Remuneration of administrators, directors and managers
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2015-12 CARL Convention Bruxelles 2015_remuneration.pptx Titre de la prÃ©sentation 2015 Carl Conference Brussels 17-19 DECEMBER 2015 Â SHARING VISION, ACHIEVING SUCCESSÂ Business Day MARCALLIANCE & MAZARS TAX JOINING FORCES Titre de la prÃ©sentation 2 REMUNERATION OF ADMINISTRATORS, DIRECTORS & MANAGERS Titre de la prÃ©sentation 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Date Titre de la prÃ©sentation INTRODUCTION EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYMENT KEY EMPLOYMENT TYPES DIRECTOR PROFILE ADMINISTRATORS HOW BY WHOM IS REMUNERATION DETERMINED REMUNERATION FINANCIAL SERVICES9. TYPICAL REMUNERATION MODEL EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYMENT GOVERNANACE EMPLOYEMENT LAW TAX CONSIDERATIONS SPECIAL SCENARIOS INTRODUCTION This presentation is seen from a UK perspective. Our challenge is to understand there are several points which do not correspond to labour law reality in a number of locations. Date 5 Titre de la prÃ©sentation INTRODUCTION Almost everyone whether they be employee, director, worker, self-employed contractor or otherwise receives an income for the work they undertake.Â Â In most jurisdictions, government seeks to tax that income. The amount of that tax and who pays it is of great interest to employers, employees, directors and shareholders. We have agreed that post conference we will to look to produce a comparative dashboard that sets out how things work in different jurisdictions and be designed to support marketing initiatives. In this presentation we aim to introduce some ideas around remuneration for individuals in executive positions such as administrators, directors and managers. Date 6 Titre de la prÃ©sentation DEFINITIONS Titre de la prÃ©sentation 7 KEY EMPLOYMENT TYPES Employee An employee is someone who works under a contract of employment. Employment rights â e.g. sick pay, maternity pay, notice periods, unfair dismissal, redundancy pay. They have a contract or other arrangement to do work or services personally for a reward. Their reward is for money or a benefit in kind â including the promise of a contract or future work. They have a limited right to send someone else to do the work. They have to turn up for work even if they donât want to. The employer has to have work for them to do as long as the contract or arrangement lasts. They are not doing the work as part of their own limited company in an arrangement where the âemployerâ is actually a customer to the client. Self-employed and contractor A person is self-employed if they run their business for themselves and take responsibility for its success or failure. Self employed workers are not paid through a payroll and do not have employment rights and responsibilities of employees. Date 8 Titre de la prÃ©sentation DIRECTOR PROFILE Company directors run limited companies on behalf of shareholders. Directors have different rights and responsibilities from employees, and may be classed as office holders for tax and social security purposes. If a person does other work thatâs not related to being a director, they may have an employment contract and get employment rights. Types of directors: Directors appointed in accordance with the companyâs Articles of Association. Managing Director/Chief Executive Officers Non-executive directors â no legal distinction between directors and non-executive directors , non execs are not normally involved in the day to day running of the business. Shadow directors, may provide instructions and directions to the board. De facto directors â effectively perform the role of a director but have not been officially appointed. Date 9 Titre de la prÃ©sentation OFFICE HOLDER A person who has been appointed to a position by a company or organisation but does not have a contract or receive regular payment may be an office holder. This includes: Statutory appointments. Appointments under the internal constitution of an organisation. Appointments under a trust deed e.g. trustees. Ecclesiastical appointments. They do not get a salary or any other form of regular payment for their services. Â They may receive fees/payments for duties undertaken. Date 10 Titre de la prÃ©sentation ADMINISTRATORS The Administrators of a Public Limited Company cannot maintain an employment relationship with the company. Administrators during an insolvency process are appointed by the court and although they work with the board, they do not have an employment relationship with the company. They will charge time costs for their services. The relation with company of a senior manager whose purpose consists of the development of administration and management activities for the company and labour relation of the Administrator thereafter, is exclusively of a commercial nature, and not of a labour nature, because the senior managerâs functions are subsumed into the functions of the Administrator. Date 11 Titre de la prÃ©sentation How and by whom is remuneration determined? Corporate governance framework â organisational culture issues. Regulatory framework â industry practices â e.g. financial services. Talent management â talent acquisition & retention, incentive and performance behaviours â aligned to central and local business