Improving estimates of GHG emission factors from livestock production systems on smallholder farms

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  1. 1. Improvinges-matesofGHGemissionfactorsfromlivestockproduc-onsystemsonsmallholderfarmsDavidPelster,KlausBu1erbach-­‐Bahl,MarianaRufino,JohnGoopyandToddRosenstockIntroduc6onLackofdataonGHGemissionsfromAfricanagriculturesuggestsinaccuraciesinna6onalinventories• InSeptember2014sub-­‐SaharanAfrica,agricultureises6matedtoaccountforover60%ofGHGemissions,primarilyduetolandusechangeandentericmethaneproduc6oninruminants;andover80%ofagriculture(bothareaandproduc6on)issmallholdersystems• NoempiricalstudiesonentericCH4emissionsandveryfewstudiesonGHGemissionsfromsoilsinthesesystems• Currentna6onalSSAinventoriesthereforearebasedonIPCC6er1methodology;• UsingemissionfactorsfromOECDstateswithlargeindustrialfarmingsystemsthatlikelydonotrepresentsmallholdersystemswheremanureapplica6ons,notsynthe6cfer6lizersaredominantsourceofnutrients,andwhereruminantfodderisgenerallyprotein-­‐poorandfoodavailabilityisoRenlimited(Theonlyavailablestudy[S.Africa]es6matedthattheTier1emissionfactorsforruminantCH4produc6onisabout50%ofactualemissions)PicturesMaterialsandmethodsPhaseI:Targe-ng,priorityseFngandinfrastructureLandscapeanalysisandtarge-ngLandscapeimplementa-onSet-­‐upofstate-­‐of-­‐the-­‐artlaboratoryfacili-esTrainingoflaboratoryandPhaseII:Dataacquisi-onMul--­‐dimensionalevalua-onofmi-ga-onop-onsfieldstaffSystem-­‐leveles-ma-onofScalableandsocialacceptablemi-ga-onop-onsProduc-vityassessment1. SoilGHGemissionsfrommixedsmallholderfarmsdidnotvarybymanagement(“intensive”vsextensive)howeverdifferencesbetweenlandclasseswerenoted2. Soilcumula6veemissionstendedtobemuchlowerthanpreviousstudiesinOECDstates3. S6llrequiremeasurementsofentericCH4produc6on• Canemissions(gCm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veC-­‐CO2emissions(mgCm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veC-­‐CH4increaseintensityofmanagement(greateruseoffer6lizers)withoutincreasingsoilGHGemissions• Suggestsemissions(mgNm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veN-­‐N2Othatincreasednutrientinputsthatincreaseagriculture/livestockproduc6oncouldbeconsideredmi6ga6onasitalsocandecreaseemissionsperunit• DevelopmentofemissionfactorsforusingTierIImethodologytocalculatena6onalGHGinventories• Determinefeedstrategiesforincreasinganimalproduc6onwhilereducingCH4emissionintensi6esDavidPelsterorKlausBu[erbach-­‐Bahldpelster@cgiar.org;k.bu[erbach-­‐bahl@cgiar.org●P.O.Box30709-­‐00100NairobiKenya●+254204223513h[p://aghealth.wordpress.com●www.ilri.orgAcknowledgements:TheCGIARResearchProgramonClimateChange,AgricultureandFoodSecurity(CCAFS)andtheInterna6onalLivestockResearchIns6tute(ILRI)ThisdocumentislicensedforuseunderaCrea6veCommonsA[ribu6on–Noncommercial-­‐ShareAlike3.0UnportedLicenseSeptember2014ResultsResearchintousemi-ga-onpoten-alPhaseIII:Developmentofsystems-­‐levelmi-ga-onop-onsCapacitybuildingPhaseIV:Implementa-onwithdevelopmentpartnersGHGmeasurementsProfitabilityevalua-onSocialacceptabilityassessmentJointscien-fic&stakeholderevalua-onUPCOMING• Stra6fiedinto5landclasses(basedonremotesensing);3fieldtypes(basedonfarmmanagement);and3broadvegeta6onclasses• Sampled1xperweekforoneyearat60farmsinwesternKenyausingsta6cchambers(3reps)• AnalyzedsoilsoncefortotalC/Ncontent,BDandtextureand46mesforsoilINconcentra6on• Classifylivestockproduc6onsystemsanddetermineherdnumberswithineachclass• Plantouseenclosedrespira6onchambersformeasuringruminantCH4produc6onSoilGHGemissionsover6me:a)mgC-­‐CO2m-­‐2hr-­‐1;b)μgC-­‐CH4m-­‐2hr-­‐1;c)μgN-­‐N2Om-­‐2hr-­‐1;d)Soilmoisturecontent;e)soilIN(NH4+NO3)concentra6onsNote:Do[edver6callinesindicateplan6ng,whiledashedlinesindicateharves6ngLandclass:1=lowlandsubsistencefarming;2=cashcrops;3=highlandsubsistencefarming;4=highlandmixedfarming;5=grasslands/pastureCumula6vesoilGHGemissionsover6meforthe5differentlandclasses.Barsindicate1SEM
