nitrate for several weeks at about 3.3𝑜C
  • Smoking process is also used but more on flavor than for preservation The recommended temperatures during smoking range from 43.3 − 60𝑜𝐶 and the time ranges from a few hours to several days
  • Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere Increasing carbon dioxide concentration 10 – 20% in the atmosphere of stored chickens inhibits the growth of psychrotrophs Dry ice packed with the carcasses may serve as the source of the carbon dioxide This is also known as MAP (modified atmosphere packaging)
  • Use of Irradiation Irradiation of poultry with cathode or gamma rays could be a successful preservation method Rays produce less objectionable change in appearance and flavor than in other foods Radiation doses of 1 to 10 kilograys would reduce the microbial flora and extend the product’s refrigerated shelf life Chicken carcasses have been treated with 2.5 kilograys to effectively destroy salmonella
  • Spoilage of Poultry
  • Spoilage of Poultry Most bacterial growth takes place on the surfaces (skin, lining of the body cavity, and any cut surfaces) Enzymes of the fowl contributes to the deterioration of dressed birds Bacteria is the chief cause of spoilage and the intestines is the primary source
  • Signs of Spoilage  THERE IS AN OFF ODOR CHANGE IN COLOR FEELS STICKY, SLIMY OR TACKY TO TOUCH
  • Eviscerated poultry held at 10𝑜𝐶 or below is spoiled mostly by Pseudomonas and to a lesser degree by yeast (Torulopsis and Rhodoturula). Above 10𝑜𝐶 micrococci usually predominate and there is also growth of Alcaligens and Flavobacterium Iced, cut-up poultry often develops a slime that is accompanied by an odor described as “tainted”, “acid”, “sour”, or “dishraggy”. This is caused by the species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligens
  • Product Bacteria Raw eviscerated carcasses Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, Acinetobacter, Moraxella Dark meat, pH 6.4-6.7 Acinetobacter, Altermonas, Pseudomonas White meat, pH 5.7-5.9 Pseudomonas and others Chicken wrapped in oxygen- impermeable films Microaerophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and others Vacuum-packed chicken Enterobacter and others MAJOR BACTERIA INVOLVED IN THE SPOILAGE OF REFRIGERATED POULTRY Chemical changes in poultry meat other than those caused by microorganisms occur during refrigerated storage and will in time reduce the quality
  • “We can see a thousand miracles around us every day. What is more supernatural than an egg yolk turning into a chicken?” - S. Parkes Cadman
  • Content Frazier, William. Westhoff, Dennis. Food Microbiology Fourth Edition. Quezon City: JMC PRESS, INCORPORATED. http://www.airproducts.com/industries/foodbeverage/meatpoultry/product-list/map- meatpoultry.aspx?itemId=71925338288B4066A0811308E896BAC9. http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.h tm. http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=PJaeczvugJEC&pg=PA485&dq=poultry+microbial+food +spoilage&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HCwTUq6XN6uaiQfd9ICQBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q&f=true. http://www.ashworth.com/industries/poultry-industry/secondary-process http://atrp.gatech.edu/archives/robots_hired.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry http://historymedren.about.com/od/foodandfamine/a/types_of_fowl.html http://www.empirekosher.com/faq/about-food-safety-handling/how-can-i-tell-if-my-poultry- is-spoiled/ Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8uLuz3JC-Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL4wE84JZL4 http://www.airproducts.com/industries/foodbeverage/meatpoultry/product-list/map-meatpoultry.aspx?itemId=71925338288B4066A0811308E896BAC9 http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.htm http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C10/C10Links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/storage.htm http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=PJaeczvugJEC&pg=PA485&dq=poultry+microbial+food+spoilage&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HCwTUq6XN6uaiQfd9ICQBw&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=true http://www.ashworth.com/industries/poultry-industry/secondary-process http://atrp.gatech.edu/archives/robots_hired.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poultry http://historymedren.about.com/od/foodandfamine/a/types_of_fowl.html http://www.empirekosher.com/faq/about-food-safety-handling/how-can-i-tell-if-my-poultry-is-spoiled/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8uLuz3JC-Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL4wE84JZL4
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