strategies. Remuneration committee objectives â aligned with central and local business strategies. Date 12 Titre de la prÃ©sentation How and by whom is remuneration determined? Combination of external benchmarking + internal performance metrics Plan design Pre-tax profit impact Return on equity Employment law Corporate law Tax law Software to generate the numbers Disclosure and reporting Date 13 Titre de la prÃ©sentation REMUNERATION What comprises remuneration â salary and defined benefits? Tax implications of benefits v salary; e.g. in the UK advantages of pension contributions and advantages/disadvantages of salary sacrifice mechanisms. Motivational arrangements for directors and managers in particular. Share schemes/LTIs and bonus arrangements. Date 14 Titre de la prÃ©sentation TYPICAL REMUNERATION MODEL Base pay, Benefits-in-kind, Annual Bonus Plans, Deferred Annual Bonus Plans, Pension Schemes, Short-term incentives, Long âterm incentives. Most directors will pay themselves in the form of salary. But sometimes they may be paid by dividend payments, which can only be paid to shareholders and then only if there distributable profits. It s not uncommon for directors to be paid a round sum by the company, and then decide upon its tax treatment at the end of the year e.g. whether it will be treated as remuneration, or a dividend. Directors may receive their remuneration in the form of loans from the company that has to be repaid. Date 15 Titre de la prÃ©sentation FINANCIAL SERVICES As a result of regulatory pressure on Executive Remuneration in Financial Services, European banks are increasing of base salaries, particularly for their executive staff, whereas the North American banks are not. Key issue is around deferral arrangements vs. LTIPs, deferral is not popular in this sector, especially at 60 â 90% for 5 years for executives , compared to LTIPs that tend to only be unpopular when underwater. How to achieve the right mix in terms of balancing new regulations and the need to provide incentive arrangements is the emerging challenge for employers alongside the impact of potential clawback of remuneration. Date 16 Titre de la prÃ©sentation UBS to Change Way it Pays Senior Managers ZURICH, Switzerland (AP) -- UBS AG (UBS) said Monday that starting next year it will stop making bonus payments to its chairman and that other top executives will be penalized if the bank performs badly to discourage irresponsible risk-taking. Switzerland's largest bank has been under pressure to change its compensation model after it was revealed that senior officials were paid bonuses worth millions of francs annually even though their management drove UBS to seek a $60 billion government bailout last month. UBS chairman Peter Kurer will receive a fixed salary from 2009, the bank said. Kurer, the most powerful figure at UBS, has already said he will forgo any bonus for 2007 and 2008 until the bank has recovered from a disastrous year that saw it lose 45 billion francs ($40 billion) due to bad investments. The bank will also introduce what it calls a "bonus-malus" system for its other 12 board members that will see their bonus held back for a certain period to discourage risky short-term investments. UBS said it would apply this system to other senior managers in charge of high-risk parts of its business. Date 17 Titre de la prÃ©sentation GOVERNANCE Titre de la prÃ©sentation 18 REMUNERATION GOVERNANCE Corporate governance â remuneration policy advice, annual remuneration reporting Regulatory framework â financial services issues, clawback for misconduct Talent management Remuneration committee objectives Date 19 Titre de la prÃ©sentation EMPLOYMENT LAW CONSIDERATIONS Titre de la prÃ©sentation 20 EMPLOYMENT LAW Corporate governance â remuneration policy advice, annual remuneration reporting. Regulatory framework â financial services issues, clawback for misconduct. Individual contracts Statutory remuneration rights e.g. national minimum wage, guaranteed pay on lay off, statutory redundancy pay, statutory maternity pay â right to non-cash benefits during leave Date 21 Titre de la prÃ©sentation TAX CONSIDERATIONS Titre de la prÃ©sentation 22 TAX PLANNING Planning opportunities around the implications for base pay and benefits-in-kind, also tax treatment of clawbacks. Planning for short âterm and long-term incentive arrangements, particularly equity incentive/stock plans. Date 23 Titre de la prÃ©sentation Uk eXAMPLES Titre de la prÃ©sentation 24 BONUS CLAWBACK Case: Revenue And Customs v Martin (22 September 2014) Liability of employee under his employment contract to refund a proportion of a taxable signing on cash bonus when the employee gave notice to resign prior to the end of the period for which the employee had committed to remain an employee Introduced the concept of ânegative earningsâ for the purposes of income tax What about NICs? What about Equity arrangements? Date 25 Titre de la prÃ©sentation SALARY SACRIFICE A tax and NIC effective way of rewarding employees Most popular benefit is pension contributions by way of a salary or bonus sacrifice HMRC are currently âmonitoring the usageâ¦â With effect from April 2016, the pensions annual allowance will be subject to a tapered reduction for individuals who have an adjusted income over Â£150,000. Any salary sacrifice set up on or after 9 July 2015 will be included in the adjusted income calculation. Impact on high earners and bonus sacrifice Salary sacrifice mechanisms associated with non-cash benefits during statutory maternity leave Date 26 Titre de la prÃ©sentation RANGERS EBT â OUR ANALYSIS 4 November 2015 The Court of Session found in favour of HMRC (overturning two earlier rulings favouring the taxpayers.) We await news of any appeal to Supreme Court. Meanwhile points to note: Court admitted new grounds of appeal and found for HMRC on this basis âThe critical feature of employments or earnings is that they represent consideration for services provided under a contract of employment, and such consideration is ultimately provided by the employer.