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  1. 1. Improvinges-matesofGHGemissionfactorsfromlivestockproduc-onsystemsonsmallholderfarmsDavidPelster,KlausBu1erbach-­‐Bahl,MarianaRufino,JohnGoopyandToddRosenstockIntroduc6onLackofdataonGHGemissionsfromAfricanagriculturesuggestsinaccuraciesinna6onalinventories• InSeptember2014sub-­‐SaharanAfrica,agricultureises6matedtoaccountforover60%ofGHGemissions,primarilyduetolandusechangeandentericmethaneproduc6oninruminants;andover80%ofagriculture(bothareaandproduc6on)issmallholdersystems• NoempiricalstudiesonentericCH4emissionsandveryfewstudiesonGHGemissionsfromsoilsinthesesystems• Currentna6onalSSAinventoriesthereforearebasedonIPCC6er1methodology;• UsingemissionfactorsfromOECDstateswithlargeindustrialfarmingsystemsthatlikelydonotrepresentsmallholdersystemswheremanureapplica6ons,notsynthe6cfer6lizersaredominantsourceofnutrients,andwhereruminantfodderisgenerallyprotein-­‐poorandfoodavailabilityisoRenlimited(Theonlyavailablestudy[S.Africa]es6matedthattheTier1emissionfactorsforruminantCH4produc6onisabout50%ofactualemissions)PicturesMaterialsandmethodsPhaseI:Targe-ng,priorityseFngandinfrastructureLandscapeanalysisandtarge-ngLandscapeimplementa-onSet-­‐upofstate-­‐of-­‐the-­‐artlaboratoryfacili-esTrainingoflaboratoryandPhaseII:Dataacquisi-onMul--­‐dimensionalevalua-onofmi-ga-onop-onsfieldstaffSystem-­‐leveles-ma-onofScalableandsocialacceptablemi-ga-onop-onsProduc-vityassessment1. SoilGHGemissionsfrommixedsmallholderfarmsdidnotvarybymanagement(“intensive”vsextensive)howeverdifferencesbetweenlandclasseswerenoted2. Soilcumula6veemissionstendedtobemuchlowerthanpreviousstudiesinOECDstates3. S6llrequiremeasurementsofentericCH4produc6on• Canemissions(gCm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veC-­‐CO2emissions(mgCm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veC-­‐CH4increaseintensityofmanagement(greateruseoffer6lizers)withoutincreasingsoilGHGemissions• Suggestsemissions(mgNm-­‐2yr-­‐1)Cumula6veN-­‐N2Othatincreasednutrientinputsthatincreaseagriculture/livestockproduc6oncouldbeconsideredmi6ga6onasitalsocandecreaseemissionsperunit• DevelopmentofemissionfactorsforusingTierIImethodologytocalculatena6onalGHGinventories• Determinefeedstrategiesforincreasinganimalproduc6onwhilereducingCH4emissionintensi6esDavidPelsterorKlausBu[erbach-­‐Bahldpelster@cgiar.org;k.bu[erbach-­‐bahl@cgiar.org●P.O.Box30709-­‐00100NairobiKenya●+254204223513h[p://aghealth.wordpress.com●www.ilri.orgAcknowledgements:TheCGIARResearchProgramonClimateChange,AgricultureandFoodSecurity(CCAFS)andtheInterna6onalLivestockResearchIns6tute(ILRI)ThisdocumentislicensedforuseunderaCrea6veCommonsA[ribu6on–Noncommercial-­‐ShareAlike3.0UnportedLicenseSeptember2014ResultsResearchintousemi-ga-onpoten-alPhaseIII:Developmentofsystems-­‐levelmi-ga-onop-onsCapacitybuildingPhaseIV:Implementa-onwithdevelopmentpartnersGHGmeasurementsProfitabilityevalua-onSocialacceptabilityassessmentJointscien-fic&stakeholderevalua-onUPCOMING• Stra6fiedinto5landclasses(basedonremotesensing);3fieldtypes(basedonfarmmanagement);and3broadvegeta6onclasses• Sampled1xperweekforoneyearat60farmsinwesternKenyausingsta6cchambers(3reps)• AnalyzedsoilsoncefortotalC/Ncontent,BDandtextureand46mesforsoilINconcentra6on• Classifylivestockproduc6onsystemsanddetermineherdnumberswithineachclass• Plantouseenclosedrespira6onchambersformeasuringruminantCH4produc6onSoilGHGemissionsover6me:a)mgC-­‐CO2m-­‐2hr-­‐1;b)μgC-­‐CH4m-­‐2hr-­‐1;c)μgN-­‐N2Om-­‐2hr-­‐1;d)Soilmoisturecontent;e)soilIN(NH4+NO3)concentra6onsNote:Do[edver6callinesindicateplan6ng,whiledashedlinesindicateharves6ngLandclass:1=lowlandsubsistencefarming;2=cashcrops;3=highlandsubsistencefarming;4=highlandmixedfarming;5=grasslands/pastureCumula6vesoilGHGemissionsover6meforthe5differentlandclasses.Barsindicate1SEM
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