â (âIt is immaterial that there was no contractual entitlement to the sums paidâ.) Introduces the notion of âdiverted earningsâ â could HMRC seek to attack salary sacrifice arrangements on this basis? PAYE due as soon as funds contributed to Principle Trust. What happened after was irrelevant. (What now for discretionary trusts? Those who have suffered BIK tax on loans may be able to reclaim, also employer class 1A NIC.) Settlements with HMRC should have included IHT. Still can settle but not on same deal terms Date 27 Titre de la prÃ©sentation AWARDS MADE AS TERMINATION PAYMENTS HMRC has issued a consultation document Aim of the consultation is to seek views on how the tax and NIC treatment of termination payments can be made simpler and fairer. It includes a proposal to replace the current system with a smaller initial exemption, which would depend upon length of service and apply to any termination payment In particular the consultation asks about:Â removing the distinction between contractual and non-contractual termination payments and whether this will make it easier for employers and employees to understand the design of the new exemption from income tax and NIC whether the income tax and NIC treatment of termination payments should be aligned which of the existing exemptions which remove the liability to income tax should be retained e.g. disability , foreign service relief whether any new exemptions should be introduced âFailure of healthâ retirement Current concessions around âdisabilityâ âforeign service reliefâ on termination âEFRBSâ on termination Date 28 Titre de la prÃ©sentation SPECIAL SCENARIOS Titre de la prÃ©sentation 29 SPECIAL SCENARIOS Exit planning â Termination of employment, severance pay, payments in lieu, pension structures, benefit arrangements. International situations â Resident directors of foreign companies, non-resident directors. Date 30 Titre de la prÃ©sentation EXIT PLANNING Using remuneration options to secure a smooth exit when parting company with employees : Severance pay arrangements and related tax advantages Opportunities to use payments in lieu of notice depending on contract terms Cycling payments through pension structures subject to age Maintaining benefits e.g. health insurance as a sweetener Settlement agreements â advantages of use irrespective of any statutory requirement. Public sector exit payments cap proposals and implications for affected private sector organisations. Benefits of securing enforceable post âtermination covenants as part of the overall settlement package. Date 31 Titre de la prÃ©sentation INTERNATIONAL SITUATIONS Non-resident directors â Income Tax Fees paid in respect of a UK statutory directorship to a director who is non-resident are assessable to UK taxation if the director performs any directorship duties in the UK. However, if the non-resident statutory director of a UK company performs no directorship duties at the associated fees will not be assessable to UK income tax. Non-resident directors â Social Security UK visits by a non- UK resident director of a British company needs to consider whether they considered to be present for UK NIC purposes. The factors to be weighed are the extent and purpose of the visits, the place at which the duties are performed, and the place they have their home. Date 32 Titre de la prÃ©sentation INTERNATIONAL REMUNERATION An organisation can adopt one of three main approaches: To set reward centrally To have a central reward approach that is adapted for each subsidiary To allow each subsidiary to set its own approach to reward Date 33 Titre de la prÃ©sentation INTERNATIONAL REMUNERATION Reward philosophy: Values and beliefs that an organisation associates with remuneration and reward in general. Whole of organisation or adapted to fit individual subsidiaries and local culture. Remuneration strategy: Driven by the business strategy Likely some central strategy but adapted to the business strategy of each subsidiary Part of wider reward policy Documented and communicated so employees can understand how they will be rewarded Date 34 Titre de la prÃ©sentation Remuneration Planning â Key Considerations Date 35 Titre de la prÃ©sentation International Remuneration Planning â Key Considerations Date 36 Titre de la prÃ©sentation Date 37 Titre de la prÃ©sentation REMUNERATION OF ADMINISTRATORS, DIRECTORS & MANAGERS Jonathan Simmons Cripps LLP Jonathan.Simmons@cripps.co.uk+44 (0)1732 224 012 Steve Asher Mazars Steve.Asher@mazars.co.uk +44 (0)20 7063 4526 Francisco Espregueira Mendes Telles email@example.com +351 934 455 555